Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 211

Search results for: waist circumference

211 Effect of Inulin-Substituted Ice Cream on Waist Circumference and Blood Pressure of Adolescents with Abdominal Obesity

Authors: Nur H. Ahmad, Silvia S. Inge, Vanessa A. Julliete, A. Veraditias, Laila F. Febinda


Abdominal obesity is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and mostly found in adolescents. Waist circumference is related to abdominal obesity which has a significant effect on the increase of blood pressure. Inulin is one of prebiotic, that has health benefits by offering the potential for lipid management, that can be useful to decrease the risk factor of metabolic syndrome. The aim of the research is to evaluate the effect of 10 gram inulin-substituted ice cream in waist circumference and blood pressure of abdominal obesity adolescents. Inulin had the ability to produce Short Chain Fatty Acid which can improve blood pressure and waist circumference. Systolic blood pressure was significantly decreased in the treatment group (p=0.028) with the mean of reduction 7.35 ± 11.59 mmHg. However, diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference showed no significant effect. Waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was decreased in control group. These results suggest that inulin-substituted ice cream used as therapeutics and prevention for the early onset of metabolic syndrome.

Keywords: blood pressure, inulin, metabolic syndrome, waist circumference

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210 The Result of Suggestion for Low Energy Diet (1,000-1,200 kcal) in Obese Women to the Effect on Body Weight, Waist Circumference, and BMI

Authors: S. Kumchoo


The result of suggestion for low energy diet (1,000-1,200 kcal) in obese women to the effect on body weight, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) in this experiment. Quisi experimental research was used for this study and it is a One-group pretest-posttest designs measurement method. The aim of this study was body weight, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) reduction by using low energy diet (1,000-1,200 kcal) in obese women, the result found that in 15 of obese women that contained their body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30, after they obtained low energy diet (1,000-1,200 kcal) within 2 weeks. The data were collected before and after of testing the results showed that the average of body weight decrease 3.4 kilogram, waist circumference value decrease 6.1 centimeter and the body mass index (BMI) decrease 1.3 kg.m2 from their previous body weight, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) before experiment started. After this study, the volunteers got healthy and they can choose or select some food for themselves. For this study, the research can be improved for data development for forward study in the future.

Keywords: body weight, waist circumference, low energy diet, BMI

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209 The Result of Suggestion for Low Energy Diet (1,000 kcal-1,200 kcal) in Obese Women to the effect on Body Weight, Waist Circumference, and BMI

Authors: S. Kumchoo


The result of suggestion for low energy diet (1,000-1,200 kcal) in obese women to the effect on body weight, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) in this experiment. Quisi experimental research was used for this study and it is a One-group pretest-posttest designs measurement method. The aim of this study was body weight, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) reduction by using low energy diet (1,000-1,200 kcal) in obese women, the result found that in 15 of obese women that contained their body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30, after they obtained low energy diet (1,000-1,200 kcal) within 2 weeks. The data were collected before and after of testing the results showed that the average of body weight decrease 3.4 kilogram, waist circumference value decrease 6.1 centimeter and the body mass index (BMI) decrease 1.3 kg.m2 from their previous body weight, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) before experiment started. After this study, the volunteers got healthy and they can choose or select some food for themselves. For this study, the research can be improved for data development for forward study in the future.

Keywords: body weight, waist circumference, BMI, low energy diet

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208 The Effects of the Parent Training Program for Obesity Reduction on Child Waist Circumference and Health Behaviors of Pre-School Children at the Samut-Songkhram Kindergarten School, Samut-Songkhram Province, Thailand

Authors: Muntanavadee Maytapattana


This research aims to study the effects of the Parent Training Program for Obesity Reduction (PTPOR) on child waist circumference and health behaviors of pre-school children at the Samut-Songkhram kindergarten school, Samut-Songkhram province, Thailand. The objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the PTPOR on child waist circumference and health behaviors of the pre-school children. The conceptual framework of this study is developed on the basis of the Ecological Systems Theory (EST), not only do the individual factors such as child characteristics and child risk factors contribute to the child’s weight status, but also other factors such as parenting style and family characteristics, as well as community and demographic factors. This research is a quasi-experimental study. Participants were pre-school overweight and obese children and their parents. Forty-one parent-child dyads were recruited into the program. Parents participated in two sessions including an educational session and a group discussion session. Research methodology uses Paired-Samples t-test to determine the difference between groups in the mean scores of the outcome variables of the children and parents. The research results show that there was significant difference between child waist circumferences mean score at the baseline and finishing the program at the 0.01 level (p = 0.001), mean score of the child waist circumference was decrease after finishing the program. And there was no significant difference between child exercise health behaviors mean score at the baseline and finishing the program at the 0.05 level; however, mean score of the child exercise behavior was increase after finishing the program. Meanwhile, there was significant difference between child dietary health behavior mean score at the baseline and finishing the program at the 0.01 level (p = 0.001), mean score of the child dietary was increase after finishing the program.

Keywords: PTPOR, child waist circumference, child health behaviors, pre-school children

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207 An Evaluation of the Relationship between the Anthropometric Measurements and Blood Lipid Profiles in Adolescents

Authors: Nalan Hakime Nogay


Childhood obesity is a significant health issue that is currently on the rise all over the world. In recent years, the relationship between childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease risk has been pointed out. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between some of the anthropometric indicators and blood lipid levels in adolescents. The present study has been conducted on a total of 252 adolescents -200 girls and 52 boys- within an age group of 12 to 18 years. Blood was drawn from each participant in the morning -after having fasted for 10 hours from the day before- to analyze their total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglyceride levels. Their body weight, height, waist circumference, subscapular skinfold thicknesses and triceps skinfold thicknesses measurements were taken and their individual waist/height ratios, BMI and body fat ratios were calculated. The blood lipid levels of the participants were categorized as acceptable, borderline and high in accordance with the 2011 Expert Panel Integrated Guidelines. The body fat ratios, total blood cholesterol and HDL levels of the girls were significantly higher than the boys whereas their waist circumference values were lower. The triglyceride levels, total cholesterol/HDL, LDL/HDL, triglyceride/HDL ratios of the group with the BMI ≥ 95 percentile ratio (the obese group) were higher than the groups that were considered to be overweight and normal weight as per their respective BMI values, while the HDL level of the obese group was lower; a fact that was found to be statistically significant. No significant relationship could be established, however, between the total blood cholesterol and LDL levels with their anthropometric measurements. The BMI, waist circumference, waist/height ratio, body fat ratio and triglyceride level of the group with the higher triglyceride level ( ≥ 130mg/dl) were found to be significantly higher compared to borderline (90-129 mg/dl) and the normal group (< 90 mg/dl). The BMI, waist circumference, waist/height ratio values of the group with the lower HDL level ( < 40 mg/dl) were significantly higher than the normal ( > 45 mg/dl) and borderline (40-45 mg/dl) groups. All of the anthropometric measurements of the group with the higher triglyceride/HDL ratio ( ≥ 3) were found to be significantly higher than that of the group with the lower ratio (< 3). Having a high BMI, waist/height ratio and waist circumference is related to low HDL and high blood triglyceride and triglyceride/HDL ratio. A high body fat ratio, on the other hand, is associated with a low HDL and high triglyceride/HDL ratio. Tackling childhood and adolescent obesity are important in terms of preventing cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords: adolescent, body fat, body mass index, lipid profile

