Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18354

Search results for: high pressure

18354 A CFD Analysis of Flow through a High-Pressure Natural Gas Pipeline with an Undeformed and Deformed Orifice Plate

Authors: R. Kiš, M. Malcho, M. Janovcová

Abstract:

This work aims to present a numerical analysis of the natural gas which flows through a high-pressure pipeline and an orifice plate, through the use of CFD methods. The paper contains CFD calculations for the flow of natural gas in a pipe with different geometry used for the orifice plates. One of them has a standard geometry and a shape without any deformation and the other is deformed by the action of the pressure differential. It shows the behaviour of natural gas in a pipeline using the velocity profiles and pressure fields of the gas in both models with their differences. The entire research is based on the elimination of any inaccuracy which should appear in the flow of the natural gas measured in the high-pressure pipelines of the gas industry and which is currently not given in the relevant standard.

Keywords: orifice plate, high-pressure pipeline, natural gas, CFD analysis

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18353 Investigation and Analysis on Pore Pressure Variation by Sonic Impedance under Influence of Compressional, Shear, and Stonely Waves in High Pressure Zones

Authors: Nouri, K., Ghassem Alaskari, M., K., Amiri Hazaveh, A., Nabi Bidhendi, M.

Abstract:

Pore pressure is one on the key Petrophysical parameter in exploration discussion and survey on hydrocarbon reservoir. Determination of pore pressure in various levels of drilling and integrity of drilling mud and high pressure zones in order to restrict blow-out and following damages are significant. The pore pressure is obtained by seismic and well logging data. In this study the pore pressure and over burden pressure through the matrix stress and Tarzaqi equation and other related formulas are calculated. By making a comparison on variation of density log in over normal pressure zones with change of sonic impedance under influence of compressional, shear, and Stonely waves, the correlation level of sonic impedance with density log is studied. The level of correlation and variation trend is recorded in sonic impedance under influence Stonely wave with density log that key factor in recording of over burden pressure and pore pressure in Tarzaqi equation is high. The transition time is in divert relation with porosity and fluid type in the formation and as a consequence to the pore pressure. The density log is a key factor in determination of pore pressure therefore sonic impedance under Stonley wave is denotes well the identification of high pressure besides other used factors.

Keywords: pore pressure, stonely wave, density log, sonic impedance, high pressure zone

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18352 Flame Spread along Fuel Cylinders in High Pressures

Authors: Yanli Zhao, Jian Chen, Shouxiang Lu

Abstract:

Flame spread over solid fuels in high pressure situations such as nuclear containment shells and hyperbaric oxygen chamber has potential to result in catastrophic disaster, thus requiring best knowledge. This paper reveals experimentally the flame spread behaviors over fuel cylinders in high pressures. The fuel used in this study is polyethylene and polymethyl methacrylate cylinders with 4mm diameter. Ambient gas is fixed as air and total pressures are varied from naturally normal pressure (100kPa) to elevated pressure (400kPa). Flame appearance, burning rate and flame spread were investigated experimentally and theoretically. Results show that high pressure significantly affects the flame appearance, which is as the pressure increases, flame color changes from luminous yellow to orange and the orange part extends down towards the base of flame. Besides, the average flame width and height, and the burning rate are proved to increase with increasing pressure. What is more, flame spread rates become higher as pressure increases due to the enhancement of heat transfer from flame to solid surface in elevated pressure by performing a simplified heat balance analysis.

Keywords: cylinder fuel, flame spread, heat transfer, high pressure

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18351 High-pressure Crystallographic Characterization of f-block Element Complexes

Authors: Nicholas B. Beck, Thomas E. Albrecht-Schönzart

Abstract:

High-pressure results in decreases in the bond lengths of metal-ligand bonds, which has proven to be incredibly informative in uncovering differences in bonding between lanthanide and actinide complexes. The degree of f-electron contribution to the metal ligand bonds has been observed to increase under pressure by a far greater degree in the actinides than the lanthanides, as revealed by spectroscopic studies. However, the actual changes in bond lengths have yet to be quantified, although computationally predicted. By using high-pressure crystallographic techniques, crystal structures of lanthanide complexes have been obtained at pressures up to 5 GPa for both hard and soft-donor ligands. These studies have revealed some unpredicted changes in the coordination environment as well as provided experimental support to computational results

Keywords: crystallography, high-pressure, lanthanide, materials

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18350 Blood Pressure and Anthropometric Measurements: A Correlational Study

Authors: Abdul-Monim Batiha, Manar AlAzzam, Mohammed ALBashtawy, Loai Tawalbeh, Ahmad Tubaishat, Fadwa N. Alhalaiqa

Abstract:

Background: Obesity is the major modifiable risk factor for many chronic illnesses especially high blood pressure. Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric indices and high blood pressure, and which one was most strongly correlated with high blood pressure in Jordanian population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a total 622 students and workers from three Jordanian universities. Results: Nearly half of the participant are overweight (34.7%) and obese (15.4%) and hypertension was detected among 138 (22.2%) of the participants. Linear correlation was significant (p<0.01) between both systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure for all anthropometric indices, except for A body shape index and diastolic blood pressure was significant at p< 0.05. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the influence of age and anthropometric measurements. Conclusions: The waist circumference was the only independent predictor of hypertension, showing that this simple measurement may be an importance marker of high blood pressure in Jordanian population.

