Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1432

Search results for: mesophilic aerobic bacteria

1432 Bacterial Contamination of Kitchen Sponges and Cutting Surfaces and Disinfection Procedures

Authors: Hayyan I Al Taweil

Abstract:

Background: The most common of bacterium in kitchen sponges and cutting surfaces which can play a task within the cross-contamination of foods, fomites and hands by foodborne pathogens. Aims and Objectives: This study investigated the incidence of bacterium in kitchen Sponge, and cutting surfaces. Material and methods: a complete of twenty four kitchen Sponges were collected from home kitchens and therefore the numbers of mesotrophic microorganism, coliform microorganism, E. coli, Salmonella, genus {pseudomonas|bacteria genus} and staphylococci in every kitchen Sponges were determined. Microbiological tests of all sponges for total mesophilic aerobic microorganism, S. aureus, Pseudomonas, Salmonella spp., and E. coli were performed on days 3, 7, and 14 by sampling. The sponges involved in daily use in kitchens countenosely with the dishwasher detergent a minimum of doubly daily Results: Results from the overall mesophilic aerobic microorganism, indicate a major increase within the variety of log CFU/ml. the amount of E. coli was reduced, Salmonella spp. was stabled, S. aureus was enhanced from the sponges throughout fourteen days. Genus Pseudomonas was enhanced and was the dominant micro flora within the sponges throughout fourteen days.

Keywords: Kitchen Sponges, Microbiological Contamination, Disinfection; cutting surface; , Cross-Contamination

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1431 Examining the Presence of Heterotrophic Aerobic Bacteria (HAB), and Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) in Some Types of Water from the City of Tripoli, Libya

Authors: Abdulsalam. I. Rafida, Marwa. F. Elalem, Hasna. E. Alemam

Abstract:

This study aimed at testing the various types of water in some areas of the city of Tripoli, Libya for the presence of Heterotrophic Aerobic Bacteria (HAB), and anaerobic Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB). The water samples under investigation included rainwater accumulating on the ground, sewage water (from the city sewage treatment station, sulphate water from natural therapy swimming sites), and sea water (i.e. sea water exposed to pollution by untreated sewage water, and unpolluted sea water from specific locations). A total of 20 samples have been collected distributed as follows: rain water (8 samples), sewage water (6 samples), and sea water (6 samples). An up-to-date method for estimation has been used featuring readymade solutions i.e. (BARTTM test for HAB and BARTTM test for SRB). However, with the exception of one rain water sample, the results have indicated that the target bacteria have been present in all samples. Regarding HAB bacteria the samples have shown a maximum average of 7.0 x 106 cfu/ml featuring sewage and rain water and a minimum average of 1.8 x 104 cuf/ml featuring unpolluted sea water collected from a specific location. As for SRB bacteria; a maximum average of 7.0 x 105 cfu/ml has been shown by sewage and rain water and a minimum average of 1.8 x 104 cfu/ml by sewage and sea water. The above results highlight the relationship between pollution and the presence of bacteria in water particularly water collected from specific locations, and also the presence of bacteria as the result of the use of water provided that a suitable environment exists for its growth.

Keywords: heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (HAB), sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB), water, environmental sciences

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1430 Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Kefir, Kefir Yogurt and Chickpea Yogurt

Authors: Nuray Güzeler, Elif Ari, Gözde Konuray, Çağla Özbek

Abstract:

The consumption of functional foods is very common. For this reason, many products which are probiotic, prebiotic, energy reduced and fat reduced are developed. In this research, physicochemical and microbiological properties of functional kefir, kefir yogurt and chickpea yogurt were examined. For this purpose, pH values, titration acidities, viscosity values, water holding capacities, serum separation values, acetaldehyde contents, tyrosine contents, the count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria count and mold-yeast counts were determined. As a result of performed analysis, the differences between titration acidities, serum separation values, water holding capacities, acetaldehyde and tyrosine contents of samples were statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences on pH values, viscosities, and microbiological properties of samples (p > 0.05). Consequently industrial production of functional kefir yogurt and chickpea yogurt may be advised.

Keywords: chickpea yogurt, kefir, kefir yogurt, milk

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1429 Isolation and Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Libyan Traditional Fermented Milk "Laban"

Authors: M. H. Nahaisi, N. M. Almaroum

Abstract:

Laban is a Libyan traditional fermented milk product. This lactic fermentation has been known in many cities of Libya long time ago as stable, nutritious, refreshing drink especially during the summer. 16 naturally fermented milk samples were collected from different cities located in North West of Libya. The average pH, titratable acidity, fat and total solids were 4.16, 0.73%, 1.54% and 8.12 % respectively. Coliform, yeast and mold counts were 21×10⁴, 39×10⁴ and 41 ×10³ cfu/ ml. respectively. The average Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Mesophilic Lactobacillus / Leuconostoc and Thermophilic Lactobacillus counts were 99 ×10⁷, 96 ×10⁷, 93 ×10⁷ and 15 ×10⁷ cfu / ml. respectively. A total of one hundred forty two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates were identified to the genus level as Lactobacillus (48.59%), Lactococcus (43.66%), Streptococcus (4.93%) and Leuconostoc (2.82%). Sugar fermentation tests have revealed that the most frequently Lactobacillus species was found to be Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis (62.32%) followed by Lactobacillus plantarum (31.88%). Furthermore, other selected LAB isolates were identified by API 50 CH test as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactics, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus brevis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris.