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206 Correlation between Neck Circumference and Other Anthropometric Indices as a Predictor of Obesity

Authors: Madhur Verma, Meena Rajput, Kamal Kishore


Background: The general view that obesity is a problem of prosperous Western countries has been repealed with substantial evidence showing that middle-income countries like India are now at the heart of a fat explosion. Neck circumference has evolved as a promising index to measure obesity, because of the convenience of its use, even in culture sensitive population. Objectives: To determine whether neck circumference (NC) was associated with overweight and obesity and contributed to the prediction like other classical anthropometric indices. Methodology: Cross-sectional study consisting of 1080 adults (> 19 years) selected through Multi-stage random sampling between August 2013 and September 2014 using the pretested semi-structured questionnaire. After recruitment, the demographic and anthropometric parameters [BMI, Waist & Hip Circumference (WC, HC), Waist to hip ratio (WHR), waist to height ratio (WHtR), body fat percentage (BF %), neck circumference (NC)] were recorded & calculated as per standard procedures. Analysis was done using appropriate statistical tests. (SPSS, version 21.) Results: Mean age of study participants was 44.55+15.65 years. Overall prevalence of overweight & obesity as per modified criteria for Asian Indians (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2) was 49.62% (Females-51.48%; Males-47.77%). Also, number of participants having high WHR, WHtR, BF%, WC & NC was 827(76.57%), 530(49.07%), 513(47.5%), 537(49.72%) & 376(34.81%) respectively. Variation of NC, BMI & BF% with age was non- significant. In both the genders, as per the Pearson’s correlational analysis, neck circumference was positively correlated with BMI (men, r=0.670 {p < 0.05}; women, r=0.564 {p < 0.05}), BF% (men, r=0.407 {p < 0.05}; women, r= 0.283 {p < 0.05}), WC (men, r=0.598{p < 0.05}; women, r=0.615 {p < 0.05}), HC (men, r=0.512{p < 0.05}; women, r=0.523{p < 0.05}), WHR (men, r= 0.380{p > 0.05}; women, r=0.022{p > 0.05}) & WHtR (men, r=0.318 {p < 0.05}; women, r=0.396{p < 0.05}). On ROC analysis, NC showed good discriminatory power to identify obesity with AUC (AUC for males: 0.822 & females: 0.873; p- value < 0.001) with maximum sensitivity and specificity at a cut-off value of 36.55 cms for males & 34.05cms for females. Conclusion: NC has fair validity as a community-based screener for overweight and obese individuals in the study context and has also correlated well with other classical indices.

Keywords: neck circumference, obesity, anthropometric indices, body fat percentage

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205 Insulin Resistance in Children and Adolescents in Relation to Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference and Body Fat Weight

Authors: E. Vlachopapadopoulou, E. Dikaiakou, E. Anagnostou, I. Panagiotopoulos, E. Kaloumenou, M. Kafetzi, A. Fotinou, S. Michalacos


Aim: To investigate the relation and impact of Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC) and Body Fat Weight (BFW) on insulin resistance (MATSUDA INDEX < 2.5) in children and adolescents. Methods: Data from 95 overweight and obese children (47 boys and 48 girls) with mean age 10.7 ± 2.2 years were analyzed. ROC analysis was used to investigate the predictive ability of BMI, WC and BFW for insulin resistance and find the optimal cut-offs. The overall performance of the ROC analysis was quantified by computing area under the curve (AUC). Results: ROC curve analysis indicated that the optimal-cut off of WC for the prediction of insulin resistance was 97 cm with sensitivity equal to 75% and specificity equal to 73.1%. AUC was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.63-0.92, p=0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of obesity for the discrimination of participants with insulin resistance from those without insulin resistance were equal to 58.3% and 75%, respectively (AUC=0.67). BFW had a borderline predictive ability for insulin resistance (AUC=0.58, 95% CI: 0.43-0.74, p=0.101). The predictive ability of WC was equivalent with the correspondence predictive ability of BMI (p=0.891). Obese subjects had 4.2 times greater odds for having insulin resistance (95% CI: 1.71-10.30, p < 0.001), while subjects with WC more than 97 had 8.1 times greater odds for having insulin resistance (95% CI: 2.14-30.86, p=0.002). Conclusion: BMI and WC are important clinical factors that have significant clinical relation with insulin resistance in children and adolescents. The cut off of 97 cm for WC can identify children with greater likelihood for insulin resistance.

Keywords: body fat weight, body mass index, insulin resistance, obese children, waist circumference

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204 Health Effect of the Central European Diet in Postmenopausal Women with Increased Waist Circumference: A Preliminary Study

Authors: Joanna Bajerska, Agata Chmurzyńska, Agata Muzsik, Patrycja Krzyżanowska, Klaudia Łochocka, Jarosław Walkowiak


The Mediterranean diet (MED) is regarded as beneficial in the therapy of central obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities. However, in the traditional diet of the Central European countries, food items with positive nutritional profiles (rye bread, oats, buckwheat, herrings, linseed and rapeseed oil, berries, apples, plums, root vegetables etc.) are also used. We hypothesized that the Central European Diet (CED) may be comparatively effective in reducing symptoms of central obesity as MED. We tested the health effects of the CED, which is an environmentally friendly regional diet and the traditional MED diet in a group of postmenopausal centrally obese women. A total 58 with a mean age of 60 y (50-70y), body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 33.4 (22.6-47.3), and waist circumference of 105 cm (87.5-137 cm) were randomly assigned to receive either the diet based on food items commonly used in Central Europe (the CED group; n = 29) or the Mediterranean diet (the MED group; n = 29) for 15 weeks. Body mass and body composition were measured with a Bod Pod (Cosmed, Italy). A non-elastic flexible measuring tape was used to measure waist circumference. Additionally, blood pressure, plasma lipid and glucose levels were assessed with the use of a biochemical analyzer. A total of 50 subjects [86% (CED 83%; MED 90%)] completed the intervention. A high dietary compliance for both described diets was achieved. The mean (±SEM) weight and waist circumference changes were -7.4 ± 0.7 kg; -8.3 ± 0.7 cm and -8.1 ± 0.5 kg; -7.1 ± 0.6 cm for the CED and MED groups, respectively. Moreover, there were no differences between the effectiveness of the diets used in terms of the influence on fat mass, blood pressure, and biochemical parameters. The preliminary data suggest that both described diets may be successfully used for improving central obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities. The project was financed by the National Science Centre awarded based on the number of decision DEC-013/09/B/NZ9/02365