Keywords: anthropometric indices, Jordan, blood pressure, cross-sectional study, obesity, hypertension, waist circumference

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18349 Study on Moisture-Induced-Damage of Semi-Rigid Base under Hydrodynamic Pressure

Authors: Baofeng Pan, Heng Liu

Abstract:

Because of the high strength and large carrying capacity, the semi-rigid base is widely used in modern road engineering. However, hydrodynamic pressure, which is one of the main factors to cause early damage of semi-rigid base, cannot be avoided in the nature environment when pavement is subjected to some loadings such as the passing vehicles. In order to investigating how moisture-induced-damage of semi-rigid base influenced by hydrodynamic pressure, a new and effective experimental research method is provided in this paper. The results show that: (a) The washing action of high hydrodynamic pressure is the direct cause of strength reducing of road semi-rigid base. (b) The damage of high hydrodynamic pressure mainly occurs at the beginning of the scoring test and with the increasing of testing time the influence reduces. (c) Under the same hydrodynamic pressure, the longer the specimen health age, the stronger ability to resist moisture induced damage.

Keywords: semi-rigid base, hydrodynamic pressure, moisture-induced-damage, experimental research

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18348 A Study of the Prevalence of Hypertension and Pre Hypertension in Adolescence Age between 10-17 in Ahvaz (2008-2009)

Authors: Armaghan Moravej Aleali, Seyed Mahmoud Latifi, Homeira Rashidi

Abstract:

Objective: High blood pressure in a risk factor for some disease like stroke, coronary heart disease, and renal failure. High blood pressure in children is an increasing health problem. The aim of this present was to determine prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension age between 10 to 17 years old. Material & Methods: This descriptive-analytic study was conducted using multiphase sampling method in Ahvaz (Southwest of Iran). A questionnaire include: height, weight, and body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressures filled for each participant. Blood pressure was measured twice for each person. For the diagnosis of hypertension, the fourth report of the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents of the National Health Institute of United States was used. Results: The subject participants of the study were 1707children and adolescents including 922 boys (54%) and 785 girls 46%). The prevalence of high blood pressure was 1.7% (boys 2.5% girls 0.8%). The prevalence of pre-hypertension was 9 % (7.6% in boys, 10.6% in girls). The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures increased with increasing body mass index. Conclusion: In this study, the prevalence of high blood pressure was found to be lower than other studies in our country. The prevalence of the high blood pressure in boys was significantly higher than girls. This study, like other studies, showed a high correlation between being overweight and an increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Keywords: hypertension, pre-hypertension, childhood, adolescence

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18347 Alpha-To-Omega Phase Transition in Bulk Nanostructured Ti and (α+β) Ti Alloys

Authors: Askar Kilmametov, Julia Ivanisenko, Boris Straumal, Horst Hahn

Abstract:

The high-pressure α- to ω-phase transition was discovered in elemental Ti and Zr fifty years ago using static high pressure and then observed to appear between 2 and 12 GPa at room temperature, depending on the experimental technique, the pressure environment, and the sample purity. The fact that ω-phase is retained in a metastable state in ambient condition after the removal of the pressure has been used to check the changes in magnetic and superconductive behavior, electron band structure and mechanical properties. However, the fundamental knowledge on a combination of both mechanical treatment and high applied pressure treatments for ω-phase formation in Ti alloys is currently lacking and has to be studied in relation to improved mechanical properties of bulk nanostructured states. In the present study, nanostructured (α+β) Ti alloys containing β-stabilizing elements such as Co, Fe, Cr, Nb were performed by severe plastic deformation, namely high pressure torsion (HPT) technique. HPT-induced α- to ω-phase transformation was revealed in dependence on applied pressure and shear strains by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The transformation kinetics was compared with the kinetics of pressure-induced transition. Orientation relationship between α-, β- and ω-phases was taken into consideration and analyzed according to theoretical calculation proposed earlier. The influence of initial state before HPT appeared to be considerable for subsequent α- to ω-phase transition. Thermal stability of the HPT-induced ω-phase was discussed as well in the frame of mechanical behavior of Ti and Ti-based alloys produced by shear deformation under high applied pressure.

