Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: glaucoma

32 Ologen Collagen Matrix Implant in Uveitis Induced Glaucoma with Temporal Trabeculectomy

Authors: Ritesh Verma, Manisha Rathi, Chand Singh Dhull, Sumit Sachdeva, Jitender Phogat

Abstract:

Temporal trabeculectomy with the Ologen implant was done in a 66-year-old lady with uveitic glaucoma. Serial IOP measurement was done to assess the efficacy of ologen implant in uveitic glaucoma. The patient had an IOP of 4mmhg day 1 postoperatively and Ologen implant was in place with a well-formed bleb. On follow up patient had an IOP of 14mmhg and unaided visual acuity of 6/12 on day 10 postoperatively. After 12 weeks of Trabeculectomy with Ologen implant, the IOP of the patient was 14 mmHg, the vision was 6/6 with -1.25 DS and -1.25 DC at 90 degrees. Trabeculectomy performed in patients with uveitic glaucoma has a higher chance of failure due to increased inflammation and fibrosis. Trabeculectomy with ologen implant done in a patient of uveitic glaucoma provides excellent postoperative results and the patient has a well-controlled IOP even after 56 weeks of surgery and a best corrected visual acuity of 6/6. Trabeculectomy with the ologen implant is superior to other surgeries in cases of secondary glaucoma with increased inflammation.

Keywords: glaucoma surgery, ologen implant, temporal trabeculectomy, uveitic glaucoma

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
31 Genetic Association of SIX6 Gene with Pathogenesis of Glaucoma

Authors: Riffat Iqbal, Sidra Ihsan, Andleeb Batool, Maryam Mukhtar

Abstract:

Glaucoma is a gathering of optic neuropathies described by dynamic degeneration of retinal ganglionic cells. It is clinically and innately heterogenous illness containing a couple of particular forms each with various causes and severities. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most generally perceived kind of glaucoma. This study investigated the genetic association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs10483727 and rs33912345) at the SIX1/SIX6 locus with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in the Pakistani population. The SIX6 gene plays an important role in ocular development and has been associated with morphology of the optic nerve. A total of 100 patients clinically diagnosed with glaucoma and 100 control individuals of age over 40 were enrolled in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted by organic extraction method. The SNP genotyping was done by (i) PCR based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing method. Significant genetic associations were observed for rs10483727 (risk allele T) and rs33912345 (risk allele C) with POAG. Hence, it was concluded that Six6 gene is genetically associated with pathogenesis of Glaucoma in Pakistan.

Keywords: genotyping, Pakistani population, primary open-angle glaucoma, SIX6 gene

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30 Importance of Developing a Decision Support System for Diagnosis of Glaucoma

Authors: Murat Durucu

Abstract:

Glaucoma is a condition of irreversible blindness, early diagnosis and appropriate interventions to make the patients able to see longer time. In this study, it addressed that the importance of developing a decision support system for glaucoma diagnosis. Glaucoma occurs when pressure happens around the eyes it causes some damage to the optic nerves and deterioration of vision. There are different levels ranging blindness of glaucoma disease. The diagnosis at an early stage allows a chance for therapies that slows the progression of the disease. In recent years, imaging technology from Heidelberg Retinal Tomography (HRT), Stereoscopic Disc Photo (SDP) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) have been used for the diagnosis of glaucoma. This better accuracy and faster imaging techniques in response technique of OCT have become the most common method used by experts. Although OCT images or HRT precision and quickness, especially in the early stages, there are still difficulties and mistakes are occurred in diagnosis of glaucoma. It is difficult to obtain objective results on diagnosis and placement process of the doctor's. It seems very important to develop an objective decision support system for diagnosis and level the glaucoma disease for patients. By using OCT images and pattern recognition systems, it is possible to develop a support system for doctors to make their decisions on glaucoma. Thus, in this recent study, we develop an evaluation and support system to the usage of doctors. Pattern recognition system based computer software would help the doctors to make an objective evaluation for their patients. It is intended that after development and evaluation processes of the software, the system is planning to be serve for the usage of doctors in different hospitals.

Keywords: decision support system, glaucoma, image processing, pattern recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
29 Ophthalmic Hashing Based Supervision of Glaucoma and Corneal Disorders Imposed on Deep Graphical Model

Authors: P. S. Jagadeesh Kumar, Yang Yung, Mingmin Pan, Xianpei Li, Wenli Hu

Abstract:

Glaucoma is impelled by optic nerve mutilation habitually represented as cupping and visual field injury frequently with an arcuate pattern of mid-peripheral loss, subordinate to retinal ganglion cell damage and death. Glaucoma is the second foremost cause of blindness and the chief cause of permanent blindness worldwide. Consequently, all-embracing study into the analysis and empathy of glaucoma is happening to escort deep learning based neural network intrusions to deliberate this substantial optic neuropathy. This paper advances an ophthalmic hashing based supervision of glaucoma and corneal disorders preeminent on deep graphical model. Ophthalmic hashing is a newly proposed method extending the efficacy of visual hash-coding to predict glaucoma corneal disorder matching, which is the faster than the existing methods. Deep graphical model is proficient of learning interior explications of corneal disorders in satisfactory time to solve hard combinatoric incongruities using deep Boltzmann machines.

Keywords: corneal disorders, deep Boltzmann machines, deep graphical model, glaucoma, neural networks, ophthalmic hashing

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
28 Comparison of Central Light Reflex Width-to-Retinal Vessel Diameter Ratio between Glaucoma and Normal Eyes by Using Edge Detection Technique

Authors: P. Siriarchawatana, K. Leungchavaphongse, N. Covavisaruch, K. Rojananuangnit, P. Boondaeng, N. Panyayingyong

Abstract:

Glaucoma is a disease that causes visual loss in adults. Glaucoma causes damage to the optic nerve and its overall pathophysiology is still not fully understood. Vasculopathy may be one of the possible causes of nerve damage. Photographic imaging of retinal vessels by fundus camera during eye examination may complement clinical management. This paper presents an innovation for measuring central light reflex width-to-retinal vessel diameter ratio (CRR) from digital retinal photographs. Using our edge detection technique, CRRs from glaucoma and normal eyes were compared to examine differences and associations. CRRs were evaluated on fundus photographs of participants from Mettapracharak (Wat Raikhing) Hospital in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. Fifty-five photographs from normal eyes and twenty-one photographs from glaucoma eyes were included. Participants with hypertension were excluded. In each photograph, CRRs from four retinal vessels, including arteries and veins in the inferotemporal and superotemporal regions, were quantified using edge detection technique. From our finding, mean CRRs of all four retinal arteries and veins were significantly higher in persons with glaucoma than in those without glaucoma (0.34 vs. 0.32, p < 0.05 for inferotemporal vein, 0.33 vs. 0.30, p < 0.01 for inferotemporal artery, 0.34 vs. 0.31, p < 0.01 for superotemporal vein, and 0.33 vs. 0.30, p < 0.05 for superotemporal artery). From these results, an increase in CRRs of retinal vessels, as quantitatively measured from fundus photographs, could be associated with glaucoma.