Keywords: traditional fermented milk, laban, lactococcus, streptococcus, mesophilic lactobacillus, thermophilic lactobacillus counts

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1428 Microbiological and Physicochemical Evaluation of Traditional Greek Kopanisti Cheese Produced by Different Starter Cultures

Authors: M. Kazou, A. Gavriil, O. Kalagkatsi, T. Paschos, E. Tsakalidou

Abstract:

Kopanisti cheese is a Greek soft Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheese made of raw cow, sheep or goat milk, or mixtures of them, with similar organoleptic characteristics to that of Roquefort cheese. Traditional manufacturing of Kopanisti cheese is limited in small-scale dairies, without the addition of starter cultures. Instead, an amount of over-mature Kopanisti cheese, called Mana Kopanisti, is used to initiate ripening. Therefore, the selection of proper starter cultures and the understanding of the contribution of various microbial groups to its overall quality is crucial for the production of a high-quality final product with standardized organoleptic and physicochemical characteristics. Taking the above into account, the aim of the present study was the investigation of Kopanisti cheese microbiota and its role in cheese quality. For this purpose, four different types of Kopanisti were produced in triplicates, all with pasteurized cow milk, with the addition of (A) the typical mesophilic species Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus paracasei used as starters in the production of soft spread cheeses, (B) strains of Lactobacillus acidipiscis and Lactobacillus rennini previously isolated from Kopanisti and Mana Kopanisti, (C) all the species from (A) and (B) as inoculum, and finally (D) the species from (A) and Mana Kopanisti. Physicochemical and microbiological analysis was performed for milk and cheese samples during ripening. Enumeration was performed for major groups of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), total mesophilic bacteria, yeasts as well as hygiene indicator microorganisms. Bacterial isolates from all the different LAB groups, apart from enterococci, alongside yeasts isolates, were initially grouped using repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) and then identified at the species level using 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) DNA region sequencing, respectively. Sensory evaluation was also performed for final cheese samples at the end of the ripening period (35 days). Based on the results of the classical microbiological analysis, the average counts of the total mesophilic bacteria and LAB, apart from enterococci, ranged between 7 and 10 log colony forming unit (CFU) g⁻¹, phychrotrophic bacteria, and yeast extract glucose chloramphenicol (YGC) isolates between 4 and 8 log CFU g⁻¹, while coliforms and enterococci up to 2 log CFU g⁻¹ throughout ripening in cheese samples A, C and D. In contrast, in cheese sample B, the average counts of the total mesophilic bacteria and LAB, apart from enterococci, phychrotrophic bacteria, and YGC isolates ranged between 0 and 10 log CFU g⁻¹ and coliforms and enterococci up to 2 log CFU g⁻¹. Although the microbial counts were not that different among samples, identification of the bacterial and yeasts isolates revealed the complex microbial community structure present in each cheese sample. Differences in the physicochemical characteristics among the cheese samples were also observed, with pH ranging from 4.3 to 5.3 and moisture from 49.6 to 58.0 % in the final cheese products. Interestingly, the sensory evaluation also revealed differences among samples, with cheese sample B ranking first based on the total score. Overall, the combination of these analyses highlighted the impact of different starter cultures on the Kopanisti microbiota as well as on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the final product.

Keywords: Kopanisti cheese, microbiota, classical microbiological analysis, physicochemical analysis

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1427 Up-Flow Sponge Submerged Biofilm Reactor for Municipal Sewage Treatment

Authors: Saber A. El-Shafai, Waleed M. Zahid

Abstract:

An up-flow submerged biofilm reactor packed with sponge was investigated for sewage treatment. The reactor was operated two cycles as single aerobic (1-1 at 3.5 L/L.d HLR and 1-2 at 3.8 L/L.day HLR) and four cycles as single anaerobic/aerobic reactor; 2-1 and 2-2 at low HLR (3.7 and 3.5 L/L.day) and 2-3 and 2-4 at high HLR (5.1 and 5.4 L/L.day). During the aerobic cycles, 50% effluent recycling significantly reduces the system performance except for phosphorous. In case of the anaerobic/aerobic reactor, the effluent recycling, significantly improves system performance at low HLR while at high HLR only phosphorous removal was improved. Excess sludge production was limited to 0.133 g TSS/g COD with better sludge volume index (SVI) in case of anaerobic/aerobic cycles; (54.7 versus 58.5 ml/g).

Keywords: aerobic, anaerobic/aerobic, up-flow, submerged biofilm, sponge

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1426 The Effects of Continuous and Interval Aerobic Exercises with Moderate Intensity on Serum Levels of Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Aerobic Capacity in Obese Children

Authors: Ali Golestani, Vahid Naseri, Hossein Taheri

Abstract:

Recently, some of studies examined the effect of exercise on neurotrophic factors influencing the growth, protection, plasticity and function in central and peripheral nerve cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous and interval aerobic exercises with moderate intensity on serum levels of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and aerobic capacity in obese children. 21 obese students with an average age of 13.6 ± 0.5 height 171 ± 5 and BMI 32 ± 1.2 were divided randomly to control, continuous aerobic and interval aerobic groups. Training protocol included continuous or interval aerobic exercises with moderate intensity 50-65%MHR, three times per week for 10 weeks. 48 hours before and after executing of protocol, blood samples were taken from the participants and their GDNF serum levels were measured by ELISA. Aerobic power was estimated using Shuttle-run test. T-test results indicated a small increase in their GDNF serum levels, which was not statistically significant (p =0.11). In addition, the results of ANOVA did not show any significant difference between continuous and interval aerobic training on the serum levels of their GDNF but their aerobic capacity significantly increased (p =0.012). Although continuous and interval aerobic exercise improves aerobic power in obese children, they had no significant effect on their serum levels of GDNF.

Keywords: aerobic power, continuous aerobic training, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), interval aerobic training, obese children

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1425 The Occurrence of Sporeformers in Processed Milk from Household Refrigerators and The Effect of Heat Treatment on Bacillus Spores Activation

Authors: Sarisha Devnath, Oluwatosin A. Ijabadeniyi

Abstract:

In recent years milk contamination has become a major problem in households; due to the likely occurrence of bacteria, even after the milk has been processed. One such genus of bacteria causing unwanted growth is Bacillus. This research project looks at the presence of spore formers in processed milk from household refrigerators and the effect of pasteurization and high temperature on Bacillus spores activation. 24 samples each of UHT milk and pasteurised milk from 24 households were sampled for the presence of spore formers. While anaerobic spore formers were not found in any of the samples, the average aerobic spore formers in UHT milk and pasteurized milk however were 5.77 cfu/ml and 5.88 cfu/ml respectively. After sequencing, it was detected that the mixed culture contained Bacillus cereus, for both pasteurised and UHT milk samples. For the activation study, raw milk samples were collected and subjected to four different temperatures; 65˚C, 72˚C, 80˚C, 100˚C respectively. Samples were stored for 7 days at 5˚C and 10˚C and analysed daily. The average aerobic spore formers in raw milk for samples stored at 5˚C range between 4.67-6.00 cfu/ml while it ranges between 4.84-6.00 cfu/ml at 10˚C, signifying that the high temperatures could have resulted in germination of dominant spores. Statistical analysis conducted on these results indicated a significant difference between the numbers of colonies present at the different treatment temperatures the bacterium was exposed to. This work showed that household milk may constitute public health risk furthermore; pasteurization and higher temperatures may not be effective to remove aerobic spore formers because of Bacillus spores activation.

