Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 460

Search results for: texture

460 Texture and Twinning in Selective Laser Melting Ti-6Al-4V Alloys

Authors: N. Kazantseva, P. Krakhmalev, I. Yadroitsev, A. Fefelov, N. Vinogradova, I. Ezhov, T. Kurennykh


Martensitic texture-phase transition in Selective Laser Melting (SLM) Ti-6Al-4V (ELI) alloys was found. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) analysis showed the initial cubic beta < 100 > (001) BCC texture. Such kind of texture is observed in BCC metals with flat rolling texture when axis is in the direction of rolling and the texture plane coincides with the plane of rolling. It was found that the texture of the parent BCC beta-phase determined the texture of low-temperature HCP alpha-phase limited the choice of its orientation variants. The {10-12} < -1011 > twinning system in titanium alloys after SLM was determined. Analysis of the oxygen contamination in SLM alloys was done. Comparison of the obtained results with the conventional titanium alloys is also provided.

Keywords: additive technology, texture, twins, Ti-6Al-4V, oxygen content

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
459 Evaluation of Robust Feature Descriptors for Texture Classification

Authors: Jia-Hong Lee, Mei-Yi Wu, Hsien-Tsung Kuo


Texture is an important characteristic in real and synthetic scenes. Texture analysis plays a critical role in inspecting surfaces and provides important techniques in a variety of applications. Although several descriptors have been presented to extract texture features, the development of object recognition is still a difficult task due to the complex aspects of texture. Recently, many robust and scaling-invariant image features such as SIFT, SURF and ORB have been successfully used in image retrieval and object recognition. In this paper, we have tried to compare the performance for texture classification using these feature descriptors with k-means clustering. Different classifiers including K-NN, Naive Bayes, Back Propagation Neural Network , Decision Tree and Kstar were applied in three texture image sets - UIUCTex, KTH-TIPS and Brodatz, respectively. Experimental results reveal SIFTS as the best average accuracy rate holder in UIUCTex, KTH-TIPS and SURF is advantaged in Brodatz texture set. BP neuro network works best in the test set classification among all used classifiers.

Keywords: texture classification, texture descriptor, SIFT, SURF, ORB

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
458 Review on Effective Texture Classification Techniques

Authors: Sujata S. Kulkarni


Effective and efficient texture feature extraction and classification is an important problem in image understanding and recognition. This paper gives a review on effective texture classification method. The objective of the problem of texture representation is to reduce the amount of raw data presented by the image, while preserving the information needed for the task. Texture analysis is important in many applications of computer image analysis for classification include industrial and biomedical surface inspection, for example for defects and disease, ground classification of satellite or aerial imagery and content-based access to image databases.

Keywords: compressed sensing, feature extraction, image classification, texture analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
457 Automatic Moment-Based Texture Segmentation

Authors: Tudor Barbu


An automatic moment-based texture segmentation approach is proposed in this paper. First, we describe the related work in this computer vision domain. Our texture feature extraction, the first part of the texture recognition process, produces a set of moment-based feature vectors. For each image pixel, a texture feature vector is computed as a sequence of area moments. Second, an automatic pixel classification approach is proposed. The feature vectors are clustered using some unsupervised classification algorithm, the optimal number of clusters being determined using a measure based on validation indexes. From the resulted pixel classes one determines easily the desired texture regions of the image.

Keywords: image segmentation, moment-based, texture analysis, automatic classification, validation indexes

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
456 Computer Aided Classification of Architectural Distortion in Mammograms Using Texture Features

Authors: Birmohan Singh, V.K.Jain


Computer aided diagnosis systems provide vital opinion to radiologists in the detection of early signs of breast cancer from mammogram images. Masses and microcalcifications, architectural distortions are the major abnormalities. In this paper, a computer aided diagnosis system has been proposed for distinguishing abnormal mammograms with architectural distortion from normal mammogram. Four types of texture features GLCM texture, GLRLM texture, fractal texture and spectral texture features for the regions of suspicion are extracted. Support Vector Machine has been used as classifier in this study. The proposed system yielded an overall sensitivity of 96.47% and accuracy of 96% for the detection of abnormalities with mammogram images collected from Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) database.