Keywords: glaucoma, retinal vessel, central light reflex, image processing, fundus photograph, edge detection

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27 The Clinical Use of Ahmed Valve Implant as an Aqueous Shunt for Control of Uveitic Glaucoma in Dogs

Authors: Khaled M. Ali, M. A. Abdel-Hamid, Ayman A. Mostafa

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Objective: Safety and efficacy of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation for the management of uveitis induced glaucoma evaluated on the five dogs with uncontrollable glaucoma. Materials and Methods: Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV®; New World Medical, Rancho Cucamonga, CA, USA) is a flow restrictive, non-obstructive self-regulating valve system. Preoperative ocular evaluation included direct ophthalmoscopy and measurement of the intraocular pressure (IOP). The implant was examined and primed prior to implantation. The selected site of the valve implantation was the superior quadrant between the superior and lateral rectus muscles. A fornix-based incision was made through the conjunectiva and Tenon’s capsule. A pocket is formed by blunt dissection of Tenon’s capsule from the episclera. The body of the implant was inserted into the pocket with the leading edge of the device around 8-10 mm from the limbus. Results: No post operative complications were detected in the operated eyes except a persistent corneal edema occupied the upper half of the cornea in one case. Hyphaema was very mild and seen only in two cases which resolved quickly two days after surgery. Endoscopical evaluation for the operated eyes revealed a normal ocular fundus with clearly visible optic papilla, tapetum and retinal blood vessels. No evidence of hemorrhage, infection, adhesions or retinal abnormalities was detected. Conclusion: Ahmed glaucoma valve is safe and effective implant for treatment of uveitic glaucoma in dogs.

Keywords: Ahmed valve, endoscopy, glaucoma, ocular fundus

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
26 Support Vector Machine Based Retinal Therapeutic for Glaucoma Using Machine Learning Algorithm

Authors: P. S. Jagadeesh Kumar, Mingmin Pan, Yang Yung, Tracy Lin Huan

Abstract:

Glaucoma is a group of visual maladies represented by the scheduled optic nerve neuropathy; means to the increasing dwindling in vision ground, resulting in loss of sight. In this paper, a novel support vector machine based retinal therapeutic for glaucoma using machine learning algorithm is conservative. The algorithm has fitting pragmatism; subsequently sustained on correlation clustering mode, it visualizes perfect computations in the multi-dimensional space. Support vector clustering turns out to be comparable to the scale-space advance that investigates the cluster organization by means of a kernel density estimation of the likelihood distribution, where cluster midpoints are idiosyncratic by the neighborhood maxima of the concreteness. The predicted planning has 91% attainment rate on data set deterrent on a consolidation of 500 realistic images of resolute and glaucoma retina; therefore, the computational benefit of depending on the cluster overlapping system pedestal on machine learning algorithm has complete performance in glaucoma therapeutic.

Keywords: machine learning algorithm, correlation clustering mode, cluster overlapping system, glaucoma, kernel density estimation, retinal therapeutic

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
25 Glaucoma Detection in Retinal Tomography Using the Vision Transformer

Authors: Sushish Baral, Pratibha Joshi, Yaman Maharjan

Abstract:

Glaucoma is a chronic eye condition that causes vision loss that is irreversible. Early detection and treatment are critical to prevent vision loss because it can be asymptomatic. For the identification of glaucoma, multiple deep learning algorithms are used. Transformer-based architectures, which use the self-attention mechanism to encode long-range dependencies and acquire extremely expressive representations, have recently become popular. Convolutional architectures, on the other hand, lack knowledge of long-range dependencies in the image due to their intrinsic inductive biases. The aforementioned statements inspire this thesis to look at transformer-based solutions and investigate the viability of adopting transformer-based network designs for glaucoma detection. Using retinal fundus images of the optic nerve head to develop a viable algorithm to assess the severity of glaucoma necessitates a large number of well-curated images. Initially, data is generated by augmenting ocular pictures. After that, the ocular images are pre-processed to make them ready for further processing. The system is trained using pre-processed images, and it classifies the input images as normal or glaucoma based on the features retrieved during training. The Vision Transformer (ViT) architecture is well suited to this situation, as it allows the self-attention mechanism to utilise structural modeling. Extensive experiments are run on the common dataset, and the results are thoroughly validated and visualized.

Keywords: glaucoma, vision transformer, convolutional architectures, retinal fundus images, self-attention, deep learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
24 Glaucoma with Normal IOP, Is It True Normal Tension glaucoma or Something Else!

Authors: Sushma Tejwani, Shoruba Dinakaran, Kushal Kacha, K. Bhujang Shetty

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Introduction and aim: It is not unusual to find patients with glaucomatous damage and normal intraocular pressure, and to label a patient as Normal tension glaucoma (NTG) majority of clinicians depend on office Intraocular pressures (IOP) recordings; hence, the concern is that whether we are missing the late night or early morning spikes in this group of patients. Also, ischemia to the optic nerve is one of the presumed causes of damage in these patients, however demonstrating the same has been a challenge. The aim of this study was to evaluate IOP variations and patterns in a series of patients with open angles, glaucomatous discs or fields but normal office IOP, and in addition to identify ischemic factors for true NTG patients. Materials & Methods: This was an observational cross- sectional study from a tertiary care centre. The patients that underwent full day DVT from Jan 2012 to April 2014 were studied. All patients underwent IOP measurement on Goldmann applanation tonometry every 3 hours for 24 hours along with a recording of the blood pressure (BP). Further patients with normal IOP throughout the 24- hour period were evaluated with a cardiologist for echocardiography and carotid Doppler. Results: There were 47 patients and a maximum number of patients studied was in the age group of 50-70 years. A biphasic IOP peak was noted for almost all the patients. Out of the 47 patients, 2 were excluded from analysis as they were on treatment.20 patients (42%) were diagnosed on DVT to have an IOP spike and were then diagnosed as open angle glaucoma and another 25 (55%) were diagnosed to have normal tension glaucoma and were subsequently advised a carotid Doppler and a cardiologists consult. Another interesting finding was that 9 patients had a nocturnal dip in their BP and 3 were found to have carotid artery stenosis. Conclusion: A continuous 24-hour monitoring of the IOP and BP is a very useful albeit mildly cumbersome tool which provides a wealth of information in cases of glaucoma presenting with normal office pressures. It is of great value in differentiating between normal tension glaucoma patients & open angle glaucoma patients. It also helps in timely diagnosis & possible intervention due to referral to a cardiologist in cases of carotid artery stenosis.