Keywords: sporeformers, bacillus, spores, activation, milk

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1424 Sensory Evaluation and Microbiological Properties of Gouda Cheese Affected by Bunium persicum (Boiss.) Essential Oil

Authors: N. Noori, P. Taherkhani, A. Akhondzadeh Basti, H. Gandomi, M. Alimohammadi

Abstract:

Research on natural antimicrobial agents, especially of plant origin, highly noticed in recent years and evaluation of antimicrobial effects of native plants such as Bunium persicum Boiss. is especially important. In the present study, sensory characteristics and microbiological properties of Gouda cheese affected by different concentrations of Bunium persicum Boiss. essential oil were investigated. Extraction of the essential oil was performed by hydro distillation. The oil was analyzed by GC using flame ionization (FID) and GC/ MS for detection. The antimicrobial effects were determined against various microbial groups (aerobic mesophilic bacteria, enterococci, mesophilic lactobacilli, enterobacteriaceae, lactococcus and yeasts). Microbial groups were counted during ripening period using plate count on specific culture media. Organoleptic evaluation including teture, flavor, odor, color and total acceptability were determined at the end of aging. According to results, the essential oil yield was 4/1 % ( W/ W). Twenty- six compounds were identified in the oil that concluded 99.7 % of the total oil. The major components of Bunium persicum Boiss. essential oil were γ- terpinene- 7- al (26.9 %) and cuminaldehyde (23.3 %). Generally, the increase of Black Cumin essential oil concentration led to reduction in microbial counts in different groups. The maximum antimicrobial effect was seen in yeast that reduced by 2 log compared to the control group at EO concentration of 4µl/ ml at day 90.The minimum reduction was observed in enterobacteriaceae that showed only 0.75 log decreese compared to the control at the same concentration of EO. Addition of EO improved organoleptic properties of Gouda cheese especially in the case of flavor and odor characteristic. However, no significant differences were observed in texture and color between treatment and control groups. Bunium persicum Boiss. essential oil could be used as preservative material and flavoring agent in some kinds of food such as cheese and also could be provided consumers health.

Keywords: Bunium persicum Boiss. essential oil, Microbiological properties, sensory evaluation, gouda cheese

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1423 Comparison of Bactec plus Blood Culture Media to BacT/Alert FAN plus Blood Culture Media for Identification of Bacterial Pathogens in Clinical Samples Containing Antibiotics

Authors: Recep Kesli, Huseyin Bilgin, Ela Tasdogan, Ercan Kurtipek

Abstract:

Aim: The aim of this study was to compare resin based Bactec plus aerobic/anaerobic blood culture bottles (Becton Dickinson, MD, USA) and polymeric beads based BacT/Alert FA/FN plus blood culture bottles (bioMerieux, NC, USA) in terms of microorganisms recovery rates and time to detection (TTD) in the patients receiving antibiotic treatment. Method: Blood culture samples were taken from the patients who admitted to the intensive care unit and received antibiotic treatment. Forty milliliters of blood from patients were equally distributed into four types of bottles: Bactec Plus aerobic, Bactec Plus anaerobic, BacT/Alert FA Plus, BacT/Alert FN Plus. Bactec Plus and BacT/Alert Plus media were compared to culture recovery rates and TTD. Results: Blood culture samples were collected from 382 patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit and 245 patients who were diagnosed as having bloodstream infections were included in the study. A total of 1528 Bactec Plus aerobic, Bactec Plus anaerobic, BacT/Alert FA Plus, BacT/Alert FN Plus blood culture bottles analyzed and 176, 144, 154, 126 bacteria or fungi were isolated, respectively. Gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria were significantly more frequently isolated in the resin-based Bactec Plus bottles than in the polymeric beads based BacT/Alert Plus bottles. The Bactec Plus and BacT/Alert Plus media recovery rates were similar for fungi and anaerobic bacteria. The mean TTDs in the Bactec Plus bottles were shorter than those in the BacT/Alert Plus bottles regardless of the microorganisms. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that resin-containing media is a reliable and time-saving tool for patients who are receiving antibiotic treatment due to sepsis in the intensive care unit.

Keywords: Bactec Plus, BacT/Alert Plus, blood culture, antibiotic

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1422 The Effect of Circuit Training on Aerobic Fitness and Body Fat Percentage

Authors: Presto Tri Sambodo, Suharjana, Galih Yoga Santiko

Abstract:

Having an ideal body shape healthy body are the desire of everyone, both young and old. The purpose of this study was to determine: (1) the effect of block circuit training on aerobic fitness and body fat percentage, (2) the effect of non-block circuit training on aerobic fitness and body fat percentage, and (3) differences in the effect of exercise on block and non-circuit training block against aerobic fitness and body fat percentage. This research is an experimental research with the prestest posttest design Two groups design. The population in this study were 57 members of fat loss at GOR UNY Fitness Center. The retrieval technique uses purposive random sampling with a sample of 20 people. The instruments with rockport test (1.6 KM) and body fat percentage with a scale of bioelectrical impedance analysis omron (BIA). So it can be concluded the circuit training between block and non-block has a significant effect on aerobic fitness and body fat percentage. And for differences in the effect of circuit training between blocks and non-blocks, it is more influential on aerobic fitness than the percentage of body fat.

