Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: photoplethysmography

7 Development of Soft-Core System for Heart Rate and Oxygen Saturation

Authors: Caje F. Pinto, Jivan S. Parab, Gourish M. Naik

Abstract:

This paper is about the development of non-invasive heart rate and oxygen saturation in human blood using Altera NIOS II soft-core processor system. In today's world, monitoring oxygen saturation and heart rate is very important in hospitals to keep track of low oxygen levels in blood. We have designed an Embedded System On Peripheral Chip (SOPC) reconfigurable system by interfacing two LED’s of different wavelengths (660 nm/940 nm) with a single photo-detector to measure the absorptions of hemoglobin species at different wavelengths. The implementation of the interface with Finger Probe and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) was carried out using NIOS II soft-core system running on Altera NANO DE0 board having target as Cyclone IVE. This designed system is used to monitor oxygen saturation in blood and heart rate for different test subjects. The designed NIOS II processor based non-invasive heart rate and oxygen saturation was verified with another Operon Pulse oximeter for 50 measurements on 10 different subjects. It was found that the readings taken were very close to the Operon Pulse oximeter.

Keywords: Heart rate, NIOS II, Oxygen Saturation, photoplethysmography, soft-core, SOPC.

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6 Photoplethysmography-Based Device Designing for Cardiovascular System Diagnostics

Authors: S. Botman, D. Borchevkin, V. Petrov, E. Bogdanov, M. Patrushev, N. Shusharina

Abstract:

In this paper, we report the development of the device for diagnostics of cardiovascular system state and associated automated workstation for large-scale medical measurement data collection and analysis. It was shown that optimal design for the monitoring device is wristband as it represents engineering trade-off between accuracy and usability. Monitoring device is based on the infrared reflective photoplethysmographic sensor, which allows collecting multiple physiological parameters, such as heart rate and pulsing wave characteristics. Developed device uses BLE interface for medical and supplementary data transmission to the coupled mobile phone, which processes it and send it to the doctor's automated workstation. Results of this experimental model approbation confirmed the applicability of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases, health monitoring systems, photoplethysmography, pulse wave, remote diagnostics.

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5 Analysis of Reflectance Photoplethysmograph Sensors

Authors: Fu-Hsuan Huang, Po-Jung Yuan, Kang-Ping Lin, Hen-Hong Chang, Cheng-Lun Tsai

Abstract:

Photoplethysmography is a simple measurement of the variation in blood volume in tissue. It detects the pulse signal of heart beat as well as the low frequency signal of vasoconstriction and vasodilation. The transmission type measurement is limited to only a few specific positions for example the index finger that have a short path length for light. The reflectance type measurement can be conveniently applied on most parts of the body surface. This study analyzed the factors that determine the quality of reflectance photoplethysmograph signal including the emitter-detector distance, wavelength, light intensity, and optical properties of skin tissue. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) with four different visible wavelengths were used as the light emitters. A phototransistor was used as the light detector. A micro translation stage adjusts the emitter-detector distance from 2 mm to 15 mm. The reflective photoplethysmograph signals were measured on different sites. The optimal emitter-detector distance was chosen to have a large dynamic range for low frequency drifting without signal saturation and a high perfusion index. Among these four wavelengths, a yellowish green (571nm) light with a proper emitter-detection distance of 2mm is the most suitable for obtaining a steady and reliable reflectance photoplethysmograph signal

Keywords: Reflectance photoplethysmograph, Perfusion index, Signal-to-noise ratio

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4 Design and Fabrication of a Low Cost Heart Monitor using Reflectance Photoplethysmogram

Authors: Nur Ilyani Ramli, Mansour Youseffi, Peter Widdop

Abstract:

This paper presents a low cost design of heart beat monitoring device using reflectance mode PhotoPlethysmography (PPG). PPG is known for its simple construction, ease of use and cost effectiveness and can provide information about the changes in cardiac activity as well as aid in earlier non-invasive diagnostics. The proposed device is divided into three phases. First is the detection of pulses through the fingertip. The signal is then passed to the signal processing unit for the purpose of amplification, filtering and digitizing. Finally the heart rate is calculated and displayed on the computer using parallel port interface. The paper is concluded with prototyping of the device followed by verification procedure of the heartbeat signal obtained in laboratory setting.

Keywords: Reflectance mode PPG, Heart beat detection, Circuitdesign, PCB design

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3 Estimation of Systolic and Diastolic Pressure using the Pulse Transit Time

Authors: Soo-young Ye, Gi-Ryon Kim, Dong-Keun Jung, Seong-wan Baik, Gye-rok Jeon

Abstract:

In this paper, algorithm estimating the blood pressure was proposed using the pulse transit time (PTT) as a more convenient method of measuring the blood pressure. After measuring ECG and pressure pulse, and photoplethysmography, the PTT was calculated from the acquired signals. Thereafter, the system to indirectly measure the systolic pressure and the diastolic pressure was composed using the statistic method. In comparison between the blood pressure indirectly measured by proposed algorithm estimating the blood pressure and real blood pressure measured by conventional sphygmomanometer, the systolic pressure indicates the mean error of ±3.24mmHg and the standard deviation of 2.53mmHg, while the diastolic pressure indicates the satisfactory result, that is, the mean error of ±1.80mmHg and the standard deviation of 1.39mmHg. These results are satisfied with the regulation of ANSI/AAMI for certification of sphygmomanometer that real measurement error value should be within the mean error of ±5mmHg and the standard deviation of 8mmHg. These results are suggest the possibility of applying to portable and long time blood pressure monitoring system hereafter.

Keywords: Blood pressure, Systolic, Diastolic, Pulse transit time.

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2 Coherence Analysis between Respiration and PPG Signal by Bivariate AR Model

Authors: Yue-Der Lin, Wei-Ting Liu, Ching-Che Tsai, Wen-Hsiu Chen

Abstract:

PPG is a potential tool in clinical applications. Among such, the relationship between respiration and PPG signal has attracted attention in past decades. In this research, a bivariate AR spectral estimation method was utilized for the coherence analysis between these two signals. Ten healthy subjects participated in this research with signals measured at different respiratory rates. The results demonstrate that high coherence exists between respiration and PPG signal, whereas the coherence disappears in breath-holding experiments. These results imply that PPG signal reveals the respiratory information. The utilized method may provide an attractive alternative approach for the related researches.

Keywords: Coherence analysis, photoplethysmography (PPG), bivariate AR spectral estimation.

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1 Kalman Filter Based Adaptive Reduction of Motion Artifact from Photoplethysmographic Signal

Authors: S. Seyedtabaii, L. Seyedtabaii

Abstract:

Artifact free photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals are necessary for non-invasive estimation of oxygen saturation (SpO2) in arterial blood. Movement of a patient corrupts the PPGs with motion artifacts, resulting in large errors in the computation of Sp02. This paper presents a study on using Kalman Filter in an innovative way by modeling both the Artillery Blood Pressure (ABP) and the unwanted signal, additive motion artifact, to reduce motion artifacts from corrupted PPG signals. Simulation results show acceptable performance regarding LMS and variable step LMS, thus establishing the efficacy of the proposed method.

Keywords: Kalman filter, Motion artifact, PPG, Photoplethysmography.

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