Keywords: central european diet, central obesity, Mediterranean diet, metabolic abnormalities

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203 Nutritional Wellness at the Workplace

Authors: Siveshnee Devar


Background: The rate of absenteeism and prevalence of NCDs in South Africa is extremely high. This is consistent with other educational institutions and workplaces around the globe. In most cases the absence of health and the presence of one or more non communicable diseases coupled with the lack of physical exercise is a major factor in absenteeism. Absenteeism at the workplace comes at a huge cost to the employer and the country as a whole. Aim: Findings from this study was to develop a suitable nutritional wellness program for the workplace. Methodology: A needs analysis in the form of 24-hour recall, food frequency, health and socio demographic questionnaires was undertaken to determine the need for a wellness program for the institution. Anthropometric indices such as BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure were also undertaken to determine the state of health of the staff. Results: This study has found that obesity, central obesity, hypertension as well as deficiencies in nutrients and minerals were prevalent in this group. Fruit and vegetable consumption was also below the WHO recommendation. This study showed a link between diet, physical activity and diseases of lifestyle. There were positive correlations between age and systolic blood pressure, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure, waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure and waist-to-height ratio and BMI. Conclusion: The results indicated the need for immediate intervention in the form of a wellness program. Nutrition education is important for both the workplace and out. Education and knowledge are important factors for lifestyle changes. The proposed intervention is aimed at improving presenteeism and decreasing the incidence of non- communicable diseases. Presenteeism and good health are important factors for quality education at all educational institutions.

Keywords: absenteeism, non-communicable diseases, nutrition, wellness

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202 A New Obesity Index Derived from Waist Circumference and Hip Circumference Well-Matched with Other Indices in Children with Obesity

Authors: Mustafa M. Donma, Orkide Donma


Anthropometric obesity indices such as waist circumference (WC), indices derived from anthropometric measurements such as waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and indices created from body fat mass composition such as trunk-to-leg fat ratio (TLFR) are commonly used for the evaluation of mild or severe forms of obesity. Their clinical utilities are being compared using body mass index (BMI) percentiles to classify obesity groups. The best of them is still being investigated to make a clear-cut discrimination between healthy normal individuals (N-BMI) and overweight or obese (OB) or morbid obese patients. The aim of this study is to derive a new index, which best suits the purpose for the discrimination of children with N-BMI from OB children. A total of eighty-three children participated in the study. Two groups were constituted. The first group comprised 42 children with N-BMI, and the second group was composed of 41 OB children, whose age- and sex- adjusted BMI percentile values vary between 95 and 99. The corresponding values for the first group were between 15 and 85. This classification was based upon the tables created by World Health Organization. The institutional ethics committee approved the study protocol. Informed consent forms were filled by the parents of the participants. Anthropometric measurements were taken and recorded following a detailed physical examination. Within this context, weight, height (Ht), WC, hip C (HC), neck C (NC) values were taken. Body mass index, WHR, (WC+HC)/2, WC/Ht, (WC/HC)/Ht, WC*NC were calculated. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was performed to obtain body’s fat compartments in terms of total fat, trunk fat, leg fat, arm fat masses. Trunk-to-leg fat ratio, trunk-to-appendicular fat ratio (TAFR), (trunk fat+leg fat)/2 ((TF+LF)/2) were calculated. Fat mass index (FMI) and diagnostic obesity notation model assessment-II (D2I) index values were calculated. Statistical analysis of the data was performed. Significantly increased values of (WC+HC)/2, (TF+LF)/2, D2I, and FMI were observed in OB group in comparison with those of N-BMI group. Significant correlations were calculated between BMI and WC, (WC+HC)/2, (TF+LF)/2, TLFR, TAFR, D2I as well as FMI both in N-BMI and OB groups. The same correlations were obtained for WC. (WC+HC)/2 was correlated with TLFR, TAFR, (TF+LF)/2, D2I, and FMI in N-BMI group. In OB group, the correlations were the same except those with TLFR and TAFR. These correlations were not present with WHR. Correlations were observed between TLFR and BMI, WC, (WC+HC)/2, (TF+LF)/2, D2I as well as FMI in N-BMI group. Same correlations were observed also with TAFR. In OB group, correlations between TLFR or TAFR and BMI, WC as well as (WC+HC)/2 were missing. None was noted with WHR. From these findings, it was concluded that (WC+HC)/2, but not WHR, was much more suitable as an anthropometric obesity index. The only correlation valid in both groups was that exists between (WC+HC)/2 and (TF+LF)/2. This index was suggested as a link between anthropometric and fat-based indices.

Keywords: children, hip circumference, obesity, waist circumference

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201 Correlation between Overweightness and the Extent of Coronary Atherosclerosis among the South Caspian Population

Authors: Maryam Nabati, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Ehsan Soroosh, Hanieh Shiraj, Mahnaneh Gholami, Ali Ghaemian


Background: Reported effects of obesity on the extent of angiographic coronary artery disease(CAD) have beeninconsistent. The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between the indices of obesity and otheranthropometric markers with the extent of CAD. Methods: This study was conducted on 1008 consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography. Bodymass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) wereseparately calculated for each patient. Extent, severity, and complexity of CAD were determined by the Gensini andSYNTAX scores. Results: According to the results, there was a significant inverse correlation between the SYNTAX score with BMI(r = − 0.110; P < 0.001), WC (r = − 0.074; P = 0.018), and WHtR (r = − 0.089; P = 0.005). Furthermore, a significant inversecorrelation was observed between the Gensini score with BMI (r = − 0.090; P = 0.004) and WHtR (r = − 0.065; P =0.041). However, the results of multivariate linear regression analysis did not show any association between theSYNTAX and Gensini scores with the indices of obesity and overweight. On the other hand, the patients with anunhealthy WC had a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) (P = 0.004) and hypertension (HTN) (P < 0.001) compared to the patients with healthy values. Coexistence of HTN and DM was more prevalent in subjects with anunhealthy WC and WHR compared to that in those with healthy values (P = 0.002 and P = 0.032, respectively). Conclusion: It seems that the anthropometric indices of obesity are not the predictors of the angiographic severityof CAD. However, they are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular risk factors and higher risk profile.