Keywords: bulk nanostructured materials, high pressure phase transitions, severe plastic deformation, titanium alloys

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18346 The Mainspring of Controlling of Low Pressure Steam Drum at Lower Pressure than Its Design for Adjusting the Urea Synthesis Pressure

Authors: Reza Behtash, Enayat Enayati

Abstract:

The pool condenser is in principal a horizontal reactor, containing a bundle of U-tubes for heat exchange, coupling to low pressure steam drum. Condensation of gas takes place in a condensed pool around the tubes of the condenser. The heat of condensation is removed by the generation of low pressure steam on the inner tube side of the bundle. A circulation pump transfers ample boiler feed water to these tubes. The pressure of the steam generated influenced the heat flux. Changing the steam pressure means changing the steam condensate temperature and therefore the temperature difference between the tube side and the shell side. 2NH3 + CO2 ↔ NH2COONH4 + Heat. This reaction is exothermic and according to Le Chatelier's Principle if the heat is not removed enough, it will come back to left side and generate of the gas and so the Urea synthesis pressure will rise. The most principal reasons for high Urea synthesis pressure are non proportional of Ammonia/Dioxide Carbon ratio and too high a pressure in low pressure steam drum. Proportional of Ammonia/Dioxide Carbon ratio is 3.0 and normal pressure for low pressure steam drum is 4.5 bar. As regards these conditions were proportional but we could not control the synthesis pressure the plant endangered, therefore we had to control the steam drum pressure at about 3.5 bar. While we opened the pool condenser, we found the partition plate used to divide inlet and outlet boiler feed water to tubes, was broken partially and so amount of boiler feed water bypass the tubes and the heat was not removed totally and it resulted in the generation of gases and high pressure in synthesis.

Keywords: boiler, pressure, pool condenser, partition plate

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18345 CFD Simulation of the Inlet Pressure Effects on the Cooling Capacity Enhancement for Vortex Tube with Couple Vortex Chambers

Authors: Nader Pourmahmoud, Amir Hassanzadeh

Abstract:

This article investigates the effects of inlet pressure in a newly introduced vortex tube which has been equipped with an additional vortex chamber. A 3-D compressible turbulent flow computation has been carried out toward analysis of complex flow field in this apparatus. Numerical results of flows are derived by utilizing the standard k-ε turbulence model for analyzing high rotating complex flow field. The present research has focused on cooling effect and given a characteristics curve for minimum cool temperature. In addition, the effect of inlet pressure for both chambers has been studied in details. To be presented numerical results show that the effect of inlet pressure in second chamber has more important role in improving the performance of the vortex tube than first one. By increasing the pressure in the second chamber, cold outlet temperature reaches a higher decrease. When both chambers are fed with high pressure fluid, best operation condition of vortex tube occurs. However, it is not possible to feed both chambers with high pressure due to the conditions of working environment.

Keywords: energy separation, inlet pressure, numerical simulation, vortex chamber, vortex tube

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18344 Principal Components Analysis of the Causes of High Blood Pressure at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Ghana

Authors: Joseph K. A. Johnson

Abstract:

Hypertension affects 20 percent of the people within the ages 55 upward in Ghana. Of these, almost one-third are unaware of their condition. Also at the age of 55, more men turned to have hypertension than women. After that age, the condition becomes more prevalent with women. Hypertension is significantly more common in African Americans of both sexes than the racial or ethnic groups. This study was conducted to determine the causes of high blood pressure in Ashanti Region, Ghana. The study employed One Hundred and Seventy (170) respondents. The sample population for the study was all the available respondents at the time of the data collection. The research was conducted using primary data where convenience sampling was used to locate the respondents. A set of questionnaire were used to gather the data for the study. The gathered data was analysed using principal component analysis. The study revealed that, personal description, lifestyle behavior and risk awareness as some of the causes of high blood pressure in Ashanti Region. The study therefore recommend that people must be advice to see to their personal characteristics that may contribute to high blood pressure such as controlling of their temper and how to react perfectly to stressful situations. They must be educated on the factors that may increase the level of their blood pressure such as the essence of seeing a medical doctor before taking in any drug. People must also be made known by the public health officers to those lifestyles behaviour such as smoking and drinking of alcohol which are major contributors of high blood pressure.

Keywords: high blood pressure, principal component analysis, hypertension, public health

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18343 Calibration Methods of Direct and Indirect Reading Pressure Sensor and Uncertainty Determination

Authors: Sinem O. Aktan, Musa Y. Akkurt

Abstract:

Experimental pressure calibration methods can be classified into three areas: (1) measurements in liquid or gas systems, (2) measurements in static-solid media systems, and (3) measurements in dynamic shock systems. Fluid (liquid and gas) systems high accuracies can be obtainable and commonly used for the calibration method of a pressure sensor. Pressure calibrations can be performed for metrological traceability in two ways, which are on-site (field) and in the laboratory. Laboratory and on-site calibration procedures and the requirements of the DKD-R-6-1 and Euramet cg-17 guidelines will also be addressed. In this study, calibration methods of direct and indirect reading pressure sensor and measurement uncertainty contributions will be explained.

