Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 86

Search results for: MEMS

86 Design and Simulation of MEMS-Based Capacitive Pressure Sensors

Authors: Kirankumar B. Balavalad, Bhagyashree Mudhol, B. G. Sheeparamatti

Abstract:

MEMS sensor have gained popularity in automotive, biomedical, and industrial applications. In this paper, the design and simulation of conventional, slotted, and perforated MEMS capacitive pressure sensor is proposed. Polysilicon material is used as diaphragm material that deflects due to applied pressure. Better sensitivity is the main advantage of conventional pressure sensor as compared with other two sensors and perforated pressure sensor achieves large operating pressure range. The proposed MEMS sensor demonstrated with diaphragm length 50um, gap depth 3um is being modelled. The simulation is carried out for different types of MEMS capacitive pressure sensor using COMSOL Multiphysics and Coventor ware.

Keywords: MEMS, conventional pressure sensor, slotted and perforated diaphragm, COMSOL multiphysics, coventor ware

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85 The Research of Reliability of MEMS Device under Thermal Shock Test in Space Mission

Authors: Liu Ziyu, Gao Yongfeng, Li Muhua, Zhao Jiahao, Meng Song

Abstract:

The effect of thermal shock on the operation of micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) were examined. All MEMS device were tested before and after three different conditions of thermal shock (from -55℃ to 85℃, from -65℃ to 125℃, from -65℃ to 200℃). The micro lens showed no changes after thermal shock, which shows that the design of the micro lens can be well adapted to the application environment in the space. The design of the micro mirror can be well adapted to the space application environment. The micro-magnetometer, RF MEMS switch and the micro accelerometer exhibited degradation and parameter drift after thermal shock, potential mechanical was proposed.

Keywords: MEMS, thermal shock test, reliability, space environment

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84 Development of MEMS Based 3-Axis Accelerometer for Hand Movement Monitoring

Authors: Zohra Aziz Ali Manjiyani, Renju Thomas Jacob, Keerthan Kumar

Abstract:

This project develops a hand movement monitoring system, which feeds the data into the computer and gives the 3D image rotation according to the direction of the tilt and hence monitoring the movement of the hand in context to its tilt. Advancement of MEMS Technology has enabled us to get very small and low-cost accelerometer ICs which is based on capacitive principle. Accelerometer based Tilt sensor ADXL335 is used in this paper, based on MEMS technology and the project emphasis on the development of the MEMS-based accelerometer to measure the tilt, interfacing the hardware with the LabVIEW and showing the 3D rotation to the user, which is in his understandable form and tilt data can be saved in the computer. It provides an experience of working on emerging technologies like MEMS and design software like LabVIEW.

Keywords: MEMS accelerometer, tilt sensor ADXL335, LabVIEW simulation, 3D animation

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
83 Mathematical Modeling of Switching Processes in Magnetically Controlled MEMS Switches

Authors: Sergey M. Karabanov, Dmitry V. Suvorov, Dmitry Yu. Tarabrin

Abstract:

The operating principle of magnetically controlled microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switches is based on controlling the beam movement under the influence of a magnetic field. Currently, there is a MEMS switch design with a flexible ferromagnetic electrode in the form of a fixed-terminal beam, with an electrode fastened on a straight or cranked anchor. The basic performance characteristics of magnetically controlled MEMS switches (service life, sensitivity, contact resistance, fast response) are largely determined by the flexible electrode design. To ensure the stable and controlled motion of the flexible electrode, it is necessary to provide the optimal design of a flexible electrode.

Keywords: flexible electrode, magnetically controlled MEMS, mathematical modeling, mechanical stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
82 Valuation on MEMS Pressure Sensors and Device Applications

Authors: Nurul Amziah Md Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Ong Kai Sheng

Abstract:

The MEMS pressure sensor has been introduced and presented in this paper. The types of pressure sensor and its theory of operation are also included. The latest MEMS technology, the fabrication processes of pressure sensor are explored and discussed. Besides, various device applications of pressure sensor such as tire pressure monitoring system, diesel particulate filter and others are explained. Due to further miniaturization of the device nowadays, the pressure sensor with nanotechnology (NEMS) is also reviewed. The NEMS pressure sensor is expected to have better performance as well as lower in its cost. It has gained an excellent popularity in many applications.