Keywords: carotid artery disease in NTG, diurnal variation of IOP, ischemia in glaucoma, normal tension glaucoma

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23 Advanced Eales’ Disease with Neovascular Glaucoma at First Presentation: Case Report

Authors: Mohammed A. Alfayyadh, Halla A. AlAbdulhadi, Mahdi H. Almubarak

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Purpose: Eales’ disease is an idiopathic vasculitis that affects the peripheral retina. It is characterized by recurrent vitreous hemorrhage as a complication of retinal neovascularization. It is more prevalent in India and affects young males. Here we present a patient with neovascular glaucoma as a rare first presentation of Eales’ disease. Observations: This is a 24-year-old Indian gentleman, who complained of a sudden decrease in vision in the left eye over less than 24 hours, along with frontal headache and eye pain for the last three weeks. Ocular examination revealed peripheral retinal ischemia in the right eye, very high intraocular pressure, rubeosis iridis, vitreous hemorrhage and extensive retinal ischemia in the left eye, vascular sheathing and neovascularization in both eyes. Purified protein derivative skin test was positive. The patient was managed with anti-glaucoma, intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor and laser photocoagulation. Systemic steroids and anti-tuberculous therapy were also initiated. Conclusions: Neovascular glaucoma is an infrequent complication of Eales’ disease. However, the lack of early detection of the disease in the early stages might lead to such serious complication.

Keywords: case report, Eales’ disease, mycobacterium tuberculosis, neovascular glaucoma

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22 Success of Trabeculectomy: May Not Always Depend on Mitomycin C

Authors: Sushma Tejwani, Shoruba Dinakaran, Rupa Rokhade, K. Bhujang Shetty

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Introduction and aim: One of the major causes for failure of trabeculectomy is fibrosis and scarring of subconjunctival tissue around the bleb, and hence intra operative usage of anti-fibrotic agents like Mitomycin C (MMC) has become very popular. However, the long term effects of MMC like thin, avascular bleb, hypotony, bleb leaks and late onset endophthalmitis cannot be ignored, and may preclude its usage in routine trabeculectomy. In this particular study we aim to study the outcomes of trabeculectomy with and without MMC in uncomplicated glaucoma patients. Methods: Retrospective study of series of patients that underwent trabeculectomy with or without cataract surgery in glaucoma department of a tertiary eye care centre by a single surgeon for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), angle closure glaucoma (PACG), Pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PXF glaucoma). Patients with secondary glaucoma, juvenile and congenital glaucoma were excluded; also patients undergoing second trabeculectomy were excluded. The outcomes were studied in terms of IOP control at 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year and were analyzed separately for surgical outcomes with and without MMC. Success was considered if IOP was < 16 mmHg on applanation tonometry. Further, the necessity of medication, 5 fluorouracil (5FU) postoperative injections, needling post operatively was noted. Results: Eighty nine patient’s medical records were reviewed, of which 58 patients had undergone trabeculectomy without MMC and 31 with MMC. Mean age was 62.4 (95%CI 61- 64), 34 were females and 55 males. MMC group (n=31): Preoperative mean IOP was 21.1mmHg (95% CI: 17.6 -24.6), and 22 patients had IOP > 16. Three out of 33 patients were on single medication and rests were on multiple drugs. At 1 month (n=27) mean IOP was 12.4 mmHg (CI: 10.7-14), and 31/33 had success. At 6 months (n=18) mean IOP was 13mmHg (CI: 10.3-14.6) and 16/18 had good outcome, however at 1 year only 11 patients were available for follow up and 91% (10/11) had success. Overall, 3 patients required medication and one patient required postoperative injection of 5 FU. No MMC group (n=58): Preoperative mean IOP was 21.9 mmHg (CI: 19.8-24.2), and 42 had IOP > 16 mmHg. 12 out of 58 patients were on single medication and rests were on multiple drugs. At 1 month (n=52) mean IOP was14.6mmHg (CI: 13.2-15.9), and 45/ 58 had IOP < 16mmHg. At 6 months (n=31) mean IOP was 13.5 mmHg (CI: 11.9-15.2) and 26/31 had success, however at 1 year only 23 patients came for follow up and of these 87% (20/23) patients had success. Overall, 1 patient required needling, 5 required 5 FU injections and 5 patients required medication. The success rates at each follow up visit were not significantly different in both the groups. Conclusion: Intra-operative MMC usage may not be required in all patients undergoing trabeculectomy, and the ones without MMC also have fairly good outcomes in primary glaucoma.

Keywords: glaucoma filtration surgery, mitomycin C, outcomes of trabeculectomy, wound modulation

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21 Efficacy of Collagen Matrix Implants in Phacotrabeculectomy with Mitomycin C at One Year

Authors: Lalit Tejwani, Reetika Sharma, Arun Singhvi, Himanshu Shekhar

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Purpose: To assess the efficacy of collagen matrix implant (Ologen) in phacotrabeculectomy augmented with mitomycin C (MMC). Methods: A biodegradable collagen matrix (Ologen) was placed in the subconjunctival and subscleral space in twenty-two eyes of 22 patients with glaucoma and cataract who underwent combined phacoemulsification and trabeculectomy augmented with MMC. All of them were examined preoperatively and on the first postoperative day. They were followed for twelve months after surgery. Any intervention needed in follow-up period was noted. Any complication was recorded. The primary outcome measure was postoperative intraocular pressure at one year follow-up. Any additional postoperative treatments needed and adverse events were noted. Results: The mean age of patients included in the study was 57.77 ± 9.68 years (range=36 to 70 years). All the patients were followed for at least one year. Three patients had history of failed trabeculectomy. Fifteen patients had chronic angle closure glaucoma with cataract, five had primary open angle glaucoma with cataract, one had uveitic glaucoma with cataract, and one had juvenile open angle glaucoma with cataract. Mean preoperative IOP was 32.63 ± 8.29 mm Hg, eighteen patients were on oral antiglaucoma medicines. The mean postoperative IOP was 10.09 ± 2.65 mm Hg at three months, 10.36 ± 2.19 mm Hg at six months and 11.36 ± 2.72 mm Hg at one year follow up. No adverse effect related to Ologen was seen. Anterior chamber reformation was done in five patients, and three needed needling of bleb. Four patients needed additional antiglaucoma medications in the follow-up period. Conclusions: Combined phacotrabeculectomy with MMC with Ologen implantation appears to be a safe and effective option in glaucoma patients needing trabeculectomy with significant cataract. Comparative studies with longer duration of follow-up in larger number of patients are needed.