Keywords: body mass index, BMI, coronary artery disease, waist circumference

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200 Baseline Data from Specialist Obesity Clinic in a Large Tertiary Care Facility, Karachi, Pakistan

Authors: Asma Ahmed, Farah Khalid, Sahlah Sohail, Saira Banusokwalla, Sabiha Banu, Inaara Akbar, Safia Awan, Syed Iqbal Azam


Background and Objectives: The level of knowledge regarding obesity as a disease condition and health-seeking behavior regarding its management is grossly lacking. We present data from our multidisciplinary obesity clinic at the large tertiary care facility in Karachi, Pakistan, to provide baseline profiles and outcomes of patients attending these clinics. Methods: 260 who attended the obesity clinic between June 2018 to March 2020 were enrolled in this study. The analysis included descriptive and ROC analysis to identify the best cut-offs of theanthropometric measurements to diagnose obesity-related comorbid conditions. Results: The majority of the studied population were women (72.3%) and employed(43.7%) with a mean age of 35.5 years. Mean BMIwas 37.4, waist circumference was 112.4 cm, visceral fat was 11.7%, and HbA1C was 6.9%. The most common comorbidities were HTN & D.M (33 &31%, respectively). The prevalence of MetS was 16.3% in patients and was slightly higher in males. Visceral fat was the main factor in predicting D.M (0.750; 95% CI: 0.665, 0.836) and MetS (0.709; 95% CI: 0.590, 0.838) compared to total body fat, waist circumference, and BMI. The risk of predicting DM &MetS for the visceral fat above 9.5% in women had the highest sensitivity (80% for D.M & 79% for MetS) and an NPV (92.75% for D.M & 95% for MetS). Conclusions: This study describes and establishes characteristics of these obese individuals, which can help inform clinical practices. These practices may involve using visceral fat for earlier identification and counseling-based interventions to prevent more severe surgical interventions down the line.

Keywords: obesity, metabolic syndrome, tertiary care facility, BMI, waist circumference, visceral fat

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199 Knowledge and Practice Towards Cardiovascular Disease Prevention among Residents of Ainamoi Constituency, Kericho County

Authors: Sang C. Sharon Sang, Okube O. Tekeste


Background: Cardiovascular diseases have become a major cause of disability and premature death throughout the world. Knowledge and practice on the risk factors modification can prevent clinical events and reduce the recurrent premature deaths in people with established CVDs. Broad objective: To determine the knowledge and practice towards cardiovascular disease prevention among residents of the Ainamoi Constituency. Methodology: The study was a community-based descriptive cross-sectional study. It used a quantitative survey for data collection. Data was collected using one-on-one interviews and a pre-tested WHO-structured questionnaire regarding their socio-demographic profiles, dietary intake patterns, fruit and vegetable consumption, salt and sugar intake, alcohol, and tobacco use, smoking status, physical activity, lifestyle advice, antihypertensive adherence, and presence of comorbidities was issued. Anthropometric measurements including height and weight, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure were measured for every participant. The data was then coded and entered into SPSS software for analysis. Ethical consideration was sought from the Catholic University of Eastern Africa, KNH-UON ethics and research committee, National Commission for Science, Technology, and Innovation (NACOSTI), a local chief, and informed consent from participants. Results: The finding of the study revealed that there was a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among the residents of the Ainamoi Constituency. The prevalence of hypertension was 36.2%, obesity was 24.6%, high waist circumference was 47.7%, and a high-risk waist ratio was 31.2%. A majority of the respondents of the Ainamoi Constituency did not consume fruits and vegetables on a daily basis. Furthermore, a majority of the respondents did not know the recommended amount of sugar and salt and consumed above the recommended amount. The prevalence of hypertension, obesity, high waist circumference, and a high-risk waist-hip ratio was higher among the respondents who did not consume fruits and vegetables on a daily basis, those who consumed salt and sugar above the recommended amount, and those who did not indulge in sufficient physical activity of up to 150 minutes per week. Recommendation: prioritization and allocation of resources into interventions with maximum impact on health need to be done in the Ainamoi Constituency. Furthermore, continuous public health education using mass campaigns need to be reinforced as a better strategy to mitigate the rising burden.

Keywords: body mass index, cardiovascular diseases, dietary practices, physical activity, salt and sugar intake, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio

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198 Blood Pressure and Anthropometric Measurements: A Correlational Study

Authors: Abdul-Monim Batiha, Manar AlAzzam, Mohammed ALBashtawy, Loai Tawalbeh, Ahmad Tubaishat, Fadwa N. Alhalaiqa


Background: Obesity is the major modifiable risk factor for many chronic illnesses especially high blood pressure. Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric indices and high blood pressure, and which one was most strongly correlated with high blood pressure in Jordanian population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a total 622 students and workers from three Jordanian universities. Results: Nearly half of the participant are overweight (34.7%) and obese (15.4%) and hypertension was detected among 138 (22.2%) of the participants. Linear correlation was significant (p<0.01) between both systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure for all anthropometric indices, except for A body shape index and diastolic blood pressure was significant at p< 0.05. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the influence of age and anthropometric measurements. Conclusions: The waist circumference was the only independent predictor of hypertension, showing that this simple measurement may be an importance marker of high blood pressure in Jordanian population.

Keywords: anthropometric indices, Jordan, blood pressure, cross-sectional study, obesity, hypertension, waist circumference

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
197 Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome According to Different Criteria in Population over 20 Years Old in Ahvaz

Authors: Armaghan Moravej Aleali, Hajieh Shahbazian, Seyed Mahmoud Latifi, Leila Yazdanpanah


Objective: Metabolic syndrome or insulin resistance syndrome or syndrome X is a collection of abdominal obesity, hypertension, glucose intolerance and lipid abnormalities (elevated triglycerides, elevated LDL, and decrease the amount of HDL). That increases the incidence of diabetes and risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in people over 20 years of Ahvaz according to IDF, ATPIII, Harmonized I and Harmonized II. Material & Methods: A cross-sectional study with a random cluster sampling in six health centers in Ahvaz was done. After obtaining informed consent, questionnaire for each person filled up including demographic data and examinations, including blood pressure in sitting position, weight, height, waist circumference, and waist circumference measurement. Results: From all participating 912 people, (434 (2/47%) male and 478 (2/52%) female) were evaluated. Mean age was 42/27± 14years (44/2±14/26 for male and 40/5±13/5 for female). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22/8%, 28/4%, 30/9% and 16/9% according to ATPIII, IDF, Harmonized I and Harmonized II criteria respectively and increased with age in both sexes. IDF and Harmonized I had most kappa coordination (0/94). Conclusion: The results show a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Ahvaz. So, identification of the risk factors should be attempted to prevent metabolic syndrome.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, IDF, ATP III, prevalence

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196 Prevalence, Awareness, and Risk Factors of Diabetes in Ahvaz: South West of Iran

Authors: Leila Yazdanpanah, Hajieh Shahbazian, Seyed Mahmoud Latifi, Armaghan Moravej Aleali, Saeed Ghanbari