Keywords: pressure sensor, diaphragm, MEMS, automotive application, biomedical application, NEMS

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81 Study of Fast Etching of Silicon for the Fabrication of Bulk Micromachined MEMS Structures

Authors: V. Swarnalatha, A. V. Narasimha Rao, P. Pal

Abstract:

The present research reports the investigation of fast etching of silicon for the fabrication of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) structures using silicon wet bulk micromachining. Low concentration tetramethyl-ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and hydroxylamine (NH2OH) are used as main etchant and additive, respectively. The concentration of NH2OH is varied to optimize the composition to achieve best etching characteristics such as high etch rate, significantly high undercutting at convex corner for the fast release of the microstructures from the substrate, and improved etched surface morphology. These etching characteristics are studied on Si{100} and Si{110} wafers as they are most widely used in the fabrication of MEMS structures as wells diode, transistors and integrated circuits.

Keywords: KOH, MEMS, micromachining, silicon, TMAH, wet anisotropic etching

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80 A Short-Baseline Dual-Antenna BDS/MEMS-IMU Integrated Navigation System

Authors: Tijing Cai, Qimeng Xu, Daijin Zhou

Abstract:

This paper puts forward a short-baseline dual-antenna BDS/MEMS-IMU integrated navigation, constructs the carrier phase double difference model of BDS (BeiDou Navigation Satellite System), and presents a 2-position initial orientation method on BDS. The Extended Kalman-filter has been introduced for the integrated navigation system. The differences between MEMS-IMU and BDS position, velocity and carrier phase indications are used as measurements. To show the performance of the short-baseline dual-antenna BDS/MEMS-IMU integrated navigation system, the experiment results show that the position error is less than 1m, the pitch angle error and roll angle error are less than 0.1°, and the heading angle error is about 1°.

Keywords: MEMS-IMU (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit), BDS (BeiDou Navigation Satellite System), dual-antenna, integrated navigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
79 Studying the Dynamical Response of Nano-Microelectromechanical Devices for Nanomechanical Testing of Nanostructures

Authors: Mohammad Reza Zamani Kouhpanji

Abstract:

Characterizing the fatigue and fracture properties of nanostructures is one of the most challenging tasks in nanoscience and nanotechnology due to lack of a MEMS/NEMS device for generating uniform cyclic loadings at high frequencies. Here, the dynamic response of a recently proposed MEMS/NEMS device under different inputs signals is completely investigated. This MEMS/NEMS device is designed and modeled based on the electromagnetic force induced between paired parallel wires carrying electrical currents, known as Ampere’s Force Law (AFL). Since this MEMS/NEMS device only uses two paired wires for actuation part and sensing part, it represents highly sensitive and linear response for nanostructures with any stiffness and shapes (single or arrays of nanowires, nanotubes, nanosheets or nanowalls). In addition to studying the maximum gains at different resonance frequencies of the MEMS/NEMS device, its dynamical responses are investigated for different inputs and nanostructure properties to demonstrate the capability, usability, and reliability of the device for wide range of nanostructures. This MEMS/NEMS device can be readily integrated into SEM/TEM instruments to provide real time study of the fatigue and fracture properties of nanostructures as well as their softening or hardening behaviors, and initiation and/or propagation of nanocracks in them.

Keywords: MEMS/NEMS devices, paired wire actuators and sensors, dynamical response, fatigue and fracture characterization, Ampere’s force law

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
78 Realization of Autonomous Guidance Service by Integrating Information from NFC and MEMS

Authors: Dawei Cai

Abstract:

In this paper, we present an autonomous guidance service by combining the position information from NFC and the orientation information from a 6 axis acceleration and terrestrial magnetism sensor. We developed an algorithm to calculate the device orientation based on the data from acceleration and terrestrial magnetism sensor. If visitors want to know some explanation about an exhibit in front of him, what he has to do is just lift up his mobile device. The identification program will automatically identify the status based on the information from NFC and MEMS, and start playing explanation content for him. This service may be convenient for old people or disables or children.