Keywords: combined surgery, ologen, phacotrabeculectomy, success

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20 Role of Ologen in Previously Failed Trabeculectomy in Advanced Glaucoma

Authors: Reetika Sharma, Lalit Tejwani, Himanshu Shekhar, Arun Singhvi

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Purpose: Advanced Glaucoma with Failed trab is not an uncommon sight in glaucoma clinic, and such cases usually tend to present with high intraocular pressure (IOP) and advanced cupping, or even glaucomatous atrophy stage. Re-surgery is needed for such cases, and wound modulation poses a major challenge in these cases. We share our experience in this case series with the use of Ologen (collagen matrix implant) along with MMC 0.04% used in surgery. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and outcome of collagen matrix implant in re-trabeculectomy in advanced glaucoma cases. Methodology: Eleven eyes of 11 patients (one eye of one patient) underwent re-trabeculectomy surgery with MMC and Ologen. Ologen implant was used in sub scleral and subconjunctival space, as a spacer and wound modulator. In five cases, triple modulation with implant soaked in anti-VEGF was used. Results: All patients had cupping more than 0.9, and one case was GOA. All cases were on maximal medication at presentation and majority were on systemic anti-glaucoma therapy also. Post-surgery, follow-up ranged from 13 – 34 months, and all cases had a follow longer than the gap between previous surgery (which was failed) and re-trab. One case needed AC reformation and one needling was done. Phaco was done at same sitting in four cases. All cases had their IOP lowered post surgery, and vision was maintained in all, however one case was considered as failed re-surgery case. Topical medication was needed in seven cases post-surgery also. Conclusion: Ologen as adjuvant should be considered in all re-trab cases and all high risk and advanced cases, and triple modulation can be next step in these cases. Aggressive IOP control and non- reluctance to continue topical medications post second surgery should be considered in such cases, to give them best possible vision.

Keywords: failed trabeculectomy, ologen, trabeculectomy, advanced glaucoma

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19 Neuroprotection against N-Methyl-D-Aspartate-Induced Optic Nerve and Retinal Degeneration Changes by Philanthotoxin-343 to Alleviate Visual Impairments Involve Reduced Nitrosative Stress

Authors: Izuddin Fahmy Abu, Mohamad Haiqal Nizar Mohamad, Muhammad Fattah Fazel, Renu Agarwal, Igor Iezhitsa, Nor Salmah Bakar, Henrik Franzyk, Ian Mellor

Abstract:

Glaucoma is the global leading cause of irreversible blindness. Currently, the available treatment strategy only involves lowering intraocular pressure (IOP); however, the condition often progresses despite lowered or normal IOP in some patients. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) excitotoxicity often occurs in neurodegeneration-related glaucoma; thus it is a relevant target to develop a therapy based on neuroprotection approach. This study investigated the effects of Philanthotoxin-343 (PhTX-343), an NMDAR antagonist, on the neuroprotection of NMDA-induced glaucoma to alleviate visual impairments. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided: Groups 1 (control) and 2 (glaucoma) were intravitreally injected with phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and NMDA (160nM), respectively, while group 3 was pre-treated with PhTX-343 (160nM) 24 hours prior to NMDA injection. Seven days post-treatments, rats were subjected to visual behavior assessments and subsequently euthanized to harvest their retina and optic nerve tissues for histological analysis and determination of nitrosative stress level using 3-nitrotyrosine ELISA. Visual behavior assessments via open field, object, and color recognition tests demonstrated poor visual performance in glaucoma rats indicated by high exploratory behavior. PhTX-343 pre-treatment appeared to preserve visual abilities as all test results were significantly improved (p < 0.05). H&E staining of the retina showed a marked reduction of ganglion cell layer thickness in the glaucoma group; in contrast, PhTX-343 significantly increased the number by 1.28-folds (p < 0.05). PhTX-343 also increased the number of cell nuclei/100μm2 within inner retina by 1.82-folds compared to the glaucoma group (p < 0.05). Toluidine blue staining of optic nerve tissues showed that PhTX-343 reduced the degeneration changes compared to the glaucoma group which exhibited vacuolation overall sections. PhTX-343 also decreased retinal 3- nitrotyrosine concentration by 1.74-folds compared to the glaucoma group (p < 0.05). All results in PhTX-343 group were comparable to control (p > 0.05). We conclude that PhTX-343 protects against NMDA-induced changes and visual impairments in the rat model by reducing nitrosative stress levels.

Keywords: excitotoxicity, glaucoma, nitrosative stress , NMDA receptor , N-methyl-D-aspartate , philanthotoxin, visual behaviour

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18 A Sub-Conjunctiva Injection of Rosiglitazone for Anti-Fibrosis Treatment after Glaucoma Filtration Surgery

Authors: Yang Zhao, Feng Zhang, Xuanchu Duan

Abstract:

Trans-differentiation of human Tenon fibroblasts (HTFs) to myo-fibroblasts and fibrosis of episcleral tissue are the most common reasons for the failure of glaucoma filtration surgery, with limited treatment options like antimetabolites which always have side-effects such as leakage of filter bulb, infection, hypotony, and endophthalmitis. Rosiglitazone, a specific thiazolidinedione is a synthetic high-affinity ligand for PPAR-r, which has been used in the treatment of type2 diabetes, and found to have pleiotropic functions against inflammatory response, cell proliferation and tissue fibrosis and to benefit to a variety of diseases in animal myocardium models, steatohepatitis models, etc. Here, in vitro we cultured primary HTFs and stimulated with TGF- β to induced myofibrogenic, then treated cells with Rosiglitazone to assess for fibrogenic response. In vivo, we used rabbit glaucoma model to establish the formation of post- trabeculectomy scarring. Then we administered subconjunctival injection with Rosiglitazone beside the filtering bleb, later protein, mRNA and immunofluorescence of fibrogenic markers are checked, and filtering bleb condition was measured. In vitro, we found Rosiglitazone could suppressed proliferation and migration of fibroblasts through macroautophagy via TGF- β /Smad signaling pathway. In vivo, on postoperative day 28, the mean number of fibroblasts in Rosiglitazone injection group was significantly the lowest and had the least collagen content and connective tissue growth factor. Rosiglitazone effectively controlled human and rabbit fibroblasts in vivo and in vitro. Its subconjunctiiva application may represent an effective, new avenue for the prevention of scarring after glaucoma surgery.