Keywords: circuit training, aerobic fitness, body fat percentage, healthy body

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1421 The Effects of 6-Weeks Aerobic Dance among Women

Authors: Mohd Faridz Ahmad, Muhammad Amir Asyraf Rosli

Abstract:

Aerobic dance has becoming a popular mode of exercise especially among women due to its fun nature. With a catchy music background and joyful dance steps, aerobic dancers would be able to have fun while sweating out. Depending on its level of aggressiveness, aerobic may also improve and maintain cardiorespiratory fitness other than being a great tool for weight loss. This study intends to prove that aerobic dance activity can bring the same, if not better impacts on health than other types of cardiovascular exercise such as jogging and cycling. The objective of this study was to evaluate and identify the effect of six weeks aerobic dance on cardiovascular fitness and weight loss among women. This study, which was held in Seremban Fit Challenge, used a quasi-experimental design. The subjects selected include a total of 14 women (n = 14) with age (32.4 years old ± 9.1), weight (65.93 kg ± 11.24) and height (165.36 ± 3.46) who joined the Seremban Fit Challenge Season 13. The subjects were asked to join an aerobic dance class with duration of one hour for six weeks in a row. As for the outcome, cardiovascular fitness was measured with a 1-mile run test while any changes on weight was measured using the weighing scale. The result showed that there was a significant difference between pre and post-test for cardiovascular fitness when p = 0.02 < 0.05 and weight loss when p = 0.00 < 0.05. In conclusion, a six-week long aerobic dance program would have a positive effect on cardiovascular fitness and weight. Therefore, aerobic dance may be used as an alternative tool for people who wish to lead a healthy lifestyle in a fun way.

Keywords: aerobic dance, cardiovascular fitness, weight loss, 1-mile run test

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1420 Effects of Continuous and Periodic Aerobic Exercises on C Reactive Protein in Overweight Women

Authors: Maesoomeh Khorshidi Mehr, Mohammad Sajadian, Shadi Alipour

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of eight weeks of continuous and periodic aerobic exercises on serum levels of CRP in overweight woman. 36 woman aged between 20 and 35 years from the city of Ahwaz were randomly selected as the sample of the study. This sample was further divided into three groups (n= 12) of continuous aerobic exercise, periodic aerobic exercise, and control. Subjects of the groups of continuous and periodic aerobic exercise participated in 8 weeks of specialized exercises while the control group subjects did not take part in any regular physical activity program. Blood samples were collected from subjects in 24 hours prior to and 48 hours past to the intervention period. Afterwards, the serum level of CRP was measured for each blood sample. Results showed that BMI and serum level of CRP both significantly reduced as a result of aerobic exercises. However, no statistically significant difference was recorded between the extent of effects of the former and latter aerobic exercise types. Eight weeks of aerobic exercise will probably result in reduced inflammation and cardiovascular diseases risk in overweight women. The reason for lack of difference between effects of continuous and periodic aerobic exercise may lie in the similarity of average intensity and length of physical administered activities.

Keywords: heart diseases, aerobic exercise, inflammation, CRP, overweight

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1419 Efficacy of Carvacrol as an Antimicrobial Wash Treatment for Reducing Both Campylobacter jejuni and Aerobic Bacterial Counts on Chicken Skin

Authors: Sandip Shrestha, Ann M. Donoghue, Komala Arsi, Basanta R. Wagle, Abhinav Upadhyay, Dan J. Donoghue

Abstract:

Campylobacter, one of the major cause of foodborne illness worldwide, is commonly present in the intestinal tract of poultry. Many strategies are currently being investigated to reduce Campylobacter counts on commercial poultry during processing with limited success. This study investigated the efficacy of the generally recognized as safe compound, carvacrol (CR), a component of wild oregano oil as a wash treatment for reducing C. jejuni and aerobic bacteria on chicken skin. A total of two trials were conducted, and in each trial, a total of 75 skin samples (4cm × 4cm each) were randomly allocated into 5 treatment groups (0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% CR). Skin samples were inoculated with a cocktail of four wild strains of C. jejuni (~ 8 log10 CFU/skin). After 30 min of attachment, inoculated skin samples were dipped in the respective treatment solution for 1 min, allowed to drip dry for 2 min and processed at 0, 8, 24 h post treatment for enumeration of C. jejuni and aerobic bacterial counts (n=5/treatment/time point). The data were analyzed by ANOVA using PROC GLM procedure of SAS 9.3. All the tested doses of CR suspension consistently reduced C. jejuni counts across all time points. The 2% CR wash was the most effective treatment and reduced C. jejuni counts by ~4 log₁₀ CFU/sample (P < 0.05). Aerobic counts were reduced for the 0.5% CR dose at 0 and 24h in Trial 1 and at 0, 8 and 24h in Trial 2. The 1 and 2% CR doses consistently reduced aerobic counts in both trials up to 2 log₁₀ CFU/skin.

Keywords: Campylobacter jejuni, carvcrol, chicken skin, postharvest

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1418 Selection Effects on the Molecular and Abiotic Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance

Authors: Abishek Rajkumar

Abstract:

Antibiotic resistance can occur naturally given the selective pressure placed on antibiotics. Within a large population of bacteria, there is a significant chance that some of those bacteria can develop resistance via mutations or genetic recombination. However, a growing public health concern has arisen over the fact that antibiotic resistance has increased significantly over the past few decades. This is because humans have been over-consuming and producing antibiotics, which has ultimately accelerated the antibiotic resistance seen in these bacteria. The product of all of this is an ongoing race between scientists and the bacteria as bacteria continue to develop resistance, which creates even more demand for an antibiotic that can still terminate the newly resistant strain of bacteria. This paper will focus on a myriad of aspects of antibiotic resistance in bacteria starting with how it occurs on a molecular level and then focusing on the antibiotic concentrations and how they affect the resistance and fitness seen in bacteria.