Keywords: NFC, ubiquitous computing, guide sysem, MEMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
77 Designing and Analyzing Sensor and Actuator of a Nano/Micro-System for Fatigue and Fracture Characterization of Nanomaterials

Authors: Mohammad Reza Zamani Kouhpanji

Abstract:

This paper presents a MEMS/NEMS device for fatigue and fracture characterization of nanomaterials. This device can apply static loads, cyclic loads, and their combinations in nanomechanical experiments. It is based on the electromagnetic force induced between paired parallel wires carrying electrical currents. Using this concept, the actuator and sensor parts of the device were designed and analyzed while considering the practical limitations. Since the PWCC device only uses two wires for actuation part and sensing part, its fabrication process is extremely easier than the available MEMS/NEMS devices. The total gain and phase shift of the MEMS/NEMS device were calculated and investigated. Furthermore, the maximum gain and sensitivity of the MEMS/NEMS device were studied to demonstrate the capability and usability of the device for wide range of nanomaterials samples. This device can be readily integrated into SEM/TEM instruments to provide real time study of the mechanical behaviors of nanomaterials as well as their fatigue and fracture properties, softening or hardening behaviors, and initiation and propagation of nanocracks.

Keywords: sensors and actuators, MEMS/NEMS devices, fatigue and fracture nanomechanical testing device, static and cyclic nanomechanical testing device

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
76 Design and Simulation of Step Structure RF MEMS Switch for K Band Applications

Authors: G. K. S. Prakash, Rao K. Srinivasa

Abstract:

MEMS plays an important role in wide range of applications like biological, automobiles, military and communication engineering. This paper mainly investigates on capacitive shunt RF MEMS switch with low actuation voltage and low insertion losses. To trim the pull-in voltage, a step structure has introduced to trim air gap between the beam and the dielectric layer with that pull in voltage is trim to 2.9 V. The switching time of the proposed switch is 39.1μs, and capacitance ratio is 67. To get more isolation, we have used aluminum nitride as dielectric material instead of silicon nitride (Si₃N₄) and silicon dioxide (SiO₂) because aluminum nitride has high dielectric constant (εᵣ = 9.5) increases the OFF capacitance and eventually increases the isolation of the switch. The results show that the switch is ON state involves return loss (S₁₁) less than -25 dB up to 40 GHz and insertion loss (S₂₁) is more than -1 dB up to 35 GHz. In OFF state switch shows maximum isolation (S₂₁) of -38 dB occurs at a frequency of 25-27 GHz for K band applications.

Keywords: RF MEMS, actuation voltage, isolation loss, switches

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75 Electrical Equivalent Analysis of Micro Cantilever Beams for Sensing Applications

Authors: B. G. Sheeparamatti, J. S. Kadadevarmath

Abstract:

Microcantilevers are the basic MEMS devices, which can be used as sensors, actuators, and electronics can be easily built into them. The detection principle of microcantilever sensors is based on the measurement of change in cantilever deflection or change in its resonance frequency. The objective of this work is to explore the analogies between the mechanical and electrical equivalent of microcantilever beams. Normally scientists and engineers working in MEMS use expensive software like CoventorWare, IntelliSuite, ANSYS/Multiphysics, etc. This paper indicates the need of developing the electrical equivalent of the MEMS structure and with that, one can have a better insight on important parameters, and their interrelation of the MEMS structure. In this work, considering the mechanical model of the microcantilever, the equivalent electrical circuit is drawn and using a force-voltage analogy, it is analyzed with circuit simulation software. By doing so, one can gain access to a powerful set of intellectual tools that have been developed for understanding electrical circuits. Later the analysis is performed using ANSYS/Multiphysics - software based on finite element method (FEM). It is observed that both mechanical and electrical domain results for a rectangular microcantilevers are in agreement with each other.

Keywords: electrical equivalent circuit analogy, FEM analysis, micro cantilevers, micro sensors

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74 Simscape Library for Large-Signal Physical Network Modeling of Inertial Microelectromechanical Devices

Authors: S. Srinivasan, E. Cretu

Abstract:

The information flow (e.g. block-diagram or signal flow graph) paradigm for the design and simulation of Microelectromechanical (MEMS)-based systems allows to model MEMS devices using causal transfer functions easily, and interface them with electronic subsystems for fast system-level explorations of design alternatives and optimization. Nevertheless, the physical bi-directional coupling between different energy domains is not easily captured in causal signal flow modeling. Moreover, models of fundamental components acting as building blocks (e.g. gap-varying MEMS capacitor structures) depend not only on the component, but also on the specific excitation mode (e.g. voltage or charge-actuation). In contrast, the energy flow modeling paradigm in terms of generalized across-through variables offers an acausal perspective, separating clearly the physical model from the boundary conditions. This promotes reusability and the use of primitive physical models for assembling MEMS devices from primitive structures, based on the interconnection topology in generalized circuits. The physical modeling capabilities of Simscape have been used in the present work in order to develop a MEMS library containing parameterized fundamental building blocks (area and gap-varying MEMS capacitors, nonlinear springs, displacement stoppers, etc.) for the design, simulation and optimization of MEMS inertial sensors. The models capture both the nonlinear electromechanical interactions and geometrical nonlinearities and can be used for both small and large signal analyses, including the numerical computation of pull-in voltages (stability loss). Simscape behavioral modeling language was used for the implementation of reduced-order macro models, that present the advantage of a seamless interface with Simulink blocks, for creating hybrid information/energy flow system models. Test bench simulations of the library models compare favorably with both analytical results and with more in-depth finite element simulations performed in ANSYS. Separate MEMS-electronic integration tests were done on closed-loop MEMS accelerometers, where Simscape was used for modeling the MEMS device and Simulink for the electronic subsystem.