Keywords: architecture distortion, mammograms, GLCM texture features, GLRLM texture features, support vector machine classifier

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
455 A Neural Approach for Color-Textured Images Segmentation

Authors: Khalid Salhi, El Miloud Jaara, Mohammed Talibi Alaoui


In this paper, we present a neural approach for unsupervised natural color-texture image segmentation, which is based on both Kohonen maps and mathematical morphology, using a combination of the texture and the image color information of the image, namely, the fractal features based on fractal dimension are selected to present the information texture, and the color features presented in RGB color space. These features are then used to train the network Kohonen, which will be represented by the underlying probability density function, the segmentation of this map is made by morphological watershed transformation. The performance of our color-texture segmentation approach is compared first, to color-based methods or texture-based methods only, and then to k-means method.

Keywords: segmentation, color-texture, neural networks, fractal, watershed

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
454 Effect of Different Contact Rollers on the Surface Texture during the Belt Grinding Process

Authors: Amine Hamdi, Sidi Mohammed Merghache, Brahim Fernini


During abrasive machining of hard steels by belt grinding, the finished surface texture is influenced by the pressure between the abrasive belt and the workpiece; this pressure is the force applied by the contact roller on the workpiece. Therefore, the contact roller has an important role and has a direct impact on process efficiency. The objective of this article is to study and compare the influence of different contact rollers on the belt ground surface texture. The quality of the surface texture is characterized by eight roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, Rp, Rv, Rsk, Rku, Rsm, and Rdq) and five parameters of the bearing area curve (Rpk, Rk, Rvk, Mr1, and Mr2). The results of the experimental tests indicate a better surface texture obtained by the PA 6 polyamide roller (hardness 60 Shore D) compared to that obtained with other rollers of the same hardness or of different hardness. Simultaneously, optimum medium pressure between the belt and the workpiece allows chip removal without fracturing the abrasive grains. This generates a good surface texture.

Keywords: belt grinding, contact roller, pressure, abrasive belt, surface texture

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453 Texture Identification Using Vision System: A Method to Predict Functionality of a Component

Authors: Varsha Singh, Shraddha Prajapati, M. B. Kiran


Texture identification is useful in predicting the functionality of a component. Many of the existing texture identification methods are of contact in nature, which limits its measuring speed. These contact measurement techniques use a diamond stylus and the diamond stylus being sharp going to damage the surface under inspection and hence these techniques can be used in statistical sampling. Though these contact methods are very accurate, they do not give complete information for full characterization of surface. In this context, the presented method assumes special significance. The method uses a relatively low cost vision system for image acquisition. Software is developed based on wavelet transform, for analyzing texture images. Specimens are made using different manufacturing process (shaping, grinding, milling etc.) During experimentation, the specimens are illuminated using proper lighting and texture images a capture using CCD camera connected to the vision system. The software installed in the vision system processes these images and subsequently identify the texture of manufacturing processes.

Keywords: diamond stylus, manufacturing process, texture identification, vision system

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
452 A Biologically Inspired Approach to Automatic Classification of Textile Fabric Prints Based On Both Texture and Colour Information

Authors: Babar Khan, Wang Zhijie


Machine Vision has been playing a significant role in Industrial Automation, to imitate the wide variety of human functions, providing improved safety, reduced labour cost, the elimination of human error and/or subjective judgments, and the creation of timely statistical product data. Despite the intensive research, there have not been any attempts to classify fabric prints based on printed texture and colour, most of the researches so far encompasses only black and white or grey scale images. We proposed a biologically inspired processing architecture to classify fabrics w.r.t. the fabric print texture and colour. We created a texture descriptor based on the HMAX model for machine vision, and incorporated colour descriptor based on opponent colour channels simulating the single opponent and double opponent neuronal function of the brain. We found that our algorithm not only outperformed the original HMAX algorithm on classification of fabric print texture and colour, but we also achieved a recognition accuracy of 85-100% on different colour and different texture fabric.