Keywords: pressure metrology, pressure calibration, dead-weight tester, pressure uncertainty

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18342 Electronic/Optoelectronic Property Tuning in Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides via High Pressure

Authors: Juan Xia, Jiaxu Yan, Ze Xiang Shen

Abstract:

The tuneable interlayer interactions in two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichlcogenides (TMDs) offer an exciting platform for exploring new physics and applications by material variety, thickness, stacking sequence, electromagnetic filed, and stress/strain. Compared with the five methods mentioned above, high pressure is a clean and powerful tool to induce dramatic changes in lattice parameters and physical properties for 2D TMD materials. For instance, high pressure can strengthen the van der Waals interactions along c-axis and shorten the covalent bonds in atomic plane, leading to the typical first-order structural transition (2Hc to 2Ha for MoS2), or metallization. In particular, in the case of WTe₂, its unique symmetry endows the significant anisotropy and the corresponding unexpected properties including the giant magnetoresistance, pressure-induced superconductivity and Weyl semimetal states. Upon increasing pressure, the Raman peaks for WTe₂ at ~120 cm⁻¹, are gradually red-shifted and totally suppressed above 10 GPa, attributed to the possible structural instability of orthorhombic Td phase under high pressure and phase transition to a new monoclinic T' phase with inversion symmetry. Distinct electronic structures near Fermi level between the Td and T' phases may pave a feasible way to achieve the Weyl state tuning in one material without doping.

Keywords: 2D TMDs, electronic property, high pressure, first-principles calculations

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18341 High Pressure Multiphase Flow Experiments: The Impact of Pressure on Flow Patterns Using an X-Ray Tomography Visualisation System

Authors: Sandy Black, Calum McLaughlin, Alessandro Pranzitelli, Marc Laing

Abstract:

Multiphase flow structures of two-phase multicomponent fluids were experimentally investigated in a large diameter high-pressure pipeline up to 130 bar at TÜV SÜD’s National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Multiphase Facility. One of the main objectives of the experimental test campaign was to evaluate the impact of pressure on multiphase flow patterns as much of the existing information is based on low-pressure measurements. The experiments were performed in a horizontal and vertical orientation in both 4-inch and 6-inch pipework using nitrogen, ExxsolTM D140 oil, and a 6% aqueous solution of NaCl at incremental pressures from 10 bar to 130 bar. To visualise the detailed structure of the flow of the entire cross-section of the pipe, a fast response X-ray tomography system was used. A wide range of superficial velocities from 0.6 m/s to 24.0 m/s for gas and 0.04 m/s and 6.48 m/s for liquid was examined to evaluate different flow regimes. The results illustrated the suppression of instabilities between the gas and the liquid at the measurement location and that intermittent or slug flow was observed less frequently as the pressure was increased. CFD modellings of low and high-pressure simulations were able to successfully predict the likelihood of intermittent flow; however, further tuning is necessary to predict the slugging frequency. The dataset generated is unique as limited datasets exist above 100 bar and is of considerable value to multiphase flow specialists and numerical modellers.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, high pressure, multiphase, X-ray tomography

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18340 Metal Berthelot Tubes with Windows for Observing Cavitation under Static Negative Pressure

Authors: K. Hiro, Y. Imai, T. Sasayama

Abstract:

Cavitation under static negative pressure is not revealed well. The Berthelot method to generate such negative pressure can be a means to study cavitation inception. In this study, metal Berthelot tubes built in observation windows are newly developed and are checked whether high static negative pressure is generated or not. Negative pressure in the tube with a pair of a corundum plate and an aluminum gasket increased with temperature cycles. The trend was similar to that as reported before.

Keywords: Berthelot method, cavitation, negative pressure, observation

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18339 Comparison of Catalyst Support for High Pressure Reductive Amination

Authors: Tz-Bang Du, Cheng-Han Hsieh, Li-Ping Ju, Hung-Jie Liou

Abstract:

Polyether amines synthesize by secondary hydroxyl polyether diol play an important role in epoxy hardener. The low molecular weight product is used in low viscosity and high transparent polyamine product for the logo, ground cover, especially for wind turbine blade, while the high molecular weight products are used in advanced agricultures such as a high-speed railway. High-pressure reductive amination process is required for producing these amines. In the condition of higher than 150 atm pressure and 200 degrees Celsius temperature, supercritical ammonia is used as a reactant and also a solvent. It would be a great challenge to select a catalyst support for such high-temperature alkaline circumstance. In this study, we have established a six-autoclave-type (SAT) high-pressure reactor for amination catalyst screening, which six experiment conditions with different temperature and pressure could be examined at the same time. We synthesized copper-nickel catalyst on different shaped alumina catalyst support and evaluated the catalyst activity for high-pressure reductive amination of polypropylene glycol (PPG) by SAT reactor. Ball type gamma alumina, ball type activated alumina and pellet type gamma alumina catalyst supports are evaluated in this study. Gamma alumina supports have shown better activity on PPG reductive amination than activated alumina support. In addition, the catalysts are evaluated in fixed bed reactor. The diamine product was successfully synthesized via this catalyst and the strength of the catalysts is measured. The crush strength of blank supports is about 13.5 lb for both gamma alumina and activated alumina. The strength increases to 20.3 lb after synthesized to be copper-nickel catalyst. After test in the fixed bed high-pressure reductive amination process for 100 hours, the crush strength of the used catalyst is 3.7 lb for activated alumina support, 12.0 lb for gamma alumina support. The gamma alumina is better than activated alumina to use as catalyst support in high-pressure reductive amination process.

Keywords: high pressure reductive amination, copper nickel catalyst, polyether amine, alumina

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18338 Design of Saddle Support for Horizontal Pressure Vessel

Authors: Vinod Kumar, Navin Kumar, Surjit Angra, Prince Sharma

Abstract:

This paper presents the design analysis of saddle support of a horizontal pressure vessel. Since saddle have the vital role to support the pressure vessel and to maintain its stability, it should be designed in such a way that it can afford the vessel load and internal pressure of the vessel due to liquid contained in the vessel. A model of horizontal pressure vessel and saddle support is created in Ansys. Stresses are calculated using mathematical approach and Ansys software. The analysis reveals the zone of high localized stress at the junction part of the pressure vessel and saddle support due to operating conditions. The results obtained by both the methods are compared with allowable stress value for safe designing.

Keywords: ANSYS, pressure vessel, saddle, support

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18337 Fundamental Research Dissension between Hot and Cold Chamber High Pressure Die Casting

Authors: Sahil Kumar, Surinder Pal, Rahul Kapoor

Abstract:

This paper is focused on to define the basic difference between hot and cold chamber high pressure die casting process which is not fully defined in a research before paper which we have studied. The pressure die casting is basically defined into two types (1) Hot chamber Die Casting (2) Cold chamber Die Casting. Cold chamber die casting is used for casting alloys that require high pressure and have a high melting temperature, such as brass, aluminum, magnesium, copper based alloys and other high melting point nonferrous alloys. Hot chamber die casting is suitable for casting zinc, tin, lead, and low melting point alloys. In hot chamber die casting machine, the molten metal is an integral pan of the machine. It mainly consists of hot chamber and gooseneck type metal container made of cast iron. This machine is mainly used for low melting alloys and alloys of metals like zinc, lead etc. Metals and alloys having a high melting point and those which are having an affinity for iron cannot be cast by this machine, which could otherwise attack the shot sleeve and damage the machine.

Keywords: hot chamber die casting, cold chamber die casting, metals and alloys, casting technology

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18336 Use of High Hydrostatic Pressure as an Alternative Preservation Method in Camels Milk

Authors: Fahad Aljasass, Hamza Abu-Tarboush, Salah Aleid, Siddig Hamad

Abstract:

The effects of different high hydrostatic pressure treatments on the shelf life of camel’s milk were studied. Treatments at 300 to 350 MPa for 5 minutes at 40°C reduced microbial contamination to levels that prolonged the shelf life of refrigerated (3° C) milk up to 28 days. The treatment resulted in a decrease in the proteolytic activity of the milk. The content of proteolytic enzymes in the untreated milk sample was 4.23 µM/ml. This content decreased significantly to 3.61 µM/ml when the sample was treated at 250 MPa. Treatment at 300 MPa decreased the content to 3.90 which was not significantly different from the content of the untreated sample. The content of the sample treated at 350 MPa dropped to 2.98 µM/ml which was significantly lower than the contents of all other treated and untreated samples. High pressure treatment caused a slight but statistically significant increase in the pH of camel’s milk. The pH of the untreated sample was 6.63, which increased significantly to 6.70, in the samples treated at 250 and 350 MPa, but insignificantly in the sample treated at 300 MPa. High pressure treatment resulted in some degree of milk fat oxidation. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value of the untreated sample was 0.86 mg malonaldehyde/kg milk. This value remained unchanged in the sample treated at 250 MPa, but then it increased significantly to 1.25 and 1.33 mg/kg in the samples treated at 300 and 350 MPa, respectively. High pressure treatment caused a small increase in the greenness (a* value) of camel’s milk. The value of a* was reduced from -1.17 for the untreated sample to -1.26, -1.21 and -1.30 for the samples treated at 250, 300 and 350 MPa, respectively. Δa* at the 250 MPa treatment was -0.09, which then decreased to -0.04 at the 300 MPa treatment to increase again to -0.13 at the 350 MPa treatment. The yellowness (b* value) of camel’s milk increased significantly as a result of high pressure treatment. The b* value of the untreated sample was 1.40, this value increased to 2.73, 2.31 and 2.18 after treatments at 250, 300 and 350 MPa, respectively. The Δb* value was +1.33 at the treatment 250 MPa, decreased to +0.91 at 300 MPa and further to +0.78 at 350 MPa. The pressure treatment caused slight effect on color, slight decrease in protease activity and a slight increase in the oxidation products of lipids.