Keywords: antibiotic, molecular, mutation, resistance

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1417 Depyritization of US Coal Using Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria: Batch Stirred Reactor Study

Authors: Ashish Pathak, Dong-Jin Kim, Haragobinda Srichandan, Byoung-Gon Kim

Abstract:

Microbial depyritization of coal using chemoautotrophic bacteria is gaining acceptance as an efficient and eco-friendly technique. The process uses the metabolic activity of chemoautotrophic bacteria in removing sulfur and pyrite from the coal. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in removing the pyritic sulfur and iron from high iron and sulfur containing US coal. The experiment was undertaken in 8 L bench scale stirred tank reactor having 1% (w/v) pulp density of coal. The reactor was operated at 35ºC and aerobic conditions were maintained by sparging the air into the reactor. It was found that at the end of bio-depyritization process, about 90% of pyrite and 67% of pyritic sulfur was removed from the coal. The results indicate that the bio-depyritization process is an efficient process in treating the high pyrite and sulfur containing coal.

Keywords: At.ferrooxidans, batch reactor, coal desulfurization, pyrite

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1416 Potassium Fertilization Improves Rice Yield in Aerobic Production System by Decreasing Panicle Sterility

Authors: Abdul Wakeel, Hafeez Ur Rehman, Muhammad Umair Mubarak

Abstract:

Rice is the second most important staple food in Pakistan after wheat. It is not only a healthy food for the people of all age groups but also a source of foreign exchange for Pakistan. Instead of bright history for Basmati rice production, we are suffering from multiple problems reducing yield and quality as well. Rice lodging and water shortage for an-aerobic rice production system is among major glitches of it. Due to water shortage an-aerobic rice production system has to be supplemented or replaced by aerobic rice system. Aerobic rice system has been adopted for production of non-basmati rice in many parts of the world. Also for basmati rice, significant efforts have been made for aerobic rice production, however still has to be improved for effective recommendations. Among two major issues for aerobic rice, weed elimination has been solved to great extent by introducing suitable herbicides, however, low yield production due weak grains and panicle sterility is still elusive. It has been reported that potassium (K) has significant role to decrease panicle sterility in cereals. Potassium deficiency is obvious for rice under aerobic rice production system due to lack of K gradient coming with irrigation water and lowered indigenous K release from soils. Therefore it was hypothesized that K application under aerobic rice production system may improve the rice yield by decreasing panicle sterility. Results from pot and field experiments confirm that application of K fertilizer significantly increased the rice grain yield due to decreased panicle sterility and improving grain health. The quality of rice was also improved by K fertilization.

Keywords: DSR, Basmati rice, aerobic, potassium

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1415 Acylated Ghrelin in Response to Aerobic Training Induced Weight Loss in Obese Men

Authors: Masoumeh Hosseini

Abstract:

Obesity is known to be associated with cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to assess the effect of a long term aerobic training program on serum ghrelin in obese men. For this purpose, twenty four sedentary adult obese men aged 30-40 years and body mass index 30-36 kg/m2 were participated in this study and divided randomly into exercise (3 months aerobic training, 3 times/weekly) or control (no training) groups. Serum ghrelin and cardiovascular risk factor (TG, TC, LDL, and HDL) were measured before and after treatment. Anthropometrical markers were measured at two occasions. Data were analyzed by independent-paired T-test. Significance was accepted at P < 0.05. Aerobic training resulted in significant decrease in serum ghrelin and TG in exercise group. All anthropometrical markers decreased significantly in exercise group but not in control subjects. Based on these data, it is concluded that weight loss by aerobic training can be affect serum ghrelin in obese subject, although some cardiovascular risk factor remained without changed.

Keywords: aerobic training, homeostasis, lipid profile, obesity

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1414 Desulfurization of Crude Oil Using Bacteria

Authors: Namratha Pai, K. Vasantharaj, K. Haribabu

Abstract:

Our Team is developing an innovative cost effective biological technique to desulfurize crude oil. ’Sulphur’ is found to be present in crude oil samples from .05% - 13.95% and its elimination by industrial methods is expensive currently. Materials required :- Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestrius, potato dextrose agar, oxygen, Pyragallol and inert gas(nitrogen). Method adapted and proposed:- 1) Growth of bacteria studied, energy needs. 2) Compatibility with crude-oil. 3) Reaction rate of bacteria studied and optimized. 4) Reaction development by computer simulation. 5) Simulated work tested by building the reactor. The method being developed requires the use of bacteria Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestrius - an acidothermophilic heterotrophic, soil dwelling aerobic, Sulfur bacteria. The bacteria are fed to crude oil in a unique manner. Its coated onto potato dextrose agar beads, cultured for 24 hours (growth time coincides with time when it begins reacting) and fed into the reactor. The beads are to be replenished with O2 by passing them through a jacket around the reactor which has O2 supply. The O2 can’t be supplied directly as crude oil is inflammable, hence the process. Beads are made to move around based on the concept of fluidized bed reactor. By controlling the velocity of inert gas pumped , the beads are made to settle down when exhausted of O2. It is recycled through the jacket where O2 is re-fed and beads which were inside the ring substitute the exhausted ones. Crude-oil is maintained between 1 atm-270 M Pa pressure and 45°C treated with tartaric acid (Ph reason for bacteria growth) for optimum output. Bacteria being of oxidising type react with Sulphur in crude-oil and liberate out SO4^2- and no gas. SO4^2- is absorbed into H2O. NaOH is fed once reaction is complete and beads separated. Crude-oil is thus separated of SO4^2-, thereby Sulphur, tartaric acid and other acids which are separated out. Bio-corrosion is taken care of by internal wall painting (phenolepoxy paints). Earlier methods used included use of Pseudomonas and Rhodococcus species. They were found to be inefficient, time and energy consuming and reduce the fuel value as they fed on skeleton.

Keywords: alicyclobacillus acidoterrestrius, potato dextrose agar, fluidized bed reactor principle, reaction time for bacteria, compatibility with crude oil

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1413 Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Different Dithiolethiones

Authors: Zehour Rahmani, Messouda Dekmouche, Mohamed Hadjadj, Mokhtar Saidi

Abstract:

In the last decades of the nineteenth century, the study of disease – causing microorganisms became concentrated on bacteria and largely institutionalized. In earlier years, the scientists interested in bacteria had originally been chemists like Pasteur, physicists like Tyndall, or botanists like Cohn and ward. For this reason, the objective of this research was to evaluate the potential of some dithiolethiones on standard microorganism strains as well as multi-drug resistant bacteria, which were isolated from hospitals. Recent studies have demonstrated, that several dithiolethione compounds, particularly (3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione), exhibit the biological activities against several bacteria.