Keywords: automatic classification, texture descriptor, colour descriptor, opponent colour channel

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
451 Muscle: The Tactile Texture Designed for the Blind

Authors: Chantana Insra


The research objective focuses on creating a prototype media of the tactile texture of muscles for educational institutes to help visually impaired students learn massage extra learning materials further than the ordinary curriculum. This media is designed as an extra learning material. The population in this study was 30 blinded students between 4th - 6th grades who were able to read Braille language. The research was conducted during the second semester in 2012 at The Bangkok School for the Blind. The method in choosing the population in the study was purposive sampling. The methodology of the research includes collecting data related to visually impaired people, the production of the tactile texture media, human anatomy and Thai traditional massage from literature reviews and field studies. This information was used for analyzing and designing 14 tactile texture pictures presented to experts to evaluate and test the media.

Keywords: blind, tactile texture, muscle, visual arts and design

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
450 Effect of Depth on Texture Features of Ultrasound Images

Authors: M. A. Alqahtani, D. P. Coleman, N. D. Pugh, L. D. M. Nokes


In diagnostic ultrasound, the echo graphic B-scan texture is an important area of investigation since it can be analyzed to characterize the histological state of internal tissues. An important factor requiring consideration when evaluating ultrasonic tissue texture is the depth. The effect of attenuation with depth of ultrasound, the size of the region of interest, gain, and dynamic range are important variables to consider as they can influence the analysis of texture features. These sources of variability have to be considered carefully when evaluating image texture as different settings might influence the resultant image. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of depth on the texture features in-vivo using a 3D ultrasound probe. The left leg medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle of 10 healthy subjects were scanned. Two regions A and B were defined at different depth within the gastrocnemius muscle boundary. The size of both ROI’s was 280*20 pixels and the distance between region A and B was kept constant at 5 mm. Texture parameters include gray level, variance, skewness, kurtosis, co-occurrence matrix; run length matrix, gradient, autoregressive (AR) model and wavelet transform were extracted from the images. The paired t –test was used to test the depth effect for the normally distributed data and the Wilcoxon–Mann-Whitney test was used for the non-normally distributed data. The gray level, variance, and run length matrix were significantly lowered when the depth increased. The other texture parameters showed similar values at different depth. All the texture parameters showed no significant difference between depths A and B (p > 0.05) except for gray level, variance and run length matrix (p < 0.05). This indicates that gray level, variance, and run length matrix are depth dependent.

Keywords: ultrasound image, texture parameters, computational biology, biomedical engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
449 Characterization of Pure Nickel Coatings Fabricated under Pulse Current Conditions

Authors: M. Sajjadnejad, H. Omidvar, M. Javanbakht, A. Mozafari


Pure nickel coatings have been successfully electrodeposited on copper substrates by the pulse plating technique. The influence of current density, duty cycle and pulse frequency on the surface morphology, crystal orientation, and microhardness was determined. It was found that the crystallite size of the deposit increases with increasing current density and duty cycle. The crystal orientation progressively changed from a random texture at 1 A/dm2 to (200) texture at 10 A/dm2. Increasing pulse frequency resulted in increased texture coefficient and peak intensity of (111) reflection. An increase in duty cycle resulted in considerable increase in texture coefficient and peak intensity of (311) reflection. Coatings obtained at high current densities and duty cycles present a mixed morphology of small and large grains. Maximum microhardness of 193 Hv was achieved at 4 A/dm2, 10 Hz and duty cycle of 50%. Nickel coatings with (200) texture are ductile while (111) texture improves the microhardness of the coatings.