Keywords: high hydrostatic pressure, camel’s milk, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, clotting, protease

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18335 Design and Simulation High Sensitive MEMS Capacitive Pressure Sensor with Small Size for Glaucoma Treatment

Authors: Yadollah Hezarjaribi, Mahdie Yari Esboi

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel MEMS capacitive pressure sensor with small size and high sensitivity is presented. This sensor has the separated clamped square diaphragm and the movable plate. The diaphragm material is polysilicon. The movable and fixed plates and mechanical coupling are gold. The substrate and diaphragm are pyrex glass and polysilicon, respectively. In capacitive sensor the sensitivity is proportional to deflection and capacitance changes with pressure for this reason with this design is improved the capacitance and sensitivity with small size. This sensor is designed for low pressure between 0-60 mmHg that is used for medical application such as treatment of an incurable disease called glaucoma. The size of this sensor is 350×350 µm2 and the thickness of the diaphragm is 2µm with 1μ air gap. This structure is designed by intellisuite software. In this MEMS capacitive pressure sensor the sensor sensitivity, diaphragm mechanical sensitivity for polysilicon diaphragm are 0.0469Pf/mmHg, 0.011 μm/mmHg, respectively. According to the simulating results for low pressure, the structure with polysilicon diaphragm has more change of the displacement and capacitance, this leads to high sensitivity than other diaphragms.

Keywords: glaucoma, MEMS capacitive pressure sensor, square clamped diaphragm, polysilicon

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18334 Estimation of Pressure Profile and Boundary Layer Characteristics over NACA 4412 Airfoil

Authors: Anwar Ul Haque, Waqar Asrar, Erwin Sulaeman, Jaffar S. M. Ali

Abstract:

Pressure distribution data of the standard airfoils is usually used for the calibration purposes in subsonic wind tunnels. Results of such experiments are quite old and obtained by using the model in the spanwise direction. In this manuscript, pressure distribution over NACA 4412 airfoil model was presented by placing the 3D model in the lateral direction. The model is made of metal with pressure ports distributed longitudinally as well as in the lateral direction. The pressure model was attached to the floor of the tunnel with the help of the base plate to give the specified angle of attack to the model. Before the start of the experiments, the pressure tubes of the respective ports of the 128 ports pressure scanner are checked for leakage, and the losses due to the length of the pipes were also incorporated in the results for the specified pressure range. Growth rate maps of the boundary layer thickness were also plotted. It was found that with the increase in the velocity, the dynamic pressure distribution was also increased for the alpha seep. Plots of pressure distribution so obtained were overlapped with those obtained by using XFLR software, a low fidelity tool. It was found that at moderate and high angles of attack, the distribution of the pressure coefficients obtained from the experiments is high when compared with the XFLR ® results obtained along with the span of the wing. This under-prediction by XFLR ® is more obvious on the windward than on the leeward side.

Keywords: subsonic flow, boundary layer, wind tunnel, pressure testing

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18333 Prediction of Formation Pressure Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

Authors: Abdulmalek Ahmed

Abstract:

Formation pressure is the main function that affects drilling operation economically and efficiently. Knowing the pore pressure and the parameters that affect it will help to reduce the cost of drilling process. Many empirical models reported in the literature were used to calculate the formation pressure based on different parameters. Some of these models used only drilling parameters to estimate pore pressure. Other models predicted the formation pressure based on log data. All of these models required different trends such as normal or abnormal to predict the pore pressure. Few researchers applied artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to predict the formation pressure by only one method or a maximum of two methods of AI. The objective of this research is to predict the pore pressure based on both drilling parameters and log data namely; weight on bit, rotary speed, rate of penetration, mud weight, bulk density, porosity and delta sonic time. A real field data is used to predict the formation pressure using five different artificial intelligence (AI) methods such as; artificial neural networks (ANN), radial basis function (RBF), fuzzy logic (FL), support vector machine (SVM) and functional networks (FN). All AI tools were compared with different empirical models. AI methods estimated the formation pressure by a high accuracy (high correlation coefficient and low average absolute percentage error) and outperformed all previous. The advantage of the new technique is its simplicity, which represented from its estimation of pore pressure without the need of different trends as compared to other models which require a two different trend (normal or abnormal pressure). Moreover, by comparing the AI tools with each other, the results indicate that SVM has the advantage of pore pressure prediction by its fast processing speed and high performance (a high correlation coefficient of 0.997 and a low average absolute percentage error of 0.14%). In the end, a new empirical correlation for formation pressure was developed using ANN method that can estimate pore pressure with a high precision (correlation coefficient of 0.998 and average absolute percentage error of 0.17%).