Keywords: bacteria, dithiolethiones, microorganism, potential

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1412 Spectrum of Bacteria Causing Oral and Maxillofacial Infections and Their Antibiotic Susceptibility among Patients Attending Muhimbili National Hospital

Authors: Sima E. Rugarabamu, Mecky I. Matee, Elison N. M. Simon

Abstract:

Background: In Tanzania bacteriological studies of etiological agents of oro-facial infections are very limited, and very few have investigated anaerobes. The aim of this study was to determine the spectrum of bacterial agents involved in oral and maxillofacial infections in patients attending Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar-es-salaam, Tanzania. Method: This was a hospital based descriptive cross-sectional study that was conducted in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania from 1st January 2014 to 31st August 2014. Seventy (70) patients with various forms of oral and maxillofacial infections who were recruited for the study. The study participants were interviewed using a prepared questionnaire after getting their consent. Pus aspirate was cultured on Blood agar, Chocolate Agar, MacConkey agar and incubated aerobically at 37°C. Imported blood agar was used for anaerobic culture whereby they were incubated at 37°Cin anaerobic jars in an atmosphere of generated using commercial gas-generating kits in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions. Plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours (For aerobic culture and 48 hours for anaerobic cultures). Gram negative rods were identified using API 20E while all other isolates were identified by conventional biochemical tests. Antibiotic sensitivity testing for isolated aerobic and anaerobic bacteria was detected by the disk diffusion, agar dilution and E-test using routine and commercially available antibiotics used to treat oral facial infections. Results: This study comprised of 41 (58.5%) males and 29 (41.5%) females with a mean age of 32 years SD +/-15.1 and a range of 19 to 70 years. A total of 161 bacteria strains were isolated from specimens obtained from 70 patients which were an average of 2.3 isolates per patient. Of these 103 were aerobic organism and 58 were strict anaerobes. A complex mix of strict anaerobes and facultative anaerobes accounted for 87% of all infections.The most frequent aerobes isolated was streptococcus spp 70 (70%) followed by Staphylococcus spp 18 (18%). Other organisms such as Klebsiella spp 4 (4%), Proteus spp 5 (5%) and Pseudomonas spp 2 (2%) were also seen. The anaerobic group was dominated by Prevotella spp 25 (43%) followed by Peptostreptococcus spp 18 (31%); other isolates were Pseudomonas spp 2 (1%), black pigmented Pophyromonas spp 4 (5%), Fusobacterium spp 3 (3%) and Bacteroides spp 5 (8%). Majority of these organisms were sensitive to Amoxicillin (98%), Gentamycin (89%), and Ciprofloxacin (100%). A 40% resistance to metronidazole was observed in Bacteroides spp otherwise this drug and others displayed good activity against anaerobes. Conclusions: Oral and maxillofacial facial infections at Muhimbili National Hospital are mostly caused by streptococcus spp and Prevotella spp. Strict anaerobes accounted for 36% of all isolates. The profile of isolates should assist in selecting empiric therapy for infections of the oral and maxillofacial region. Inclusion of antimicrobial agents against anaerobic bacteria is highly recommended.

Keywords: bacteria, oral and maxillofacial infections, antibiotic susceptibility, Tanzania

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1411 Application of Active Chitosan Coating Incorporated with Spirulina Extract as a Potential Food Packaging Material for Enhancing Quality and Shelf Life of Shrimp

Authors: Rafik Balti, Nourhene Zayoud, Mohamed Ben Mansour, Abdellah Arhaliass, Anthony Masse

Abstract:

Application of edible films and coatings with natural active compounds for enhancing storage stability of food products is a promising active packaging approach. Shrimp are generally known as valuable seafood products around the world because of their delicacy and good nutritional. However, shrimp is highly vulnerable to quality deterioration associated with biochemical, microbiological or physical changes during postmortem storage, which results in the limited shelf life of the product. Chitosan is considered as a functional packaging component for maintaining the quality and increasing the shelf life of perishable foods. The present study was conducted to evaluate edible coating of crab chitosan containing variable levels of ethanolic extract of Spirulina on microbiological (mesophilic aerobic, psychrotrophic, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteriacea), chemical (pH, TVB-N, TMA-N, PV, TBARS) and sensory (odor, color, texture, taste, and overall acceptance) properties of shrimp during refrigerated storage. Also, textural and color characteristics of coated shrimp were performed. According to the obtained results, crab chitosan in combination with Spirulina extract was very effective in order to extend the shelf life of shrimp during storage in refrigerated condition.

Keywords: food packaging, chitosan, spirulina extract, white shrimp, shelf life

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
1410 Degradation of Commercial Polychlorinated Biphenyl Mixture by Naturally Occurring Facultative Microorganisms via Anaerobic Dechlorination and Aerobic Oxidation

Authors: P. M. G. Pathiraja, P. Egodawatta, A. Goonetilleke, V. S. J. Te'o

Abstract:

The production and use of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a group of synthetic halogenated hydrocarbons have been restricted worldwide due to its toxicity and categorized as one of the twelve priority persistent organic pollutants (POP) by the Stockholm Convention. Low reactivity and high chemical stability of PCBs have made them highly persistent in the environment and bio-concentration and bio-magnification along the food chain contribute to multiple health impacts in humans and animals. Remediating environments contaminated with PCBs is a challenging task for decades. Use of microorganisms for remediation of PCB contaminated soils and sediments have been widely investigated due to the potential of breakdown these complex contaminants with minimum environmental impacts. To achieve an effective bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminated environments, microbes were sourced from environmental samples and tested for their ability to hydrolyze PCBs under different conditions. Comparison of PCB degradation efficiencies of four naturally occurring facultative bacterial cultures isolated through selective enrichment under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were simultaneously investigated in minimal salt medium using 50 mg/L Aroclor 1260, a commonly used commercial PCB mixture as the sole source of carbon. The results of a six-week study demonstrated that all the tested facultative Achromobacter, Ochrobactrum, Lysinibacillus and Pseudomonas strains are capable of degrading PCBs under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions while assisting hydrophobic PCBs to make solubilize in the aqueous minimal medium. Overall, the results suggest that some facultative bacteria are capable of effective in degrading PCBs under anaerobic conditions through reductive dechlorination and under aerobic conditions through oxidation. Therefore, use of suitable facultative microorganisms under combined anaerobic-aerobic conditions and combination of such strains capable of solubilization and breakdown of PCBs has high potential in achieving higher PCB removal rates.