Introduction: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of diabetes in people aged over 20 years in Ahvaz, Iran. Material and Methods: The study population selected by cluster sampling. Fasting blood sugar (FBS) assessed after minimum 8 hours night fasting. A questionnaire included: age, sex, weight, height, blood pressure, waist circumference and previous history of diabetes were completed for each patient. FBS≥126mg/dl and/or oral hypoglycemic treatment and/or insulin was defined as diabetes, FBS=100-125 mg/dl as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and FBS<100mg/dl as normal. Results: Study population was 936 persons (47.2 % male and 52.8% female). The mean age of a population was 42.2±14 years. Diabetes was detected in 15.1 % of population. Only 57cases(6.1%) were aware of their disease and 9% had unknown diabetes. Diabetes was detected in 14.5% of male (11.3% unknown and 3.2 % known diabetes) and in 11.7% of female (7% unknown and 4.7% known diabetes). Prevalence of diabetes had no significant difference (P=0.21) in male and female but unknown diabetes was significantly higher in male (P=0.025). Prevalence of diabetes was increased with rising of age between 20-60 years old but decreasing after 60 years old. Diabetes was related to age, waist circumference and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, TG level and BMI in both sex (P=0.0001). Conclusion: More than half of female and three-fourth of male diabetic patients are unaware of their disease in South of Iran. Diabetes screening should be intensified in this population.

Keywords: diabetes, prevalence, risk factor, awareness

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195 Major Dietary Patterns in Relationship with Anthropometric Indices in North West of Iran

Authors: Arezou Rezazadeh, Nasrin Omidvar, Hassan Eini-Zinab, Mahmoud Ghazi-Tabatabaie, Reza Majdzadeh, Saeid Ghavamzadeh, Sakineh Nouri-Saeidlou


Dietary pattern analysis method can reflect more information about the nutritional etiology of chronic diseases such as obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between major dietary patterns and anthropometric measures in men and women living in the city of Urmia. In this cross-sectional study, 723 participants (427 women and 296 men), aged 20–64 in Urmia city were selected from all four zones of Urmia city, in the north-west of Iran. Anthropometrics (weight, height, waist and hip circumference) were measured with standard methods. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by dividing weight (in kilograms) by the square of height (in meter). Dietary intake information was collected by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire in the last year. Dietary patterns were determined using principal component analysis. The relationship between dietary patterns and obesity was analyzed by logistic regression. Three major dietary patterns (DPs) were identified that were named ‘Traditional Higher SES (THS)’, ‘Traditional Low SES (TLS)’ and ‘Transitional’. THS DP was positively and Transitional DP was negatively associated with BMI and waist circumference (W.C), however, after adjusting for confounding variables (age, gender, ethnicity, energy intake, physical activity and SES), the associations were not significant. The TLS was not significantly associated with BMI, but after adjusting for confounders, a significant positive association was detected with W.C and Waist to hip ratio (WHR). Findings showed that both traditional patterns were positively and the western type transitional pattern was reversely associated with anthropometric indices. But this relationship was highly affected by demographic, socioeconomic and energy input and output determinants. The results indicate the inevitable effect of environmental factors on the relationship between dietary patterns and anthropometric indices.

Keywords: anthropometric indices, dietary pattern, Iran, North-west

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194 Prevalence of Selected Cardiovascular Risk Factors Obesity among University of Venda Staff

Authors: Avhasei Dorothy Rasifudi, Josephine Mandizha


Cardiovascular risk factors continue to be the leading cause of death in the majority of developed and developing countries. In 2011, the World Health Organization reported that every year an estimated 17 million people globally die of CVD, representing 30% of all global deaths, particularly caused by heart attacks and strokes. The purpose of the study was to determine and describe the prevalence of selected cardiovascular risk factors among university of Venda staff. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 staff aged 20-65 years. The anthropometric measurements were conducted in accordance to and with standardized procedures advocated by the International Society for the Advanced Kinanthropometry. Weight, Height, waist circumference and hip circumference were measured for calculation of body mass index and waist-hip ratio. Blood pressure was measured using a Heine cuff and sphygmomanometer. Questionnaire was administered to gather demographic details and cardiovascular risk factors of hypertension and obesity. Data were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The parameter t-test was applied to test significance level at p ≤ 0.05 between sexes. The statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. The prevalence of hypertension was 23% with the highest prevalence amongst those aged 40 years and above. Factors found to be to be significantly associated with hypertension were gender, age, physical inactivity and family history. Prevalence of obesity was 43%, with the highest prevalence among those aged 40 years. The factors associated with obesity were diet, age and physical activity. The prevalence of hypertension and obesity in the study were high.

Keywords: cardiovascular, prevalence, risk factors, staff

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193 Higher Consumption of White Rice Increase the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Adults with Abdominal Obesity

Authors: Zahra Bahadoran, Parvin Mirmiran, Fereidoun Azizi


Background: Higher consumption of white rice has been suggested as a risk factor for development of metabolic abnormalities. In this study we investigated the association between consumption of white rice and the 3-year occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults with and without abdominal obesity. Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study on 1476 adults, aged 19-70 years. Dietary intakes were measured, using a 168-food items validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Biochemical and anthropometric measurements were evaluated at both baseline (2006-2008) and after 3-year follow-up (2009-2011). MetS and its components were defined according to the diagnostic criteria proposed by NCEP ATP III, and the new cutoff points of waist circumference for Iranian adults. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the occurrence of the MetS in each quartile of white rice consumption. Results: The mean age of participants was 37.8±12.3 y, and mean BMI was 26.0±4.5 kg/m2 at baseline. The prevalence of MetS in subjects with abdominal obesity was significantly higher (40.9 vs. 16.2%, P<0.01). There was no significant difference in white rice consumption between the two groups. Mean daily intake of white rice was 93±59, 209±58, 262±60 and 432±224 g/d, in the first to fourth quartiles of white rice, respectively. Stratified analysis by categories of waist circumference showed that higher consumption of white rice was more strongly related to the risk of metabolic syndrome in participants who had abdominal obesity (OR: 2.34, 95% CI:1.14-4.41 vs. OR:0.99, 95% CI:0.60-1.65) Conclusion: We demonstrated that higher consumption of white rice may be a risk for development of metabolic syndrome in adults with abdominal obesity.

Keywords: white rice, abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome, food science, triglycerides

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192 A Randomized Control Trial Intervention to Combat Childhood Obesity in Negeri Sembilan: The Hebat! Program

Authors: Siti Sabariah Buhari, Ruzita Abdul Talib, Poh Bee Koon


This study aims to develop and evaluate an intervention to improve eating habits, active lifestyle and weight status of overweight and obese children in Negeri Sembilan. The H.E.B.A.T! Program involved children, parents, and school and focused on behaviour and environment modification to achieve its goal. The intervention consists of H.E.B.A.T! Camp, parent’s workshop and school-based activities. A total of 21 children from intervention school and 22 children from control school who had BMI for age Z-score ≥ +1SD participated in the study. Mean age of subjects was 10.8 ± 0.3 years old. Four phases were included in the development of the intervention. Evaluation of intervention was conducted through process, impact and outcome evaluation. Process evaluation found that intervention program was implemented successfully with minimal modification and without having any technical problems. Impact and outcome evaluation was assessed based on dietary intake, average step counts, BMI for age z-score, body fat percentage and waist circumference at pre-intervention (T0), post-intervention 1 (T1) and post-intervention 2 (T2). There was significant reduction in energy (14.8%) and fat (21.9%) intakes (at p < 0.05) at post-intervention 1 (T1) in intervention group. By controlling for sex as covariate, there was significant intervention effect for average step counts, BMI for age z-score and waist circumference (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the intervention made an impact on positive behavioural intentions and improves weight status of the children. It is expected that the HEBAT! Program could be adopted and implemented by the government and private sector as well as policy-makers in formulating childhood obesity intervention.