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence (AI), Formation pressure, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Fuzzy Logic (FL), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Functional Networks (FN), Radial Basis Function (RBF)

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18332 Computational Investigation of Gas-Solid Flow in High Pressure High Temperature Filter

Authors: M. H. Alhajeri, Hamad M. Alhajeri, A. H. Alenezi

Abstract:

This paper reports a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) investigation for a high-temperature high-pressure filtration (ceramic candle filter). However, parallel flow to the filter is considered in this study. Different face (filtration) velocities are examined using the CFD code, FLUENT. Different sizes of particles are tracked through the domain to find the height at which the particles will impinge on the filter surface. Furthermore, particle distribution around the filter (or filter cake) is studied to design efficient cleaning mechanisms. Gravity effect to the particles with various inlet velocities and pressure drop are both considered. In the CFD study, it is found that the gravity influence should not be ignored if the particle sizes exceed 1 micron.

Keywords: fluid flow, CFD, filtration, HTHP

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18331 Polishing Machine Based on High-Pressure Water Jet

Authors: Mohammad A. Khasawneh

Abstract:

The design of high pressure water jet based polishing equipment and its fabrication conducted in this study is reported herein, together with some preliminary test results for assessing its applicability for HMA surface polishing. This study also provides preliminary findings concerning the test variables, such as the rotational speed, the water jet pressure, the abrasive agent used, and the impact angel that were experimentally investigated in this study. The preliminary findings based on four trial tests (two on large slab specimens and two on small size gyratory compacted specimens), however, indicate that both friction and texture values tend to increase with the polishing durations for two combinations of pressure and rotation speed of the rotary deck. It seems that the more polishing action the specimen is subjected to; the aggregate edges are created such that the surface texture values are increased with the accompanied increase in friction values. It may be of interest (but which is outside the scope of this study) to investigate if the similar trend exist for HMA prepared with aggregate source that is sand and gravel.

Keywords: high-pressure, water jet, friction, texture, polishing, statistical analysis

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18330 Instrumentation for Engine Start Cycle Characterization at Cold Weather High Altitude Condition

Authors: Amit Kumar Gupta, Rohit Vashistha, G. P. Ravishankar, Mahesh P. Padwale

Abstract:

A cold soaked gas turbine engine have known starting problems in high altitude and low temperature conditions. The high altitude results in lower ambient temperature, pressure, and density. Soaking at low temperature leads to higher oil viscosity, increasing the engine starter system torque requirement. Also, low temperature soaks results in a cold compressor rotor and casing. Since the thermal mass of rotor is higher than casing, casing expands faster, thereby, increasing the blade-casing tip clearance. The low pressure flow over the compressor blade coupled with the secondary flow through the compressor tip clearance during start result in stall inception. The present study discusses engine instrumentation required for capturing the stall inception event. The engine fan exit and combustion chamber were instrumented with dynamic pressure probes to capture the pressure characteristic and clamp-on current meter on primary igniter cable to capture ignition event during start cycle. The experiment was carried out at 10500 Ft. pressure altitude and -15°C ambient temperature. The high pressure compressor stall events were recorded during the starts.

Keywords: compressor inlet, dynamic pressure probe, engine start cycle, flight test instrumentation

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18329 Compressible Flow Modeling in Pipes and Porous Media during Blowdown Experiment

Authors: Thomas Paris, Vincent Bruyere, Patrick Namy

Abstract:

A numerical model is developed to simulate gas blowdowns through a thin tube and a filter (porous media), separating a high pressure gas filled reservoir to low pressure ones. Based on a previous work, a one-dimensional approach is developed by using the finite element method to solve the transient compressible flow and to predict the pressure and temperature evolution in space and time. Mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations are solved in a fully coupled way in the reservoirs, the pipes and the porous media. Numerical results, such as pressure and temperature evolutions, are firstly compared with experimental data to validate the model for different configurations. Couplings between porous media and pipe flow are then validated by checking mass balance. The influence of the porous media and the nature of the gas is then studied for different initial high pressure values.