Keywords: current density, duty cycle, microstructure, nickel, pulse frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
448 Effect of Heat Treatment on Columnar Grain Growth and Goss Texture on Surface in Grain-Oriented Electrical Steels

Authors: Jungkyun Na, Jaesang Lee, Yang Mo Koo


In this study to find a replacement for expensive secondary recrystallization in GO electrical steel production, effect of heat treatment on the formation of columnar grain and Goss texture is investigated. The composition of the sample is Fe-2.0Si-0.2C. This process involves repeating of cold rolling and decarburization as a replacement for secondary recrystallization. By cold-rolling shear band is made and Goss grain grows from shear band by decarburization. By doing another cold rolling, some Goss texture is newly formed from the shear band, and some Goss texture is retained in microbands. To determine whether additional heat treatment with H2 atmosphere is needed on decarburization process for growth of Goss texture, comparing between decarburization and heat treatment with H2 atmosphere is performed. Also, to find optimum condition for heat treatment, heat treatment with various time and temperature is performed. It was found that increase in the number of cold rolling and heat treatment increases Goss texture. Both high Goss texture and good columnar structure is achieved at 900℃, and this temperature is within a+r phase region. Heat treatment at a temperature higher than a+r phase region caused carbon diffusion and this made layer with Goss grain decrease.

Keywords: electrical steel, Goss texture, columnar structure, normal grain growth

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447 Microstructure and Texture Evolution of Cryo Rolled and Annealed Ductile TaNbHfZrTi Refractory High Entropy Alloy

Authors: Mokali Veeresham


The microstructure and texture evolution of cryo rolled and annealed ductile TaHfNbZrTi refractory high entropy alloy was investigated. To obtain that, the alloy is severely cryo rolled and subsequently annealed for the recrystallization process. The cryo rolled – 90% shows the presence of very fine grains and microstructural heterogeneity. The cryo rolled samples are annealed at a temperature ranging from 800°C to 1400°C, the partial recrystallization is observed at 800°C annealed condition, and at higher annealing temperatures the complete recrystallization process is noticed. The development of ND fiber texture is observed after the annealing.

Keywords: refractory high entropy alloy, cryo-rolling, annealing, microstructure, texture

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
446 Local Texture and Global Color Descriptors for Content Based Image Retrieval

Authors: Tajinder Kaur, Anu Bala


An image retrieval system is a computer system for browsing, searching, and retrieving images from a large database of digital images a new algorithm meant for content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is presented in this paper. The proposed method combines the color and texture features which are extracted the global and local information of the image. The local texture feature is extracted by using local binary patterns (LBP), which are evaluated by taking into consideration of local difference between the center pixel and its neighbors. For the global color feature, the color histogram (CH) is used which is calculated by RGB (red, green, and blue) spaces separately. In this paper, the combination of color and texture features are proposed for content-based image retrieval. The performance of the proposed method is tested on Corel 1000 database which is the natural database. The results after being investigated show a significant improvement in terms of their evaluation measures as compared to LBP and CH.

Keywords: color, texture, feature extraction, local binary patterns, image retrieval

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
445 Validating Texture Analysis as a Tool for Determining Bioplastic (Bio)Degradation

Authors: Sally J. Price, Greg F. Walker, Weiyi Liu, Craig R. Bunt


Plastics, due to their long lifespan, are becoming more of an environmental concern once their useful life has been completed. There are a vast array of different types of plastic and they can be found in almost every ecosystem on earth and are of particular concern in terrestrial environments where they can become incorporated into the food chain. Hence bioplastics have become more of interest to manufacturers and the public recently as they have the ability to (bio)degrade in commercial and in-home composting situations. However, tools in which to quantify how they degrade in response to environmental variables are still being developed – one such approach, texture analysis, using a TA.XT Texture Analyser, Stable Microsystems, was used to determine the force required to break or punch holes in standard ASTM D638 Type IV 3D printed bioplastic “dogbones” depending on their thickness of them. Manufacturers’ recommendations for calibrating the Texture Analyser are one such approach for standardizing results; however, an independent technique using dummy dogbones and a substitute for the bioplastic was used alongside the samples. This approach was unexpectedly more valuable than realized at the start of the trial as irregular results were later discovered with the substitute material before valuable samples collected from the field were lost due to possible machine malfunction. This work will show the value of having an independent approach to machine calibration for accurate sample analysis with a Texture Analyser when analyzing bioplastic samples.