Keywords: across-through variables, electromechanical coupling, energy flow, information flow, Matlab/Simulink, MEMS, nonlinear, pull-in instability, reduced order macro models, Simscape

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73 Design and Simulation High Sensitive MEMS Capacitive Pressure Sensor with Small Size for Glaucoma Treatment

Authors: Yadollah Hezarjaribi, Mahdie Yari Esboi

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel MEMS capacitive pressure sensor with small size and high sensitivity is presented. This sensor has the separated clamped square diaphragm and the movable plate. The diaphragm material is polysilicon. The movable and fixed plates and mechanical coupling are gold. The substrate and diaphragm are pyrex glass and polysilicon, respectively. In capacitive sensor the sensitivity is proportional to deflection and capacitance changes with pressure for this reason with this design is improved the capacitance and sensitivity with small size. This sensor is designed for low pressure between 0-60 mmHg that is used for medical application such as treatment of an incurable disease called glaucoma. The size of this sensor is 350×350 µm2 and the thickness of the diaphragm is 2µm with 1μ air gap. This structure is designed by intellisuite software. In this MEMS capacitive pressure sensor the sensor sensitivity, diaphragm mechanical sensitivity for polysilicon diaphragm are 0.0469Pf/mmHg, 0.011 μm/mmHg, respectively. According to the simulating results for low pressure, the structure with polysilicon diaphragm has more change of the displacement and capacitance, this leads to high sensitivity than other diaphragms.

Keywords: glaucoma, MEMS capacitive pressure sensor, square clamped diaphragm, polysilicon

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72 MEMS based Vibration Energy Harvesting: An overview

Authors: Gaurav Prabhudesai, Shaurya Kaushal, Pulkit Dubey, B. D. Pant

Abstract:

The current race of miniaturization of circuits, systems, modules and networks has resulted in portable and mobile wireless systems having tremendous capabilities with small volume and weight. The power drivers or the power pack, electrically driving these modules have also reduced in proportion. Normally, the power packs in these mobile or fixed systems are batteries, rechargeable or non-rechargeable, which need regular replacement or recharging. Another approach to power these modules is to utilize the ambient energy available for electrical driving to make the system self-sustained. The current paper presents an overview of the different MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) based techniques used for the harvesting of vibration energy to electrically drive a WSN (wireless sensor network) or a mobile module. This kind of system would have enormous applications, the most significant one, may be in cell phones.

Keywords: energy harvesting, WSN, MEMS, piezoelectrics

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
71 Earphone Style Wearable Device for Automatic Guidance Service with Position Sensing

Authors: Dawei Cai

Abstract:

This paper describes a design of earphone style wearable device that may provide an automatic guidance service for visitors. With both position information and orientation information obtained from NFC and terrestrial magnetism sensor, a high level automatic guide service may be realized. To realize the service, a algorithm for position detection using the packet from NFC tags, and developed an algorithm to calculate the device orientation based on the data from acceleration and terrestrial magnetism sensors called as MEMS. If visitors want to know some explanation about an exhibit in front of him, what he has to do is only move to the object and stands for a moment. The identification program will automatically recognize the status based on the information from NFC and MEMS, and start playing explanation content about the exhibit. This service should be useful for improving the understanding of the exhibition items and bring more satisfactory visiting experience without less burden.

