Designing and Analyzing Sensor and Actuator of a Nano/Micro-System for Fatigue and Fracture Characterization of Nanomaterials
Authors: Mohammad Reza Zamani Kouhpanji
This paper presents a MEMS/NEMS device for fatigue and fracture characterization of nanomaterials. This device can apply static loads, cyclic loads, and their combinations in nanomechanical experiments. It is based on the electromagnetic force induced between paired parallel wires carrying electrical currents. Using this concept, the actuator and sensor parts of the device were designed and analyzed while considering the practical limitations. Since the PWCC device only uses two wires for actuation part and sensing part, its fabrication process is extremely easier than the available MEMS/NEMS devices. The total gain and phase shift of the MEMS/NEMS device were calculated and investigated. Furthermore, the maximum gain and sensitivity of the MEMS/NEMS device were studied to demonstrate the capability and usability of the device for wide range of nanomaterials samples. This device can be readily integrated into SEM/TEM instruments to provide real time study of the mechanical behaviors of nanomaterials as well as their fatigue and fracture properties, softening or hardening behaviors, and initiation and propagation of nanocracks.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1132467Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
 Fiori G, Bonaccorso F, Iannaccone G, Palacios T, Neumaier D, Seabaugh A, Banerjee SK, Colombo L. Electronics based on two-dimensional materials. Nature nanotechnology. 2014 Oct 1;9(10):768-79.
 Zamiri M, Anwar F, Klein BA, Rasoulof A, Dawson NM, Schuler-Sandy T, Deneke CF, Ferreira SO, Cavallo F, Krishna S. Antimonide-based membranes synthesis integration and strain engineering. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2016 Dec 16:201615645.
 Goldberger J, He R, Zhang Y, Lee S. Single-crystal gallium nitride nanotubes. Nature. 2003 Apr 10;422(6932):599.
 Patolsky F, Timko BP, Yu G, Fang Y, Greytak AB, Zheng G, Lieber CM. Detection, stimulation, and inhibition of neuronal signals with high-density nanowire transistor arrays. Science. 2006 Aug 25;313(5790):1100-4.
 Li W, Xu H, Zhai T, Yu H, Chen Z, Qiu Z, Song X, Wang J, Cao B. Enhanced triethylamine sensing properties by designing [email protected] SnO 2/MoS 2 nanostructure directly on alumina tubes. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2017 Jun 3.
 Patil VL, Vanalakar SA, Patil PS, Kim JH. Fabrication of nanostructured ZnO thin films based NO 2 gas sensor via SILAR technique. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2017 Feb 28;239:1185-93.
 Liu XH, Wang JW, Huang S, Fan F, Huang X, Liu Y, Krylyuk S, Yoo J, Dayeh SA, Davydov AV, Mao SX. In situ atomic-scale imaging of electrochemical lithiation in silicon. Nature nanotechnology. 2012 Nov 1;7(11):749-56.
 Wang ZL, Song J. Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on zinc oxide nanowire arrays. Science. 2006 Apr 14;312(5771):242-6.
 Koenig SP, Wang L, Pellegrino J, Bunch JS. Selective molecular sieving through porous graphene. Nature nanotechnology. 2012 Nov 1;7(11):728-32.
 Fan Z, Ho JC, Takahashi T, Yerushalmi R, Takei K, Ford AC, Chueh YL, Javey A. Toward the development of printable nanowire electronics and sensors. Advanced Materials. 2009 Oct 5;21(37):3730-43.
 McAlpine MC, Friedman RS, Jin S, Lin KH, Wang WU, Lieber CM. High-performance nanowire electronics and photonics on glass and plastic substrates. Nano Letters. 2003 Nov 12;3(11):1531-5.
 Hong YJ, Lee CH, Yoon A, Kim M, Seong HK, Chung HJ, Sone C, Park YJ, Yi GC. Visible‐color‐tunable light‐emitting diodes. Advanced Materials. 2011 Aug 2;23(29):3284-8.
 Li C, Wright JB, Liu S, Lu P, Figiel JJ, Leung B, Chow WW, Brener I, Koleske DD, Luk TS, Feezell DF. Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Core–Shell Single Nanowire Lasers. Nano letters. 2017 Jan 24;17(2):1049-55.