Keywords: bioplastic, degradation, environment, texture analyzer

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444 Effective Texture Features for Segmented Mammogram Images Based on Multi-Region of Interest Segmentation Method

Authors: Ramayanam Suresh, A. Nagaraja Rao, B. Eswara Reddy


Texture features of mammogram images are useful for finding masses or cancer cases in mammography, which have been used by radiologists. Textures are greatly succeeded for segmented images rather than normal images. It is necessary to perform segmentation for exclusive specification of cancer and non-cancer regions separately. Region of interest (ROI) is most commonly used technique for mammogram segmentation. Limitation of this method is that it is unable to explore segmentation for large collection of mammogram images. Therefore, this paper is proposed multi-ROI segmentation for addressing the above limitation. It supports greatly in finding the best texture features of mammogram images. Experimental study demonstrates the effectiveness of proposed work using benchmarked images.

Keywords: texture features, region of interest, multi-ROI segmentation, benchmarked images

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
443 Fusion of Shape and Texture for Unconstrained Periocular Authentication

Authors: D. R. Ambika, K. R. Radhika, D. Seshachalam


Unconstrained authentication is an important component for personal automated systems and human-computer interfaces. Existing solutions mostly use face as the primary object of analysis. The performance of face-based systems is largely determined by the extent of deformation caused in the facial region and amount of useful information available in occluded face images. Periocular region is a useful portion of face with discriminative ability coupled with resistance to deformation. A reliable portion of periocular area is available for occluded images. The present work demonstrates that joint representation of periocular texture and periocular structure provides an effective expression and poses invariant representation. The proposed methodology provides an effective and compact description of periocular texture and shape. The method is tested over four benchmark datasets exhibiting varied acquisition conditions.

Keywords: periocular authentication, Zernike moments, LBP variance, shape and texture fusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
442 Plastic Deformation of Mg-Gd Solid Solutions between 4K and 298K

Authors: Anna Kula, Raja K. Mishra, Marek Niewczas


Deformation behavior of Mg-Gd solid solutions have been studied by a combination of measurements of mechanical response, texture and dislocation substructure. Increase in Gd content strongly influences the work-hardening behavior and flow characteristics in tension and compression. Adiabatic instabilities have been observed in all alloys at 4K under both tension and compression. The frequency and the amplitude of adiabatic stress oscillations increase with Gd content. Profuse mechanical twinning has been observed under compression, resulting in a texture dominated by basal component parallel to the compression axis. Under tension, twining is less active and the texture evolution is affected mostly by slip. Increasing Gd concentration leads to the reduction of the tension and compression asymmetry due to weakening of the texture and stabilizing more homogenous twinning and slip, involving basal and non-basal slip systems.

Keywords: Mg-Gd alloys, mechanical properties, work hardening, twinning

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
441 Effect of Temperature and Deformation Mode on Texture Evolution of AA6061

Authors: M. Ghosh, A. Miroux, L. A. I. Kestens


At molecular or micrometre scale, practically all materials are neither homogeneous nor isotropic. The concept of texture is used to identify the structural features that cause the properties of a material to be anisotropic. For metallic materials, the anisotropy of the mechanical behaviour originates from the crystallographic nature of plastic deformation, and is therefore controlled by the crystallographic texture. Anisotropy in mechanical properties often constitutes a disadvantage in the application of materials, as it is often illustrated by the earing phenomena during drawing. However, advantages may also be attained when considering other properties (e.g. optimization of magnetic behaviour to a specific direction) by controlling texture through thermo-mechanical processing). Nevertheless, in order to have better control over the final properties it is essential to relate texture with materials processing route and subsequently optimise their performance. However, up to date, few studies have been reported about the evolution of texture in 6061 aluminium alloy during warm processing (from room temperature to 250ºC). In present investigation, recrystallized 6061 aluminium alloy samples were subjected to tensile and plane strain compression (PSC) at room and warm temperatures. The gradual change of texture following both deformation modes were measured and discussed. Tensile tests demonstrate the mechanism at low strain while PSC does the same at high strain and eventually simulate the condition of rolling. Cube dominated texture of the initial rolled and recrystallized AA6061 sheets were replaced by domination of S and R components after PSC at room temperature, warm temperature (250ºC) though did not reflect any noticeable deviation from room temperature observation. It was also noticed that temperature has no significant effect on the evolution of grain morphology during PSC. The band contrast map revealed that after 30% deformation the substructure inside the grain is mainly made of series of parallel bands. A tendency for decrease of Cube and increase of Goss was noticed after tensile deformation compared to as-received material. Like PSC, texture does not change after deformation at warm temperature though. n-fibre was noticed for all the three textures from Goss to Cube.