Keywords: wearable device, MEMS sensor, ubiquitous computing, NFC

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70 Microswitches with Sputtered Au, Aupd, Au-on-Aupt, and Auptcu Alloy. Electric Contacts

Authors: Nikolay Konukhov

Abstract:

This paper to report on a new analytic model for predicting microcontact resistance and the design, fabrication, and testing of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) metal contact switches with sputtered bimetallic (i.e., gold (Au)-on-Au-platinum (Pt), (Au-on-Au-(6.3at%)Pt)), binary alloy (i.e., Au-palladium (Pd), (Au-(3.7at%)Pd)), and ternary alloy (i.e., Au-Pt-copper (Cu), (Au-(5.0at%)Pt-(0.5at%)Cu)) electric contacts. The microswitches with bimetallic and binary alloy contacts resulted in contact resistance values between 1–2

Keywords: alloys, electric contacts, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), microswitch

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69 Functionally Graded MEMS Piezoelectric Energy Harvester with Magnetic Tip Mass

Authors: M. Derayatifar, M. Packirisamy, R.B. Bhat

Abstract:

Role of piezoelectric energy harvesters has gained interest in supplying power for micro devices such as health monitoring sensors. In this study, in order to enhance the piezoelectric energy harvesting in capturing energy from broader range of excitation and to improve the mechanical and electrical responses, bimorph piezoelectric energy harvester beam with magnetic mass attached at the end is presented. In view of overcoming the brittleness of piezo-ceramics, functionally graded piezoelectric layers comprising of both piezo-ceramic and piezo-polymer is employed. The nonlinear equations of motions are derived using energy method and then solved analytically using perturbation scheme. The frequency responses of the forced vibration case are obtained for the near resonance case. The nonlinear dynamic responses of the MEMS scaled functionally graded piezoelectric energy harvester in this paper may be utilized in different design scenarios to increase the efficiency of the harvester.

Keywords: energy harvesting, functionally graded piezoelectric material, magnetic force, MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) piezoelectric, perturbation method

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
68 Developement of a New Wearable Device for Automatic Guidance Service

Authors: Dawei Cai

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a new wearable device that provide an automatic guidance servie for visitors. By combining the position information from NFC and the orientation information from a 6 axis acceleration and terrestrial magnetism sensor, the head's direction can be calculated. We developed an algorithm to calculate the device orientation based on the data from acceleration and terrestrial magnetism sensor. If visitors want to know some explanation about an exhibit in front of him, what he has to do is just lift up his mobile device. The identification program will automatically identify the status based on the information from NFC and MEMS, and start playing explanation content for him. This service may be convenient for old people or disables or children.

Keywords: wearable device, ubiquitous computing, guide sysem, MEMS sensor, NFC

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
67 Simplified INS\GPS Integration Algorithm in Land Vehicle Navigation

Authors: Othman Maklouf, Abdunnaser Tresh

Abstract:

Land vehicle navigation is subject of great interest today. Global Positioning System (GPS) is the main navigation system for positioning in such systems. GPS alone is incapable of providing continuous and reliable positioning, because of its inherent dependency on external electromagnetic signals. Inertial Navigation (INS) is the implementation of inertial sensors to determine the position and orientation of a vehicle. The availability of low-cost Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) inertial sensors is now making it feasible to develop INS using an inertial measurement unit (IMU). INS has unbounded error growth since the error accumulates at each step. Usually, GPS and INS are integrated with a loosely coupled scheme. With the development of low-cost, MEMS inertial sensors and GPS technology, integrated INS/GPS systems are beginning to meet the growing demands of lower cost, smaller size, and seamless navigation solutions for land vehicles. Although MEMS inertial sensors are very inexpensive compared to conventional sensors, their cost (especially MEMS gyros) is still not acceptable for many low-end civilian applications (for example, commercial car navigation or personal location systems). An efficient way to reduce the expense of these systems is to reduce the number of gyros and accelerometers, therefore, to use a partial IMU (ParIMU) configuration. For land vehicular use, the most important gyroscope is the vertical gyro that senses the heading of the vehicle and two horizontal accelerometers for determining the velocity of the vehicle. This paper presents a field experiment for a low-cost strap down (ParIMU)\GPS combination, with data post processing for the determination of 2-D components of position (trajectory), velocity and heading. In the present approach, we have neglected earth rotation and gravity variations, because of the poor gyroscope sensitivities of our low-cost IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) and because of the relatively small area of the trajectory.