Keywords: bioremediation, combined anaerobic-aerobic degradation, facultative microorganisms, polychlorinated biphenyls

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
1409 Effect of Eight Weeks Aerobic Training with Purslane Seeds on Peroxidant and Antioxidants Indicators in Women with Type2 Diabetes

Authors: Shima Dehghan

Abstract:

Aim: imbalance between antioxidant defensive system and increasing production of free radicals caused oxidative stress that can be rolled in cellular damage and occurring some of diseases such as diabetes. The aim of current study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks aerobic training on peroxidant and antioxidants indicators in women with type2 diabetes. Methodology: thirty two inactive women with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned into four groups: 1. control, 2. Aerobic training, 3. Purslane seed and 4. Aerobic training + Purslane seed groups. Subjects were asked to accomplish eight weeks aerobic training (50 min aerobic exercise, 3 days/week, for to achieve 65-75% maximum of heart rate). Also, subjects in certain groups received purslane seeds for eight weeks. Blood samples were obtained in two sets (one session and after 8 weeks). Data was analyzed using one way ANOVA. A significant difference was accepted at p < 0/05 level. Results: After eight weeks of aerobic training with purslane seeds supplementation, malon dyaldehyde (MDA) concentration in training group were significantly decreased (p < 0/000), but A difference significant was not found in control group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) concentrations in training group were significantly increased (p < 0/000), while difference significant wasnot found in control group. Conclusion: The finding of the current study indicates that disciplined aerobic training with purslane seeds supplementation can be caused improvement in peroxidant/antioxidant balance in women with type2 diabetes.

Keywords: aerobic training, purslane seed, peroxidant/antioxidant balance, diabetes2

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1408 Aerobic Capacity Outcomes after an Aerobic Exercise Program with an Upper Body Ergometer in Diabetic Amputees

Authors: Cecilia Estela Jiménez Pérez Campos

Abstract:

Introduction: Amputation comes from a series of complications in diabetic persons; at that point, of the illness evolution they have a deplored aerobic capacity. Adding to that, cardiac rehabs programs are almost base in several activities in a standing position. The cardiac rehabilitation programs have to improve for them, based on scientific advice. Objective: Evaluation of aerobic capacity of diabetic amputee after an aerobic exercise program, with upper limb ergometer. Methodology: The design is longitudinal, prospective, comparative and no randomized. We include all diabetic pelvic limb amputees, who assist to the cardiac rehabilitation. We made 2 groups: an experimental and a control group. The patients did the exercise testing, with the author’s design protocol. The experimental group completed 24 exercise sessions (3 sessions/week), with an intensity determined with the training heart rate. At the end of 8 weeks period, the subjects did a second exercise test. Results: Both groups were a homogeneous sample in age (experimental n=15) 57.6+12.5 years old and (control n=8) 52.5+8.0 years old, sex, occupation, education and economic features. (square chi) (p=0.28). The initial aerobic capacity was similar in both groups. And the aerobic capacity accomplishes after the program was statistically greater in the experimental group than in the control one. The final media VO2peak (mlO2/kg/min) was experimental (17.1+3.8), control (10.5+3.8), p=0.001. (t student). Conclusions: The aerobic capacity improved after an arm ergometer exercise program and the quality of life improve too, in diabetic amputees. So this program is fundamental in diabetic amputee’s rehabilitation management.

Keywords: aerobic fitness, metabolic equivalent (MET), oxygen output, upper limb ergometer

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1407 Effect of Saffron Extract and Aerobic Exercises on Troponin T and Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein in Men with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Ahmad Abdi, M. Golzadeh Gangeraj, Alireza Barari, S. Shirali, S. Amini

Abstract:

Aims: Diabetes is one of the common metabolic diseases in the world that has the dire adverse effects such as nephropathy, retinopathy and cardiovascular problems. Pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical strategies for control and treatment of diabetes are provided. Exercise and nutrition as non-drug strategies for the prevention and control of diabetes are considered. Exercises may increase oxidative stress and myocardium injury, thus it is necessary to take nutrition strategies to help diabetic athletes. Methods: This study was a semi-experimental research. Therefore, 24 men with type 2 diabetes were selected and randomly divided in four groups (1. control, 2. saffron extract, 3. aerobic exercises, 4. compound aerobic exercises and saffron extract). Saffron extract with 100 mg/day was used. Aerobic exercises, three days a week, for eight weeks, with 55-70% of maximum heart rate were performed. At the end, levels of Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (HFABP) and Troponin T were measured. Data were analyzed by Paired t, One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: The serum Troponin T increased significantly in saffron extract, aerobic exercises and compound saffron extract -aerobic exercises in type 2 diabetic men(P=0.024, P =0.013, P=0.005 respectively). Saffron extract consumption (100 mg/day) and aerobic exercises did not significantly influence the serum HFABP (P =0.365, P =0.188 respectively). But serum HFABP decreased significantly in compound saffron extract -aerobic exercises group (P =0.003). Conclusions: Raised cardiac Troponin T and HFABP concentration accepted as the standard biochemical markers for the diagnosis of cardiac injury. Saffron intake may beneficially protect the myocardium from injuries. Compound saffron extract -aerobic exercises can decrease levels of Troponin T and HFABP in men with type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: Saffron, aerobic exercises, type 2 diabetes, HFABP, troponin T