Keywords: AA 6061, deformation, temperature, tensile, PSC, texture

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
440 Best-Performing Color Space for Land-Sea Segmentation Using Wavelet Transform Color-Texture Features and Fusion of over Segmentation

Authors: Seynabou Toure, Oumar Diop, Kidiyo Kpalma, Amadou S. Maiga


Color and texture are the two most determinant elements for perception and recognition of the objects in an image. For this reason, color and texture analysis find a large field of application, for example in image classification and segmentation. But, the pioneering work in texture analysis was conducted on grayscale images, thus discarding color information. Many grey-level texture descriptors have been proposed and successfully used in numerous domains for image classification: face recognition, industrial inspections, food science medical imaging among others. Taking into account color in the definition of these descriptors makes it possible to better characterize images. Color texture is thus the subject of recent work, and the analysis of color texture images is increasingly attracting interest in the scientific community. In optical remote sensing systems, sensors measure separately different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum; the visible ones and even those that are invisible to the human eye. The amounts of light reflected by the earth in spectral bands are then transformed into grayscale images. The primary natural colors Red (R) Green (G) and Blue (B) are then used in mixtures of different spectral bands in order to produce RGB images. Thus, good color texture discrimination can be achieved using RGB under controlled illumination conditions. Some previous works investigate the effect of using different color space for color texture classification. However, the selection of the best performing color space in land-sea segmentation is an open question. Its resolution may bring considerable improvements in certain applications like coastline detection, where the detection result is strongly dependent on the performance of the land-sea segmentation. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a study conducted on different color spaces in order to show the best-performing color space for land-sea segmentation. In this sense, an experimental analysis is carried out using five different color spaces (RGB, XYZ, Lab, HSV, YCbCr). For each color space, the Haar wavelet decomposition is used to extract different color texture features. These color texture features are then used for Fusion of Over Segmentation (FOOS) based classification; this allows segmentation of the land part from the sea one. By analyzing the different results of this study, the HSV color space is found as the best classification performance while using color and texture features; which is perfectly coherent with the results presented in the literature.

Keywords: classification, coastline, color, sea-land segmentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
439 The Role of Deformation Strain and Annealing Temperature on Grain Boundary Engineering and Texture Evolution of Haynes 230

Authors: Mohsen Sanayei, Jerzy Szpunar


The present study investigates the effects of deformation strain and annealing temperature on the formation of twin boundaries, deformation and recrystallization texture evolution and grain boundary networks and connectivity. The resulting microstructures were characterized using Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) both immediately following small amount of deformation and after short time annealing at high temperature to correlate the micro and macro texture evolution of these alloys. Furthermore, this study showed that the process of grain boundary engineering, consisting cycles of deformation and annealing, is found to substantially reduce the mass and size of random boundaries and increase the proportion of low Coincidence Site Lattice (CSL) grain boundaries.

Keywords: coincidence site lattice, grain boundary engineering, electron backscatter diffraction, texture, x-ray diffraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
438 Improved Skin Detection Using Colour Space and Texture

Authors: Medjram Sofiane, Babahenini Mohamed Chaouki, Mohamed Benali Yamina


Skin detection is an important task for computer vision systems. A good method for skin detection means a good and successful result of the system. The colour is a good descriptor that allows us to detect skin colour in the images, but because of lightings effects and objects that have a similar colour skin, skin detection becomes difficult. In this paper, we proposed a method using the YCbCr colour space for skin detection and lighting effects elimination, then we use the information of texture to eliminate the false regions detected by the YCbCr colour skin model.