Keywords: fibrosis, glaucoma, macroautophagy, rosiglitazone

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17 Design and Simulation High Sensitive MEMS Capacitive Pressure Sensor with Small Size for Glaucoma Treatment

Authors: Yadollah Hezarjaribi, Mahdie Yari Esboi

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In this paper, a novel MEMS capacitive pressure sensor with small size and high sensitivity is presented. This sensor has the separated clamped square diaphragm and the movable plate. The diaphragm material is polysilicon. The movable and fixed plates and mechanical coupling are gold. The substrate and diaphragm are pyrex glass and polysilicon, respectively. In capacitive sensor the sensitivity is proportional to deflection and capacitance changes with pressure for this reason with this design is improved the capacitance and sensitivity with small size. This sensor is designed for low pressure between 0-60 mmHg that is used for medical application such as treatment of an incurable disease called glaucoma. The size of this sensor is 350×350 µm2 and the thickness of the diaphragm is 2µm with 1μ air gap. This structure is designed by intellisuite software. In this MEMS capacitive pressure sensor the sensor sensitivity, diaphragm mechanical sensitivity for polysilicon diaphragm are 0.0469Pf/mmHg, 0.011 μm/mmHg, respectively. According to the simulating results for low pressure, the structure with polysilicon diaphragm has more change of the displacement and capacitance, this leads to high sensitivity than other diaphragms.

Keywords: glaucoma, MEMS capacitive pressure sensor, square clamped diaphragm, polysilicon

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16 Comparison of Visual Field Tests in Glaucoma Patients with a Central Visual Field Defect

Authors: Hye-Young Shin, Hae-Young Lopilly Park, Chan Kee Park

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We compared the 24-2 and 10-2 visual fields (VFs) and investigate the degree of discrepancy between the two tests in glaucomatous eyes with central VF defects. In all, 99 eyes of 99 glaucoma patients who underwent both the 24-2 VF and 10-2 VF tests within 6 months were enrolled retrospectively. Glaucomatous eyes involving a central VF defect were divided into three groups based on the average total deviation (TD) of 12 central points in the 24-2 VF test (N = 33, in each group): group 1 (tercile with the highest TD), group 2 (intermediate TD), and group 3 (lowest TD). The TD difference was calculated by subtracting the average TD of the 10-2 VF test from the average TD of 12 central points in the 24-2 VF test. The absolute central TD difference in each quadrant was defined as the absolute value of the TD value obtained by subtracting the average TD of four central points in the 10-2 VF test from the innermost TD in the 24-2 VF test in each quadrant. The TD differences differed significantly between group 3 and groups 1 and 2 (P < 0.001). In the superonasal quadrant, the absolute central TD difference was significantly greater in group 2 than in group 1 (P < 0.05). In the superotemporal quadrant, the absolute central TD difference was significantly greater in group 3 than in groups 1 and 2 (P < 0.001). Our results indicate that the results of VF tests for different VFs can be inconsistent, depending on the degree of central defects and the VF quadrant.

Keywords: central visual field defect, glaucoma, 10-2 visual field, 24-2 visual field

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15 Clinical and Molecular Characterization of 120 Families with Sporadic Juvenile Onset Open Angle Glaucoma

Authors: Bindu I. Somarajan, Viney Gupta, Gagandeep Kaur Walia, Jasbir Kaur, Sunil Kumar, Shikha Gupta, Abadh K. Chaurasia, Dinesh Gupa, Abhinav Kaushik, Aditi Mehta, Vipin Gupta, Arundhati Sharma

Abstract:

Background: Juvenile onset primary open angle glaucoma (JOAG), affects individuals under the age of 40 years. Studies on a few families of JOAG, that led to the discovery of the Myocilin gene, reported the disease to have an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. However, sporadic forms of JOAG been seen to be more common in some populations. Most pathological homozygous mutations in the CYP1B1 gene associated with JOAG have been seen among sporadic cases. Given the higher prevalence of sporadic JOAG cases in our population, we aimed to look for common mutations E229K and R368H, the two most common variants in the CYP1B1 gene associated with glaucoma. Objective: To determine the frequency and evaluate genotype phenotype correlation of CYP1B1 E229K and R368H mutations in a cohort of 120 sporadic Juvenile open angle glaucoma patients.Methods: Unrelated JOAG patients whose first degree relatives had been examined and found to be unaffected were included in the study. The patients and their parents were screened for E229K and R368H mutations. The phenotypic characteristics were compared between probands with and with out these mutations by SPSS v16. Results: Out of 120 JOAG patients included in the study, the E229K mutation was seen in 9 probands (7.5%) and R368H in 7 (5.8%). The average age of onset of the disease (p=0.3) and the highest untreated IOP (p=0.4) among those carrying mutations was not significantly different from those who did not have these mutations. The proportion of probands with angle dysgenesis among those with E229K and R368H mutations was 70% (11 out of 16) in comparison to 65% (67 out of 104) of those who did not harbour these mutations (p=0.56). Similarly the probands with moderate to high myopia among those with E229K and R368H mutations was 20% (3 out of 16) in comparison to 18% (18 out of 104) of those who did not harbour these mutations(p=0.59). Conclusion: The frequency of E229K and R368H mutations of the CYP1B1 gene is low even among sporadic JOAG patients. Moreover there is no clinical correlation between the presence of these mutations and disease severity

Keywords: CYP1B1, gene, IOP, JOAG, mutation

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14 The Retinoprotective Effects and Mechanisms of Fungal Ingredient 3,4-Dihydroxybenzalacetone through Inhibition of Retinal Müller and Microglial Activation

Authors: Yu-Wen Cheng, Jau-Der Ho, Liang-Huan Wu, Fan-Li Lin, Li-Huei Chen, Hung-Ming Chang, Yueh-Hsiung Kuo, George Hsiao

Abstract:

Retina glial activation and neuroinflammation have been confirmed to cause devastating responses in retinodegenerative diseases. The expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) could be exerted as the crucial pathological factors in glaucoma- and blue light-induced retinal injuries. The present study aimed to investigate the retinoprotective effects and mechanisms of fungal ingredient 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (DBL) isolated from Phellinus linteus in the retinal glial activation and retinodegenerative animal models. According to the cellular studies, DBL significantly and concentration-dependently abrogated MMP-9 activation and expression in TNFα-stimulated retinal Müller (rMC-1) cells. We found the inhibitory activities of DBL were strongly through the STAT- and ERK-dependent pathways. Furthermore, DBL dramatically attenuated MMP-9 activation in the stimulated Müller cells exposed to conditioned media from LPS-stimulated microglia BV-2 cells. On the other hand, DBL strongly suppressed LPS-induced production of NO and ROS and expression of iNOS in microglia BV-2 cells. Consistently, the phosphorylation of STAT was substantially blocked by DBL in LPS-stimulated microglia BV-2 cells. In the evaluation of retinoprotective functions, the high IOP-induced scotopic electroretinographic (ERG) deficit and blue light-induced abnormal pupillary light response (PLR) were assessed. The deficit scotopic ERG responses markedly recovered by DBL in a rat model of glaucoma-like ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-injury. DBL also reduced the aqueous gelatinolytic activity and retinal MMP-9 expression in high IOP-injured conditions. Additionally, DBL could restore the abnormal PLR and reduce retinal MMP-9 activation. In summary, DBL could ameliorate retinal neuroinflammation and MMP-9 activation by predominantly inhibiting STAT3 activation in the retinal Müller cells and microglia, which exhibits therapeutic potential for glaucoma and other retinal degenerative diseases.

Keywords: glaucoma, blue light, DBL, retinal Müller cell, MMP-9, STAT, Microglia, iNOS, ERG, PLR

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13 Action Potential of Lateral Geniculate Neurons at Low Threshold Currents: Simulation Study

Authors: Faris Tarlochan, Siva Mahesh Tangutooru

Abstract:

Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) is the relay center in the visual pathway as it receives most of the input information from retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and sends to visual cortex. Low threshold calcium currents (IT) at the membrane are the unique indicator to characterize this firing functionality of the LGN neurons gained by the RGC input. According to the LGN functional requirements such as functional mapping of RGC to LGN, the morphologies of the LGN neurons were developed. During the neurological disorders like glaucoma, the mapping between RGC and LGN is disconnected and hence stimulating LGN electrically using deep brain electrodes can restore the functionalities of LGN. A computational model was developed for simulating the LGN neurons with three predominant morphologies, each representing different functional mapping of RGC to LGN. The firings of action potentials at LGN neuron due to IT were characterized by varying the stimulation parameters, morphological parameters and orientation. A wide range of stimulation parameters (stimulus amplitude, duration and frequency) represents the various strengths of the electrical stimulation with different morphological parameters (soma size, dendrites size and structure). The orientation (0-1800) of LGN neuron with respect to the stimulating electrode represents the angle at which the extracellular deep brain stimulation towards LGN neuron is performed. A reduced dendrite structure was used in the model using Bush–Sejnowski algorithm to decrease the computational time while conserving its input resistance and total surface area. The major finding is that an input potential of 0.4 V is required to produce the action potential in the LGN neuron which is placed at 100 µm distance from the electrode. From this study, it can be concluded that the neuroprostheses under design would need to consider the capability of inducing at least 0.4V to produce action potentials in LGN.

Keywords: Lateral Geniculate Nucleus, visual cortex, finite element, glaucoma, neuroprostheses

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12 Ophthalmic Services Covered by Albasar International Foundation in Sudan

Authors: Mohammad Ibrahim

Abstract:

The study was conducted at Albasar international foundation ophthalmic hospitals in Sudan to study the burden and patterns of ophthalmic disorder in the sector. Review of the hospitals records revealed that the total number of patient examined in the hospitals and outreached camps conducted by the hospitals is 10,513,874, the total number of surgeries is 694,015 and the total number of pupils at school program is 230,382. The organization working with the highest management system and standards and quality result based planning. The study yielded that the ophthalmic problem in Sudan are of great percentage and the temporal blindness disorder are high since major cases and surgeries were Cataract (57.8%). Retinal problem (2.9%), Glaucoma (2.4%), Orbit and Occulo-plastic disorders (2.2%) other disorders are refractive errors, squint and strabismus, Corneal, Pediatrics and minor ophthalmic disorders.

Keywords: hospitals and outreach ophthalmic services, largest coverage of ophthalmic services, nonprofitable ophthalmic services, strong management system and standards

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11 Ocular Biometry: Common Etiologies of Difference More Than 0.33mm between Axial Lengths of the 2 Eyes

Authors: Ghandehari Motlagh, Mohammad

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Purpose: We tried to find the most common etiologies for anisometropia in pre-op cataract cases: axial or refractive. Methods: In this cross-sectional study ,41 pre-op cataract eyes with more than 0.33 difference between axial lengths of 2 eyes were enrolled.Considered for each 1mm difference between axial lengths in long eyes( AXL more than 25):1.75-2.00 D of anisometropia, for normal eyes(AXL: 22- 25):2.50D and for short eyes (AXL less than 22):3.50-3.75 D as axial anisometropia. If there are more or lesser anisometropia, we recorded as refractive anisometropia. Results: Average of anisometropia :4.24 D, prevalence of PK or LK :1 (2.38%), kc:1(2.38%), glaucoma surgery: 1(2.38%), and pseudophakic status of the opposite eye 8(19.04%). Prevalence of axial anisometropia:21 (52.4%) and refractive anisometropia 20(47.6%).Then on basis of this study we can rely on the patient’s refraction exactly before phaco for evaluation of axial length differences between the 2 eyes, because most of the anisometropias are axial. Conclusion: In most cases, cataract does not induce significant change in refractive error (secondary myopia) and AXL difference between the 2 eyes are correlated with anisometropia.so it can be used for cataract patient’s ocular biometry evaluation. Pre-cataract refraction is a valuable variable should be measured and recorded in routin eye examination.

Keywords: ocular axial length, anisometropia, cataract, ophthalmology and optometry

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10 Attention Based Fully Convolutional Neural Network for Simultaneous Detection and Segmentation of Optic Disc in Retinal Fundus Images

Authors: Sandip Sadhukhan, Arpita Sarkar, Debprasad Sinha, Goutam Kumar Ghorai, Gautam Sarkar, Ashis K. Dhara

Abstract:

Accurate segmentation of the optic disc is very important for computer-aided diagnosis of several ocular diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and hypertensive retinopathy. The paper presents an accurate and fast optic disc detection and segmentation method using an attention based fully convolutional network. The network is trained from scratch using the fundus images of extended MESSIDOR database and the trained model is used for segmentation of optic disc. The false positives are removed based on morphological operation and shape features. The result is evaluated using three-fold cross-validation on six public fundus image databases such as DIARETDB0, DIARETDB1, DRIVE, AV-INSPIRE, CHASE DB1 and MESSIDOR. The attention based fully convolutional network is robust and effective for detection and segmentation of optic disc in the images affected by diabetic retinopathy and it outperforms existing techniques.