Keywords: childhood obesity, diet, obesity intervention, physical activity

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191 Mike Hat: Coloured-Tape-in-Hat as a Head Circumference Measuring Instrument for Early Detection of Hydrocephalus in an Infant

Authors: Nyimas Annissa Mutiara Andini


Every year, children develop hydrocephalus during the first year of life. If it is not treated, hydrocephalus can lead to brain damage, a loss in mental and physical abilities, and even death. To be treated, first, we have to do a proper diagnosis using some examinations especially to detect hydrocephalus earlier. One of the examination that could be done is using a head circumference measurement. Increased head circumference is a first and main sign of hydrocephalus, especially in infant (0-1 year age). Head circumference is a measurement of a child's head largest area. In this measurement, we want to get the distance from above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head using a measurement tape. If the head circumference of an infant is larger than normal, this infant might potentially suffer hydrocephalus. If early diagnosis and timely treatment of hydrocephalus could be done most children can recover successfully. There are some problems with early detection of hydrocephalus using regular tape for head circumference measurement. One of the problem is the infant’s comfort. We need to make the infant feel comfort along the head circumference measurement to get a proper result of the examination. For that, we can use a helpful stuff, like a hat. This paper is aimed to describe the possibility of using a head circumference measuring instrument for early detection of hydrocephalus in an infant with a mike hat, coloured-tape-in-hat. In the first life, infants’ head size is about 35 centimeters. First three months after that infants will gain 2 centimeters each month. The second three months, infant’s head circumference will increase 1 cm each month. And for the six months later, the rate is 0.5 cm per month, and end up with an average of 47 centimeters. This formula is compared to the WHO’s head circumference growth chart. The shape of this tape-in-hat is alike an upper arm measurement. This tape-in-hat diameter is about 47 centimeters. It contains twelve different colours range by age. If it is out of the normal colour, the infant potentially suffers hydrocephalus. This examination should be done monthly. If in two times of measurement there still in the same range abnormal of head circumference, or a rapid growth of the head circumference size, the infant should be referred to a pediatrician. There are the pink hat for girls and blue hat for boys. Based on this paper, we know that this measurement can be used to help early detection of hydrocephalus in an infant.

Keywords: head circumference, hydrocephalus, infant, mike hat

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190 Prevalence of Pre Hypertension and Its Association to Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases Among Male Undergraduate Students in Chennai

Authors: R. S. Dinesh Madhavan, M. Logaraj


Background: Recent studies have documented an increase in the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and a high rate of progression to hypertension in persons with pre hypertension. The risk factors for the growing burden of cardiovascular diseases especially hypertension, diabetes, overweight or obesity and waist hip ratio are increasing. Much study has not been done on cardiovascular risk factors associated with blood pressure (BP) among college students in Indian population. Objectives: The objective of our study was to estimate the prevalence of prehypertension among male students and to assess the association between prehypertension and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among students of a university situated in the suburban area of Chennai. A total of 403 students was studied which included 200 medical and 203 engineering students. The information on selected socio-demographic variables were collected with the help of pre tested structured questionnaire. Measurements of height, weight, blood pressure and postprandial blood glucose were carried out as per standard procedure. Results: The mean age of the participants was 19.56 ± 1.67years. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 125.80±10.03 mm of Hg and 78.96 ±11.75mm of Hg. The average intake of fruits and vegetable per week were 4.34 ±3.47days and 6.55±4.39 days respectively. Use of smoke and smokeless tobacco were 27.3% and 3% respectively. About 30.3% of the students consume alcohol. Nearly 45.9 % of them did not practice regular exercise. About 29 % were overweight and 5.7% were obese, 24.8% were with waist circumference above 90 centimeters. The prevalence of pre hypertension and hypertension was 49.6% and 19.1% among male students. The prevalence of pre hypertension was higher in medical students (51.5%) compared to engineering students (47.8%). Higher risk of being pre hypertensive were noted above the age of 20 years (OR=4.32), fruit intake less than 3 days a week (OR= 1.03), smokers (OR= 1.13), alcohol intake (OR=1.56), lack of physical exercise (OR=1.90), BMI of more than 25 kg/m2 (OR=1.99). But statistically significant difference was noted between pre hypertensive and normotensive for age (p<0.0001), lack of physical exercise (p=0.004) and BMI (p=0.015). Conclusion: In conclusion nearly half of the students were pre hypertensive. Higher prevalence of smoking, alcohol intake, lack of physical exercise, overweight and increased waist circumference and postprandial blood sugar more than 140 mg/dl was noted among pre-hypertensive compared to normotensive.

Keywords: cardiovascular diseases, prehypertension, risk factors, undergraduate Students

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189 The Factors Associated with Health Status among Community Health Volunteers in Thailand

Authors: Lapatrada Numkham, Saowaluk Khakhong, Jeeraporn Kummabutr


Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death in worldwide. Thailand also concerns and focuses on reduction a new case of these diseases. Community Health Volunteers (CHV) is important health personnel in primary health care and performs as a health leader in the community. If the health of CHV changes, it would impact on the performance to promote health of families and community. This cross-sectional study aimed to 1) describe the health status of community health volunteers and 2) examine the factors associated with health status among community health volunteers. The sample included 360 community health volunteers in a province in central Thailand during September-December 2014. Data were collected using questionnaires on health information, knowledge of health behaviors, and health behaviors. Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), and blood glucose (BS) (fingertip) were assessed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. There were three hundred and sixty participants with 82.5% being women. The mean age was 54 + 8.9 years. Forty-seven percent of the participants had co-morbidities. Hypertension was the most common co-morbidity (26.7%). The results revealed that the health status of the volunteers included: no underlying disease, having risk of hypertension (HT) & diabetes mellitus (DM), and having HT&DM at 38.3%, 30.0%, and 31.7% respectively. The chi-square test revealed that the factors associated with health status among the volunteers were gender, age, WC and body mass index (BMI). The results suggested that community health nurses should; 1) implement interventions to decrease waist circumference and lose weight through education programs, especially females; 2) monitor people that have a risk of HT&DM and that have HT&DM by meeting and recording BP level, BS level, WC and BMI; and 3) collaborate with a district public health officer to initiate a campaign to raise awareness of the risks of chronic diseases among community health volunteers.