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
1406 Microbial and SARS-CoV-2 Efficiency Analysis of Froumann HEPA Filter Air Cleaner Brand

Authors: Serap Gedikli, Hakan Çakmak, M. Buğra Güldiken, Duygu Yalnızoğlu

Abstract:

Air, which is necessary for living things to survive; while it carries some useful substances in it, it can also carry foreign particles of different sizes that may be harmful to the health. All airborne organic substances of biological origin, including bacteria, fungi, fungal spores, viruses, pollen, and their components, are called "bioaerosols". Nowadays, everyone spends most of their time in closed areas such as home, workplace, school, etc. Although it is known that outdoor air pollution affects health, it is not known that indoor air pollution has harmful effects in terms of health. In this study, indoor air microbial load and SARS-CoV-2 virus cleaning efficiency of Froumann brand air cleaners were studied. This work in 300 m³, 600 m³, and 1000 m³ completely closed areas without any air circulation with Froumann N80, N90, and N100 air-cleaning devices. Analyzes were performed for both areas at 60 minutes before and after the device was operated using a particle measuring device (Particles Plus 7302) and an air sampler (Mas-100 ECO). The measurements were taken by placing the test equipment 1.5-2 m away from the air cleaner. At the same time, the efficiency of the HEPA filter was evaluated by taking samples from the air outlet point of the HEPA filter using the air sampling device (Mas-100 ECO) after the device was started. Nutrient agar and malt agar are used as total mesophilic bacteria and total fungi. The number of colony-forming units per m³ (cfu/m³) was calculated by counting colonies in Petri dishes after incubation for 48 hours at 37°C for bacteria and 72 hours at 30°C for fungi. The change in the number of colonies and the decrease in the microbial load was calculated as a percentage value. SARS-CoV-2 activity analysis studies were carried out by İnönü University Microbiology Department in accordance with the World Health Organization regulations. Finally, the HEPA filter in the devices used was taken and kept under a certain temperature and humidity, and the change in the microbial load on it was monitored over a 6-month period. At the end of the studies, a 91%-94% reduction was determined in the total mesophilic bacteria count of Frouman brand N80, N90, and N100 model air cleaners. A decrease of 94%-96% was detected in the total number of yeast/molds. HEPA filter efficiency was evaluated, and at the end of the analysis, 98% of the bacterial load and approximately 100% of yeast/mold load at the HEPA filter air outlet point were decreased. According to the SARS- CoV-2 analysis results, when the device is operating at the medium airflow level 3, it can filter virus-carrying aerosols by 99%. As a result, it was determined that the Froumann model air cleaner was effective in controlling and reducing the microbial load in the indoor air.

Keywords: HEPA filter, indoor air quality, microbial load, SARS-CoV-2

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1405 Systolic Blood Pressure Responses to Aerobic Exercise among HIV Positive Patients

Authors: Ka'abu Mu'azu

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The study examines the effect of varied intensities of aerobic exercise on Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) among HIV/AIDS positive patients. Participants of mean age of 20.4 years were randomized into four groups. High Intensity Group (HIG), Moderate Intensity Group (MIG), Low Intensity Group (LIG) and Control Group (COG). SBP was measured at baseline (pre-exercise) and post-exercise (8 weeks). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicates a significant training effect on resting values of SBP (F [3, 15] = 8.9, P < 0.05). Sheffe post hoc analysis indicated that both HIG and MIG significantly differ from control (P < 0.05). Dependent t- test indicates difference in HIG (t [7] = 6.5, P < 0.05) and slightly in MIG (t [7] = 5.4, P < 0.05). The study concluded that aerobic exercise is effective in reducing resting values of SBP particularly the activities that are high intensity in nature. The study recommends that high and moderate intensity aerobic exercise should be used for improving health condition of HIV/AIDS patients as regard to decrease in resting value of SBP.

Keywords: systolic blood pressure, aerobic exercise, HIV patients, health sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
1404 Low Term Aerobic Training Is Not Associated with Anti-Inflammatory in Obese Women

Authors: Zohreh Afsharmand, Sokhanguei Yahya

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A growing body of literature suggests that that low-grade systemic inflammation associated to obesity plays a key role in the pathogenic mechanism of several disorders. In this study, the effect of 6 weeks aerobic training on IL-6 and IL-1B as inflammatory cytokine were investigated in adult obese women. For this purpose, 26 sedentary adult obese women were divided into exercise and control groups (n=12). Pre and post training of mentioned cytokines were measured in two groups. Student’s t-tests for paired samples were performed to determine whether there were significant within-group changes in the outcomes. A p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences between the exercise and control groups with regard to anthropometrical markers or inflammatory cytokines. Despite the significant decrease in all anthropometrical markers, no significant differences were found in serum IL-6 and IL-1B by aerobic training with compared to baseline. Our findings indicate that aerobic training intervention for a short time is not associated with the anti-inflammatory property in obese women.

Keywords: aerobic training, cytokine, inflammation, obesity

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
1403 Serum Cortisol and Osteocalsin in Response to Eight Weeks Aerobic Training in Asthma Men with Mild to Moderate Intensity

Authors: Eizadi Mojtaba

Abstract:

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of 8 weeks aerobic training on serum osteocalsin as an osteoblasts hormone and cortisol in adult men with asthma. For this purpose, twenty four non-trained adult men with mild to moderate asthma were participated in study voluntarily and divided into exercise (aerobic training, 8 weeks/3 times per week) and control groups by randomly. Pre and post training of serum osteocalsin and cortisol were measured of two groups. Student’s paired ‘t’ test was applied to compare the pre and post training values. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to all anthropometrical and biochemical markers between the exercise and control groups at baseline ( P > 0.05 ). Exercise training resulted in a significant increase in serum osteocalsin and decrease in cortisol ( P > 0.05 ), but not in control group. Based on these data, we concluded that aerobic training can be improved Processes of bone formation in asthma patients.

Keywords: osteoblasts, asthma, aerobic exercise, sedentary

Procedia PDF Downloads 216