Keywords: attention-based fully convolutional network, optic disc detection and segmentation, retinal fundus image, screening of ocular diseases

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9 Triple Modulation on Wound Healing in Glaucoma Surgery Using Mitomycin C and Ologen Augmented with Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

Authors: Reetika Sharma, Lalit Tejwani, Himanshu Shekhar, Arun Singhvi

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Purpose: To describe a novel technique of trabeculectomy targeting triple modulation on wound healing to increase the overall success rate. Method: Ten eyes of 10 patients underwent trabeculectomy with subconjunctival mitomycin C (0.4mg/ml for 4 minutes) application combined with Ologen implantation subconjunctivally and subsclerally. Five of these patients underwent additional phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation. The Ologen implant was wet with 0.1 ml Bevacizumab. Result: All the eyes achieved target intraocular pressure (IOP), which was maintained until one year of follow-up. Two patients needed anterior chamber reformation at day two post surgery. One patient needed cataract surgery after four months of surgery and achieved target intraocular pressure on two topical antiglaucoma medicines. Conclusion: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration has been seen to increase in the aqueous humor after filtration surgery. Ologen implantation helps in collagen remodelling, antifibroblastic response, and acts as a spacer. Bevacizumab augmented Ologen, in addition, targets the increased VEGF and helps in decreasing scarring. Anti-VEGF augmented Ologen in trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (MMC) hence appears to have encouraging short-term intraocular pressure control.

Keywords: ologen, anti-VEGF, trabeculectomy, scarring

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8 Evaluation of Goji By-Product as a Value-Added Ingredient for the Functional Food Industry

Authors: Sanaa Ragaee, Paragyani Bora, Wee Teng Tan, Xin Hu

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Goji berry (Lycium barbarum) is a member of the family Solanaceae which is grown widely in China, Tibet, and other parts of Asia. Its fruits are 1–2 cm-long, bright orange-red ellipsoid berries and it has a long tradition as a food and medicinal plant. Goji berries are believed to boost immune system properties. The berries are considered an excellent source of macronutrients, micronutrients, vitamins, minerals and several bioactive components. Studies have shown effects of goji fruit on aging, neuroprotection, general well-being, fatigue/endurance, metabolism/energy expenditure, glucose control in diabetics and glaucoma, antioxidant properties, immunomodulation and anti-tumor activity. Goji berries are being used to prepare Goji beverage, and the remaining solid material is considered as by-product. The by-product is currently unused and disposed as waste despite its potential as a value-added food ingredient. Therefore, this study is intended to evaluate nutritional properties of Goji by-product and its potential applications in the baking industry. The Goji by-product was freeze dried and ground to pass through 1 mm screen prior to evaluation and food use. The Goji by-product was found to be a rich source of fiber (54%) and free phenolic components (1,307 µg/g), protein (13.6%), ash (3.3%) and fat (10%). Incorporation of the Goji by-product in muffins and cookies at various levels (10-40%) significantly improved the nutritional quality of the baked products. The baked products were generally accepted and highly rated by panelists at 20% replacement level. The results indicate the potential of Goji by-product as a value-added ingredient in particular as a source of dietary fiber and protein.

Keywords: Goji, by-product, phenolics, fibers, baked products

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7 Causes of Blindness and Low Vision among Visually Impaired Population Supported by Welfare Organization in Ardabil Province in Iran

Authors: Mohammad Maeiyat, Ali Maeiyat Ivatlou, Rasul Fani Khiavi, Abouzar Maeiyat Ivatlou, Parya Maeiyat

Abstract:

Purpose: Considering the fact that visual impairment is still one of the countries health problem, this study was conducted to determine the causes of blindness and low vision in visually impaired membership of Ardabil Province welfare organization. Methods: The present study which was based on descriptive and national-census, that carried out in visually impaired population supported by welfare organization in all urban and rural areas of Ardabil Province in 2013 and Collection of samples lasted for 7 months. The subjects were inspected by optometrist to determine their visual status (blindness or low vision) and then referred to ophthalmologist in order to discover the main causes of visual impairment based on the international classification of diseases version 10. Statistical analysis of collected data was performed using SPSS software version 18. Results: Overall, 403 subjects with mean age of years participated in this study. 73.2% were blind, 26.8 % were low vision and according gender grouping 60.50 % of them were male, 39.50 % were female that divided into three groups with the age level of lower than 15 (11.2%) 15 to 49 (76.7%), and 50 and higher (12.1%). The age range was 1 to 78 years. The causes of blindness and low vision were in descending order: optic atrophy (18.4%), retinitis pigmentosa (16.8%), corneal diseases (12.4%), chorioretinal diseases (9.4%), cataract (8.9%), glaucoma (8.2%), phthisis bulbi (7.2%), degenerative myopia (6.9%), microphtalmos ( 4%), amblyopia (3.2%), albinism (2.5%) and nistagmus (2%). Conclusion: in this study the main causes of visual impairments were optic atrophy and retinitis pigmentosa, thus specific prevention plans can be effective in reducing the incidence of visual disabilities.

Keywords: blindness, low vision, welfare, ardabil

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6 Complicated Corneal Ulceration in Cats: Clinical Diagnosis and Surgical Management of 80 Cases

Authors: Khaled M. Ali, Ayman A. Mostafa, Soliman M. Soliman

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Objectives: To describe the most common clinical and endoscopic findings associated with complicated corneal ulcers in cats, and to determine the short-term outcomes after surgical treatment of these cats. Animals Eighteen client-owned cats of different breeds (52 females and 28 males), ranging in age from 3 months to 6 years, with corneal ulcers. Procedures: Cats were clinically evaluated to initially determine the concurrent corneal abnormalities. Endoscopic examination was performed to determine the anterior and posterior segments abnormalities. Superficial and deep stromal ulcers were treated using conjunctival flap. Corneal sequestrum was treated by partial keratectomy and conjunctival flap. Anterior synechia was treated via peripheral iridectomy and separation of the adhesion between the iris and the inner cornea. Symblepharon was treated by removal of the adhered conjunctival membrane from the cornea. Incurable endophthalmitis was treated surgically by extirpation. Short-term outcomes after surgical managements of selected corneal abnormalities were then assessed clinically and endoscopically. Results: Deep stromal ulcer with descemetocele, endophthalmitis, symblepharon, corneal sequestration and anterior synechia with secondary glaucoma and corneal scarring were the most common complications of corneal ulcer. FHV-1 was a common etiologic factor of corneal ulceration. Persistent corneal scars of varying shape and size developed in cats with deep stromal ulcer, anterior synechia, and corneal sequestration. Conclusions: Domestic shorthaired and Persian cats were the most predisposed breeds to FHV-1 infection and subsequent corneal ulceration. Immediate management of patients with corneal ulcer would prevent serious complications. No age or sex predisposition to complicated corneal ulceration in cats.