Keywords: skin detection, YCbCr, GLCM, texture, human skin

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
437 Automatic Staging and Subtype Determination for Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Using PET Image Texture Analysis

Authors: Seyhan Karaçavuş, Bülent Yılmaz, Ömer Kayaaltı, Semra İçer, Arzu Taşdemir, Oğuzhan Ayyıldız, Kübra Eset, Eser Kaya


In this study, our goal was to perform tumor staging and subtype determination automatically using different texture analysis approaches for a very common cancer type, i.e., non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Especially, we introduced a texture analysis approach, called Law’s texture filter, to be used in this context for the first time. The 18F-FDG PET images of 42 patients with NSCLC were evaluated. The number of patients for each tumor stage, i.e., I-II, III or IV, was 14. The patients had ~45% adenocarcinoma (ADC) and ~55% squamous cell carcinoma (SqCCs). MATLAB technical computing language was employed in the extraction of 51 features by using first order statistics (FOS), gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), gray-level run-length matrix (GLRLM), and Laws’ texture filters. The feature selection method employed was the sequential forward selection (SFS). Selected textural features were used in the automatic classification by k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) and support vector machines (SVM). In the automatic classification of tumor stage, the accuracy was approximately 59.5% with k-NN classifier (k=3) and 69% with SVM (with one versus one paradigm), using 5 features. In the automatic classification of tumor subtype, the accuracy was around 92.7% with SVM one vs. one. Texture analysis of FDG-PET images might be used, in addition to metabolic parameters as an objective tool to assess tumor histopathological characteristics and in automatic classification of tumor stage and subtype.

Keywords: cancer stage, cancer cell type, non-small cell lung carcinoma, PET, texture analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
436 Buddha Images in Mudras Representing Days of a Week: Tactile Texture Design for the Blind

Authors: Chantana Insra


The research “Buddha Images in Mudras Representing Days of a Week: Tactile Texture Design for the Blind” aims to provide original tactile format to institutions for the blind, as supplementary textbooks, to accumulate Buddhist knowledge, so that it could be extracurricular learning. The research studied on 33 students with both total and partial blindness, the latter with the ability to read Braille’s signs, of elementary 4 – 6, who are pursuing their studies on the second semester of the academic year 2013 at Bangkok School for the Blind. The researcher opted samples specifically, studied data acquired from both documents and fieldworks. Those methods must be related to the blind, tactile format production, and Buddha images in mudras representing days of a week. Afterwards, the formats will be analyzed and designed so that there would be 8 format pictures of Buddha images in mudras representing days of the week. Experts will next evaluate the media and try out.

Keywords: blind, tactile texture, Thai Buddha images, Mudras, texture design

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
435 Kinetic Modeling of Colour and Textural Properties of Stored Rohu (Labeo rohita) Fish

Authors: Pramod K. Prabhakar, Prem P. Srivastav


Rohu (Labeo rohita) is an Indian major carp and highly relished freshwater food for its unique flavor, texture, and culinary properties. It is highly perishable and, spoilage occurs as a result of series of complicated biochemical changes brought about by enzymes which are the function of time and storage temperature also. The influence of storage temperature (5, 0, and -5 °C) on colour and texture of fish were studied during 14 days storage period in order to analyze kinetics of colour and textural changes. The rate of total colour change was most noticeable at the highest storage temperature (5°C), and these changes were well described by the first order reaction. Texture is an important variable of quality of the fish and is increasing concern to aquaculture industries. Textural parameters such as hardness, toughness and stiffness were evaluated on a texture analyzer for the different day of stored fish. The significant reduction (P ≤ 0.05) in hardness was observed after 2nd, 4th and 8th day for the fish stored at 5, 0, and -5 °C respectively. The textural changes of fish during storage followed a first order kinetic model and fitted well with this model (R2 > 0.95). However, the textural data with respect to time was also fitted to modified Maxwell model and found to be good fit with R2 value ranges from 0.96 to 0.98. Temperature dependence of colour and texture change was adequately modelled with the Arrhenius type equation. This fitted model may be used for the determination of shelf life of Rohu Rohu (Labeo rohita) Fish.