Keywords: compressible flow, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, porous media

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18328 Kinetic Study of Physical Quality Changes on Jumbo Squid (Dosidicus gigas) Slices during Application High-Pressure Impregnation

Authors: Mario Perez-Won, Roberto Lemus-Mondaca, Fernanda Marin, Constanza Olivares

Abstract:

This study presents the simultaneous application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and osmotic dehydration of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) slice. Diffusion coefficients for both components water and solids were improved by the process pressure, being influenced by pressure level. The working conditions were different pressures such as 100, 250, 400 MPa and pressure atmospheric (0.1 MPa) for time intervals from 30 to 300 seconds and a 15% NaCl concentration. The mathematical expressions used for mass transfer simulations both water and salt were those corresponding to Newton, Henderson and Pabis, Page and Weibull models, where the Weibull and Henderson-Pabis models presented the best fitted to the water and salt experimental data, respectively. The values for water diffusivity coefficients varied from 1.62 to 8.10x10⁻⁹ m²/s whereas that for salt varied among 14.18 to 36.07x10⁻⁹ m²/s for selected conditions. Finally, as to quality parameters studied under the range of experimental conditions studied, the treatment at 250 MPa yielded on the samples a minimum hardness, whereas springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness at 100, 250 and 400 MPa treatments presented statistical differences regarding to unpressurized samples. The colour parameters L* (lightness) increased, however, but b* (yellowish) and a* (reddish) parameters decreased when increasing pressure level. This way, samples presented a brighter aspect and a mildly cooked appearance. The results presented in this study can support the enormous potential of hydrostatic pressure application as a technique important for compounds impregnation under high pressure.

Keywords: colour, diffusivity, high pressure, jumbo squid, modelling, texture

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18327 Simulation of Welded Steel Tube Subjected to Internal Pressure

Authors: H. Zedira, M. T. Hannachi, H. Djebaili, B. Daheche

Abstract:

The rapid pace of technology development and strong competition in the market, prompted us to consider the field of manufacturing of steel pipes by a process complies fully with the requirements of industrial induction welding is high frequency (HF), this technique is better known today in Algeria, more precisely for the manufacture of tubes diameters Single Annabib TG Tebessa. The aim of our study is based on the characterization of processes controlling the mechanical behavior of steel pipes (type E24-2), welded by high frequency induction, considering the different tests and among the most destructive known test internal pressure. The internal pressure test is performed according to the application area of welded pipes, or as leak test, either as a test of strength (bursting). All tubes are subjected to a hydraulic test pressure of 50 bar kept at room temperature for a period of 6 seconds. This study provides information that helps optimize the design and implementation to predict the behavior of the tubes during operation.

Keywords: castem, pressure, stress, tubes, thickness

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
18326 Buoyancy Effects in Pressure Retarded Osmosis with Extremely High Draw Solution Concentration

Authors: Ivonne Tshuma, Ralf Cord-Ruwisch, Wendell Ela

Abstract:

Water crisis is a world-wide problem because of population growth and climate change. Hence, desalination is a solution to water scarcity, which threatens the world. Reverse osmosis (RO) is the most used technique for desalination; unfortunately, this process, usually requires high-pressure requirement hence requires a lot of energy about 3 – 5.5 KWhr/m³ of electrical energy. The pressure requirements of RO can be alleviated by the use of PRO (pressure retarded osmosis) to drive the RO process. This paper proposes a process of utilizing the energy directly from PRO to drive an RO process. The paper mostly analyses the PRO process parameters such as cross-flow velocity, density, and buoyancy and how these have an effect on PRO hence ultimately the RO process. The experimental study of the PRO with various feed solution concentrations and cross-flow velocities at fixed applied pressure with different orientations of the PRO cell was performed. The study revealed that without cross-flow velocity, buoyancy effects were observed but not with cross-flow velocity.

Keywords: cross-flow velocity, pressure retarded osmosis, density, buoyancy

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
18325 Effect of Porous Multi-Layer Envelope System on Effective Wind Pressure of Building Ventilation

Authors: Ying-Chang Yu, Yuan-Lung Lo

Abstract:

Building ventilation performance is an important indicator of indoor comfort. However, in addition to the geometry of the building or the proportion of the opening, the ventilation performance is also very much related to the actual wind pressure of the building. There are more and more contemporary building designs built with multi-layer exterior envelope. Due to ventilation and view observatory requirement, the porous outer layer of the building is commonly adopted and has a significant wind damping effect, causing the phenomenon of actual wind pressure loss. However, the relationship between the wind damping effect and the actual wind pressure is not linear. This effect can make the indoor ventilation of the building rationalized to reasonable range under the condition of high wind pressure, and also maintain a good amount of ventilation performance under the condition of low wind pressure. In this study, wind tunnel experiments were carried out to simulate the different wind pressures flow through the porous outer layer, and observe the actual wind pressure strength engage with the window layer to find the decreasing relationship between the damping effect of the porous shell and the wind pressure. Experiment specimen scale was designed to be 1:50 for testing real-world building conditions; the study found that the porous enclosure has protective shielding without affecting low-pressure ventilation. Current study observed the porous skin may damp more wind energy to ease the wind pressure under high-speed wind. Differential wind speed may drop the pressure into similar pressure level by using porous skin. The actual mechanism and value of this phenomenon will need further study in the future.

Keywords: multi-layer facade, porous media, wind damping, wind tunnel test, building ventilation

Procedia PDF Downloads 56