Keywords: cats, complicated corneal ulceration, clinical, endoscopic diagnosis, FHV-1

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5 Segmenting 3D Optical Coherence Tomography Images Using a Kalman Filter

Authors: Deniz Guven, Wil Ward, Jinming Duan, Li Bai

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Over the past two decades or so, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has been used to diagnose retina and optic nerve diseases. The retinal nerve fibre layer, for example, is a powerful diagnostic marker for detecting and staging glaucoma. With the advances in optical imaging hardware, the adoption of OCT is now commonplace in clinics. More and more OCT images are being generated, and for these OCT images to have clinical applicability, accurate automated OCT image segmentation software is needed. Oct image segmentation is still an active research area, as OCT images are inherently noisy, with the multiplicative speckling noise. Simple edge detection algorithms are unsuitable for detecting retinal layer boundaries in OCT images. Intensity fluctuation, motion artefact, and the presence of blood vessels also decrease further OCT image quality. In this paper, we introduce a new method for segmenting three-dimensional (3D) OCT images. This involves the use of a Kalman filter, which is commonly used in computer vision for object tracking. The Kalman filter is applied to the 3D OCT image volume to track the retinal layer boundaries through the slices within the volume and thus segmenting the 3D image. Specifically, after some pre-processing of the OCT images, points on the retinal layer boundaries in the first image are identified, and curve fitting is applied to them such that the layer boundaries can be represented by the coefficients of the curve equations. These coefficients then form the state space for the Kalman Filter. The filter then produces an optimal estimate of the current state of the system by updating its previous state using the measurements available in the form of a feedback control loop. The results show that the algorithm can be used to segment the retinal layers in OCT images. One of the limitations of the current algorithm is that the curve representation of the retinal layer boundary does not work well when the layer boundary is split into two, e.g., at the optic nerve, the layer boundary split into two. This maybe resolved by using a different approach to representing the boundaries, such as b-splines or level sets. The use of a Kalman filter shows promise to developing accurate and effective 3D OCT segmentation methods.

Keywords: optical coherence tomography, image segmentation, Kalman filter, object tracking

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4 In vitro Modeling of Aniridia-Related Keratopathy by the Use of Crispr/Cas9 on Limbal Epithelial Cells and Rescue

Authors: Daniel Aberdam

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Haploinsufficiency of PAX6 in humans is the main cause of congenital aniridia, a rare eye disease characterized by reduced visual acuity. Patients have also progressive disorders including cataract, glaucoma and corneal abnormalities making their condition very challenging to manage. Aniridia-related keratopathy (ARK), caused by a combination of factors including limbal stem-cell deficiency, impaired healing response, abnormal differentiation, and infiltration of conjunctival cells onto the corneal surface, affects up to 95% of patients. It usually begins in the first decade of life resulting in recurrent corneal erosions, sub-epithelial fibrosis with corneal decompensation and opacification. Unfortunately, current treatment options for aniridia patients are currently limited. Although animal models partially recapitulate this disease, there is no in vitro cellular model of AKT needed for drug/therapeutic tools screening and validation. We used genome editing (CRISPR/Cas9 technology) to introduce a nonsense mutation found in patients into one allele of the PAX6 gene into limbal stem cells. Resulting mutated clones, expressing half of the amount of PAX6 protein and thus representative of haploinsufficiency were further characterized. Sequencing analysis showed that no off-target mutations were induced. The mutated cells displayed reduced cell proliferation and cell migration but enhanced cell adhesion. Known PAX6 targets expression was also reduced. Remarkably, addition of soluble recombinant PAX6 protein into the culture medium was sufficient to activate endogenous PAX6 gene and, as a consequence, rescue the phenotype. It strongly suggests that our in vitro model recapitulates well the epithelial defect and becomes a powerful tool to identify drugs that could rescue the corneal defect in patients. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the homeotic transcription factor Pax6 is able to be uptake naturally by recipient cells to function into the nucleus.

Keywords: Pax6, crispr/cas9, limbal stem cells, aniridia, gene therapy

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3 Rare Diagnosis in Emergency Room: Moyamoya Disease

Authors: Ecem Deniz Kırkpantur, Ozge Ecmel Onur, Tuba Cimilli Ozturk, Ebru Unal Akoglu

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Moyamoya disease is a unique chronic progressive cerebrovascular disease characterized by bilateral stenosis or occlusion of the arteries around the circle of Willis with prominent arterial collateral circulation. The occurrence of Moyamoya disease is related to immune, genetic and other factors. There is no curative treatment for Moyamoya disease. Secondary prevention for patients with symptomatic Moyamoya disease is largely centered on surgical revascularization techniques. We present here a 62-year old male presented with headache and vision loss for 2 days. He was previously diagnosed with hypertension and glaucoma. On physical examination, left eye movements were restricted medially, both eyes were hyperemic and their movements were painful. Other neurological and physical examination were normal. His vital signs and laboratory results were within normal limits. Computed tomography (CT) showed dilated vascular structures around both lateral ventricles and atherosclerotic changes inside the walls of internal carotid artery (ICA). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography (MRA) revealed dilated venous vascular structures around lateral ventricles and hyper-intense gliosis in periventricular white matter. Ischemic gliosis around the lateral ventricles were present in the Digital Subtracted Angiography (DSA). After the neurology, ophthalmology and neurosurgery consultation, the patient was diagnosed with Moyamoya disease, pulse steroid therapy was started for vision loss, and super-selective DSA was planned for further investigation. Moyamoya disease is a rare condition, but it can be an important cause of stroke in both children and adults. It generally affects anterior circulation, but posterior cerebral circulation may also be affected, as well. In the differential diagnosis of acute vision loss, occipital stroke related to Moyamoya disease should be considered. Direct and indirect surgical revascularization surgeries may be used to effectively revascularize affected brain areas, and have been shown to reduce risk of stroke.

Keywords: headache, Moyamoya disease, stroke, visual loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 168