Keywords: community health volunteers, health status, risk of non-communicable disease, Thailand

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188 Obesity and Physical Inactivity: Contributing Factors to Hypertension in Early Adults

Authors: Sadaf Ambreen, Ayesha Bibi, Sara Rafiq


Hypertension is a medical condition in which blood pressure in the arteries is elevated than the normal, having systolic blood pressure more than 120mmHg and diastolic blood pressure more than 80 mmHg. It leads to health complications and increase the risk of diseases such as stroke, heart failure, heart attack, and even death. The aim of the current study was to evaluate nutritional status and activity level among hypertensive early adults in District Mardan Data was collected from the subjects of Public Hospital, Mardan Medical Complex, through questionnaire. A complete information about individual sociodemographic, anthropometry and health status were collected, and physical activity was assessed by using IPAQ questionnaire. A total of 150 individuals were included in the study, in which 90% were females, and 10% were males. Data was analyzed through SPSS Version 22. Majority of the study subjects, 88%, were married, 70% having nuclear living system, 43% were having elementary education, and 43% were working as laborer. Body mass index and waist circumference in female counterpart were found to be positively associated with hypertension and was found statistically significant P=<0.01. Results showed that majority of females were fall in hypertension crisis category with mild activity, and males were having hypertension stage 1 with moderate activity. Our study concluded that non-optimal nutritional status and physical inactivity resulted in elevated blood pressure in females, therefore, lifestyle change such as optimal nutritional status and physical activity may play key role in reducing risk of hypertension.

Keywords: obesity/overwight, body mass index, waist circumference, early adulthood

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187 Effects of Cuminum cyminum L. Essential Oil Supplementation on Components of Metabolic Syndrome: A Clinical Trial

Authors: Ashti Morovati, Hushyar Azari, Bahram Pourghassem Gargari


Objectives and goals: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), as a major health burden for societies, is increasing. This clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of CuEO supplementation on anthropometric indices, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose level, insulin resistance and serum lipid level in patients suffering from MetS. Methods: This was a randomized, triple‐blind, placebo‐controlled clinical trial in which 56 patients with MetS aged 18–60 years who fulfilled the eligibility criteria were randomly allocated to an intervention or a control group. Inclusion criteria for the study were comprised of diagnosis of MetS according to the new International Federation of Diabetes. The exclusion criteria were defined as: taking herbal supplements, use of drugs having evident interaction with cumin such as anti‐depressant drugs, vitamin D, omega 3, selenium, zinc, smoking, pregnancy, or breastfeeding, suffering from cancer, having any history of gastrointestinal and hepatic, cardiovascular, thyroid and kidney disorders, and menopause. 75 mg CuEO or placebo soft gels were administered three times daily to the participants for eight weeks. The soft gel consumption was checked by asking the participants to bring the medication containers in the follow‐up visits at the 4th and the 8th weeks of the study. Data pertaining to blood pressure, height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference and BMI, as well as food consumption were collected at the beginning and end of the study. Fasting blood samples ( glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol) were obtained and biochemical measurements were assessed at the beginning and end of the study. Results: At eight weeks, a total of 44 patients completed this study. Except for diastolic blood pressure (DBP), the other assessed variables were not significantly different between the two groups. In intra group analysis, placebo and CuEO groups both had insignificant decrements in DBP (mean difference [MD] with 95% CI: −3.31 [−7.11, 0.47] and −1.77 [−5.95, 2.40] mmHg, respectively). However, DBP was significantly lower in CuEO compared with the placebo group at the end of study (81.41 ± 5.88 vs. 84.09 ± 5.54 mmHg, MD with 95% CI: −3.98 [−7.60, −0.35] mmHg, p < .05). Conclusions: The results of this study indicated that CuEO does not have any effect on MetS components, except for DBP in patients with MetS.

Keywords: blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, waist circumference

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186 Adolescent Obesity Leading to Adulthood Cardiovascular Diseases among Punjabi Population

Authors: Manpreet Kaur, Badaruddoza, Sandeep Kaur Brar


The increasing prevalence of adolescent obesity is one of the major causes to be hypertensive in adulthood. Various statistical methods have been applied to examine the performance of anthropometric indices for the identification of adverse cardiovascular risk profile. The present work was undertaken to determine the significant traditional risk factors through principal component factor analysis (PCFA) among population based Punjabi adolescents aged 10-18 years. Data was collected among adolescent children from different schools situated in urban areas of Punjab, India. Principal component factor analysis (PCFA) was applied to extract orthogonal components from anthropometric and physiometric variables. Association between components were explained by factor loadings. The PCFA extracted four factors, which explained 84.21%, 84.06% and 83.15% of the total variance of the 14 original quantitative traits among boys, girls and combined subjects respectively. Factor 1 has high loading of the traits that reflect adiposity such as waist circumference, BMI and skinfolds among both sexes. However, waist circumference and body mass index are the indicator of abdominal obesity which increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The loadings of these two traits have found maximum in girls adolescents (WC=0.924; BMI=0.905). Therefore, factor 1 is the strong indicator of atherosclerosis in adolescents. Factor 2 is predominantly loaded with blood pressures and related traits (SBP, DBP, MBP and pulse rate) which reflect the risk of essential hypertension in adolescent girls and combined subjects, whereas, factor 2 loaded with obesity related traits in boys (weight and hip circumferences). Comparably, factor 3 is loaded with blood pressures in boys and with height and WHR in girls, while factor 4 contains high loading of pulse pressure among boys, girls and combined group of adolescents.

Keywords: adolescent obesity, cvd, hypertension, punjabi population

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185 The Relationship between Body Image, Eating Behavior and Nutritional Status for Female Athletes

Authors: Selen Muftuoglu, Dilara Kefeli


The present study was conducted by using the cross-sectional study design and to determine the relationship between body image, eating behavior and nutritional status in 80 female athletes who were basketball, volleyball, flag football, indoor soccer, and ice hockey players. This study demonstrated that 70.0% of the female athletes had skipped meal. Also, female athletes had a normal body mass index (BMI), but 65.0% of them indicated that want to be thinner. On the other hand, we analyzed that their daily nutrients intake, so we observed that 43.4% of the energy was from the fatty acids, especially saturated fatty acids, and they had lower fiber, calcium and iron intake. Also, we found that BMI, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio were negatively correlated with Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire and The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire score and they were lower in who had meal skipped or not received diet therapy. As a conclusion, nutrition education is frequently neglected in sports programs. There is a paucity of nutrition education interventions among different sports.