 Zamani Kouhpanji, MR. "Investigating the classical and non-classical mechanical properties of GaN nanowires." MS Thesis, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA. (2017). http://digitalrepository.unm.edu/ece_etds/354
 Farsad E, Abbasi SP, Goodarzi A, Zabihi MS. Experimental parametric investigation of temperature effects on 60W-QCW diode laser. World Acad. Sci. Eng. Technol. 2011 Nov 28;59:1190-6.
 Zamani Kouhpanji MR, Jafaraghaei U. A semianalytical approach for determining the nonclassical mechanical properties of materials. arXiv preprint arXiv:1706.06559. 2017 Jun 20.
 Zhu Y, Chang TH. A review of microelectromechanical systems for nanoscale mechanical characterization. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. 2015 Aug 19;25(9):093001.
 Treacy MJ, Ebbesen TW, Gibson JM. Exceptionally high Young's modulus observed for individual carbon nanotubes. Nature. 1996 Jun 20;381(6584):678.
 Zhang Y, Wang F, Zang P, Wang J, Mao S, Zhang X, Lu J. In-situ observation of crack propagation through the nucleation of nanoscale voids in ultra-thin, freestanding Ag films. Materials Science and Engineering: A. 2014 Nov 17;618:614-20.
 Lu Y, Song J, Huang JY, Lou J. Fracture of Sub‐20nm Ultrathin Gold Nanowires. Advanced Functional Materials. 2011 Oct 21;21(20):3982-9.
 Agrawal R, Peng B, Espinosa HD. Experimental-computational investigation of ZnO nanowires strength and fracture. Nano letters. 2009 Sep 30;9(12):4177-83.
 Huang JY, Zheng H, Mao SX, Li Q, Wang GT. In situ nanomechanics of GaN nanowires. Nano letters. 2011 Mar 18;11(4):1618-22.
 Hosseinian E, Pierron ON. Quantitative in situ TEM tensile fatigue testing on nanocrystalline metallic ultrathin films. Nanoscale. 2013 Nov 22;5(24):12532-41.
 Kahn H, Ballarini R, Mullen RL, Heuer AH. Electrostatically actuated failure of microfabricated polysilicon fracture mechanics specimens. InProceedings of the royal society of london a: mathematical, physical and engineering sciences 1999 Oct 8 (Vol. 455, No. 1990, pp. 3807-3823). The Royal Society.
 Kheyraddini Mousavi A, Alaie S, Leseman ZC. Basic MEMS Actuators. Encyclopedia of Nanotechnology. 2016:1-6.
 Legtenberg R, Groeneveld AW, Elwenspoek M. Comb-drive actuators for large displacements. Journal of Micromechanics and microengineering. 1996 Sep;6(3):320.
 Pisano AP, Cho YH. Mechanical design issues in laterally-driven microstructures. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical. 1990 Apr 1;23(1-3):1060-4.
 Maloney JM, Schreiber DS, DeVoe DL. Large-force electrothermal linear micromotors. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. 2003 Nov 17;14(2):226.
 Que L, Park JS, Gianchandani YB. Bent-beam electro-thermal actuators for high force applications. InMicro Electro Mechanical Systems, 1999. MEMS'99. Twelfth IEEE International Conference on 1999 Jan 21 (pp. 31-36). IEEE.
 Zhu Y, Corigliano A, Espinosa HD. A thermal actuator for nanoscale in situ microscopy testing: design and characterization. Journal of micromechanics and microengineering. 2006 Jan 5;16(2):242.
 Feynman RP, Leighton RB, Sands M. The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Desktop Edition Volume I. Basic books; 2013 Oct 31.
 Nayfeh AH Nonlinear Oscillation. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1979.
 Kahrobaiyan MH, Asghari M, Hoore M, Ahmadian MT. Nonlinear size-dependent forced vibrational behavior of microbeams based on a non-classical continuum theory. Journal of Vibration and Control. 2012 Apr;18(5):696-711.
 Nayfeh MH, Brussel MK. Electricity and magnetism. Courier Dover Publications; 2015 Feb 9.
 Derek Rowell. 2.161 Signal Processing: Continuous and Discrete. Fall 2008. Massachusetts Institute of Technology: MIT OpenCourseWare, https://ocw.mit.edu. License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA.
 Taylor FJ. State Variable Filter Models. Digital Filters: Principles and Applications with MATLAB.:183-96.