Keywords: first order kinetics, biochemical changes, Maxwell model, colour, texture, Arrhenius type equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
434 Residual Stresses and Crystallographic Texture of Magnesium AZ31-C Alloy Welded by Friction Stir Welding (FSW)

Authors: A. Kouadri-Henni, L. Barrallier


The objective of the study was to characterize the properties of a magnesium alloy welded by friction stir welding (FSW). The results led to a better understanding of the relationship between this process, the microstructure and anisotropic properties of alloy materials. Welding principally leads to a large reduction in grain size in welded zones due to the phenomenon of dynamic recrystallization. The most remarkable observation was that crystallographic textures changed from a base metal with one texture in two zones: the thermo-mechanically affected and stir welded zones. The latter zone has the peculiarity of possessing a marked texture with two components on the basal plane and the pyramidal plane. These characteristics disappeared in the TMAZ, which had only one component following the basal plane. These modifications have been explained by the nature of the plastic deformation in these zones, which occurs at a moderate temperature in the TMAZ and high temperature in the SWZ. In the same time, we compared this evolution with the nature and the level of the residual stresses obtained by X-ray diffraction.

Keywords: texture christallography, residual stresses, FSW process

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
433 Surface Geodesic Derivative Pattern for Deformable Textured 3D Object Comparison: Application to Expression and Pose Invariant 3D Face Recognition

Authors: Farshid Hajati, Soheila Gheisari, Ali Cheraghian, Yongsheng Gao


This paper presents a new Surface Geodesic Derivative Pattern (SGDP) for matching textured deformable 3D surfaces. SGDP encodes micro-pattern features based on local surface higher-order derivative variation. It extracts local information by encoding various distinctive textural relationships contained in a geodesic neighborhood, hence fusing texture and range information of a surface at the data level. Geodesic texture rings are encoded into local patterns for similarity measurement between non-rigid 3D surfaces. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated extensively on the Bosphorus and FRGC v2 face databases. Compared to existing benchmarks, experimental results show the effectiveness and superiority of combining the texture and 3D shape data at the earliest level in recognizing typical deformable faces under expression, illumination, and pose variations.

Keywords: 3D face recognition, pose, expression, surface matching, texture

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
432 Tumor Boundary Extraction Using Intensity and Texture-Based on Gradient Vector

Authors: Namita Mittal, Himakshi Shekhawat, Ankit Vidyarthi


In medical research study, doctors and radiologists face lot of complexities in analysing the brain tumors in Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Brain tumor detection is difficult due to amorphous tumor shape and overlapping of similar tissues in nearby region. So, radiologists require one such clinically viable solution which helps in automatic segmentation of tumor inside brain MR image. Initially, segmentation methods were used to detect tumor, by dividing the image into segments but causes loss of information. In this paper, a hybrid method is proposed which detect Region of Interest (ROI) on the basis of difference in intensity values and texture values of tumor region using nearby tissues with Gradient Vector Flow (GVF) technique in the identification of ROI. Proposed approach uses both intensity and texture values for identification of abnormal section of the brain MR images. Experimental results show that proposed method outperforms GVF method without any loss of information.

Keywords: brain tumor, GVF, intensity, MR images, segmentation, texture

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431 Assisted Video Colorization Using Texture Descriptors

Authors: Andre Peres Ramos, Franklin Cesar Flores


Colorization is the process of add colors to a monochromatic image or video. Usually, the process involves to segment the image in regions of interest and then apply colors to each one, for videos, this process is repeated for each frame, which makes it a tedious and time-consuming job. We propose a new assisted method for video colorization; the user only has to colorize one frame, and then the colors are propagated to following frames. The user can intervene at any time to correct eventual errors in color assignment. The method consists of to extract intensity and texture descriptors from the frames and then perform a feature matching to determine the best color for each segment. To reduce computation time and give a better spatial coherence we narrow the area of search and give weights for each feature to emphasize texture descriptors. To give a more natural result, we use an optimization algorithm to make the color propagation. Experimental results in several image sequences, compared to others existing methods, demonstrates that the proposed method perform a better colorization with less time and user interference.

Keywords: colorization, feature matching, texture descriptors, video segmentation

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