Keywords: body image, eating behavior, eating disorders, female athletes, nutritional status

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184 The Associations between Ankle and Brachial Systolic Blood Pressures with Obesity Parameters

Authors: Matei Tudor Berceanu, Hema Viswambharan, Kirti Kain, Chew Weng Cheng


Background - Obesity parameters, particularly visceral obesity as measured by the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), correlate with insulin resistance. The metabolic microvascular changes associated with insulin resistance causes increased peripheral arteriolar resistance primarily to the lower limb vessels. We hypothesize that ankle systolic blood pressures (SBPs) are more significantly associated with visceral obesity than brachial SBPs. Methods - 1098 adults enriched in south Asians or Europeans with diabetes (T2DM) were recruited from a primary care practice in West Yorkshire. Their medical histories, including T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD) status, were gathered from an electronic database. The brachial, dorsalis pedis, and posterior tibial SBPs were measured using a Doppler machine. Their body mass index (BMI) and WHtR were calculated after measuring their weight, height, and waist circumference. Linear regressions were performed between the 6 SBPs and both obesity parameters, after adjusting for covariates. Results - Generally, the left posterior tibial SBP (P=4.559*10⁻¹⁵) and right posterior tibial SBP (P=1.114* 10⁻¹³ ) are the pressures most significantly associated with the BMI, as well as in south Asians (P < 0.001) and Europeans (P < 0.001) specifically. In South Asians, although the left (P=0.032) and right brachial SBP (P=0.045) were associated to the WHtR, the left posterior tibial SBP (P=0.023) showed the strongest association. Conclusion - Regardless of ethnicity, ankle SBPs are more significantly associated with generalized obesity than brachial SBPs, suggesting their screening potential for screening for early detection of T2DM and CVD. A combination of ankle SBPs with WHtR is proposed in south Asians.

Keywords: ankle blood pressures, body mass index, insulin resistance, waist-to-height-ratio

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183 Association of Phosphorus and Magnesium with Fat Indices in Children with Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Mustafa M. Donma, Orkide Donma


Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a disease associated with obesity. It is a complicated clinical problem possibly affecting body composition as well as macrominerals. These parameters gain further attention, particularly in the pediatric population. The aim of this study is to investigate the amount of discrete body composition fractions in groups that differ in the severity of obesity. Also, the possible associations with calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg) will be examined. The study population was divided into four groups. Twenty-eight, 29, 34, and 34 children were involved in Group 1 (healthy), 2 (obese), 3 (morbid obese), and 4 (MetS), respectively. Institutional Ethical Committee approved the study protocol. Informed consent forms were obtained from the participants. The classification of obese groups was performed based upon the recommendations of the World Health Organization. Metabolic syndrome components were defined. Serum Ca, P, Mg concentrations were measured. Within the scope of body composition, fat mass, fat-free mass, protein mass, mineral mass were determined by a body composition monitor using bioelectrical impedance analysis technology. Weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference, head circumference, and neck circumference values were recorded. Body mass index, diagnostic obesity notation model assessment index, fat mass index, and fat-free mass index values were calculated. Data were statistically evaluated and interpreted. There was no statistically significant difference among the groups in terms of Ca and P concentrations. Magnesium concentrations differed between Group 1 and Group 4. Strong negative correlations were detected between P as well as Mg and fat mass index as well as diagnostic obesity notation model assessment index in Group 4, the group, which comprised morbid obese children with MetS. This study emphasized unique associations of P and Mg minerals with diagnostic obesity notation model assessment index and fat mass index during the evaluation of morbid obese children with MetS. It was also concluded that diagnostic obesity notation model assessment index and fat mass index were more proper indices in comparison with body mass index and fat-free mass index for the purpose of defining body composition in children.

Keywords: children, fat mass, fat-free mass, macrominerals, obesity

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182 The Valuable Triad of Adipokine Indices to Differentiate Pediatric Obesity from Metabolic Syndrome: Chemerin, Progranulin, Vaspin

Authors: Mustafa M. Donma, Orkide Donma


Obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors and metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this study, associations between adipokines and adipokine as well as obesity indices were evaluated. Plasma adipokine levels may exhibit variations according to body adipose tissue mass. Besides, upon consideration of obesity as an inflammatory disease, adipokines may play some roles in this process. The ratios of proinflammatory adipokines to adiponectin may act as highly sensitive indicators of body adipokine status. The aim of the study is to present some adipokine indices, which are thought to be helpful for the evaluation of childhood obesity and also to determine the best discriminators in the diagnosis of MetS. 80 prepubertal children (aged between 6-9.5 years) included in the study were divided into three groups; 30 children with normal weight (NW), 25 morbid obese (MO) children and 25 MO children with MetS. Physical examinations were performed. Written informed consent forms were obtained from the parents. The study protocol was approved by Ethics Committee of Namik Kemal University Medical Faculty. Anthropometric measurements, such as weight, height, waist circumference (C), hip C, head C, neck C were recorded. Values for body mass index (BMI), diagnostic obesity notation model assessment Index-II (D2 index) as well as waist-to-hip, head-to-neck ratios were calculated. Adiponectin, resistin, leptin, chemerin, vaspin, progranulin assays were performed by ELISA. Adipokine-to-adiponectin ratios were obtained. SPSS Version 20 was used for the evaluation of data. p values ≤ 0.05 were accepted as statistically significant. Values of BMI and D2 index, waist-to-hip, head-to-neck ratios did not differ between MO and MetS groups (p ≥ 0.05). Except progranulin (p ≤ 0.01), similar patterns were observed for plasma levels of each adipokine. There was not any difference in vaspin as well as resistin levels between NW and MO groups. Significantly increased leptin-to-adiponectin, chemerin-to-adiponectin and vaspin-to-adiponectin values were noted in MO in comparison with those of NW. The most valuable adipokine index was progranulin-to-adiponectin (p ≤ 0.01). This index was strongly correlated with vaspin-to-adiponectin ratio in all groups (p ≤ 0.05). There was no correlation between vaspin-to-adiponectin and chemerin-to--adiponectin in NW group. However, a correlation existed in MO group (r = 0.486; p ≤ 0.05). Much stronger correlation (r = 0.609; p ≤ 0.01) was observed in MetS group between these two adipokine indices. No correlations were detected between vaspin and progranulin as well as vaspin and chemerin levels. Correlation analyses showed a unique profile confined to MetS children. Adiponectin was found to be correlated with waist-to-hip (r = -0.435; p ≤ 0.05) as well as head-to-neck (r = 0.541; p ≤ 0.05) ratios only in MetS children. In this study, it has been investigated if adipokine indices have priority over adipokine levels. In conclusion, vaspin-to-adiponectin, progranulin-to-adiponectin, chemerin-to-adiponectin along with waist-to-hip and head-to-neck ratios were the optimal combinations. Adiponectin, waist-to-hip, head-to-neck, vaspin-to-adiponectin, chemerin-to-adiponectin ratios had appropriate discriminatory capability for MetS children.

Keywords: adipokine indices, metabolic syndrome, obesity indices, pediatric obesity

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