Keywords: GPS, IMU, Kalman filter, materials engineering

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66 Genetic Algorithm Optimization of Microcantilever Based Resonator

Authors: Manjula Sutagundar, B. G. Sheeparamatti, D. S. Jangamshetti

Abstract:

Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) resonators have shown the potential of replacing quartz crystal technology for sensing and high frequency signal processing applications because of inherent advantages like small size, high quality factor, low cost, compatibility with integrated circuit chips. This paper presents the optimization and modelling and simulation of the optimized micro cantilever resonator. The objective of the work is to optimize the dimensions of a micro cantilever resonator for a specified range of resonant frequency and specific quality factor. Optimization is carried out using genetic algorithm. The genetic algorithm is implemented using MATLAB. The micro cantilever resonator is modelled in CoventorWare using the optimized dimensions obtained from genetic algorithm. The modeled cantilever is analysed for resonance frequency.

Keywords: MEMS resonator, genetic algorithm, modelling and simulation, optimization

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65 Micro-Channel Flows Simulation Based on Nonlinear Coupled Constitutive Model

Authors: Qijiao He

Abstract:

MicroElectrical-Mechanical System (MEMS) is one of the most rapidly developing frontier research field both in theory study and applied technology. Micro-channel is a very important link component of MEMS. With the research and development of MEMS, the size of the micro-devices and the micro-channels becomes further smaller. Compared with the macroscale flow, the flow characteristics of gas in the micro-channel have changed, and the rarefaction effect appears obviously. However, for the rarefied gas and microscale flow, Navier-Stokes-Fourier (NSF) equations are no longer appropriate due to the breakup of the continuum hypothesis. A Nonlinear Coupled Constitutive Model (NCCM) has been derived from the Boltzmann equation to describe the characteristics of both continuum and rarefied gas flows. We apply the present scheme to simulate continuum and rarefied gas flows in a micro-channel structure. And for comparison, we apply other widely used methods which based on particle simulation or direct solution of distribution function, such as Direct simulation of Monte Carlo (DSMC), Unified Gas-Kinetic Scheme (UGKS) and Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), to simulate the flows. The results show that the present solution is in better agreement with the experimental data and the DSMC, UGKS and LBM results than the NSF results in rarefied cases but is in good agreement with the NSF results in continuum cases. And some characteristics of both continuum and rarefied gas flows are observed and analyzed.

Keywords: continuum and rarefied gas flows, discontinuous Galerkin method, generalized hydrodynamic equations, numerical simulation

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64 Ruthenium Based Nanoscale Contact Coatings for Magnetically Controlled MEMS Switches

Authors: Sergey M. Karabanov, Dmitry V. Suvorov

Abstract:

Magnetically controlled microelectromechanical system (MCMEMS) switches is one of the directions in the field of micropower switching technology. MCMEMS switches are a promising alternative to Hall sensors and reed switches. The most important parameter for MCMEMS is the contact resistance, which should have a minimum value and is to be stable for the entire duration of service life. The value and stability of the contact resistance is mainly determined by the contact coating material. This paper presents the research results of a contact coating based on nanoscale ruthenium films obtained by electrolytic deposition. As a result of the performed investigations, the deposition modes of ruthenium films are chosen, the regularities of the contact resistance change depending on the number of contact switching, and the coating roughness are established. It is shown that changing the coating roughness makes it possible to minimize the contact resistance.

Keywords: contact resistance, electrode coating, electrolytic deposition, magnetically controlled MEMS

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63 Development of Quasi Real-Time Comprehensive System for Earthquake Disaster

Authors: Zhi Liu, Hui Jiang, Jin Li, Kunhao Chen, Langfang Zhang

Abstract:

Fast acquisition of the seismic information and accurate assessment of the earthquake disaster is the key problem for emergency rescue after a destructive earthquake. In order to meet the requirements of the earthquake emergency response and rescue for the cities and counties, a quasi real-time comprehensive evaluation system for earthquake disaster is developed. Based on monitoring data of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) strong motion network, structure database of a county area and the real-time disaster information by the mobile terminal after an earthquake, fragility analysis method and dynamic correction algorithm are synthetically obtained in the developed system. Real-time evaluation of the seismic disaster in the county region is finally realized to provide scientific basis for seismic emergency command, rescue and assistant decision.

Keywords: quasi real-time, earthquake disaster data collection, MEMS accelerometer, dynamic correction, comprehensive evaluation

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62 Design and Fabrication of an Electrostatically Actuated Parallel-Plate Mirror by 3D-Printer

Authors: J. Mizuno, S. Takahashi

Abstract:

In this paper, design and fabrication of an actuated parallel-plate mirror based on a 3D-printer is described. The mirror and electrode layers are fabricated separately and assembled thereafter. The alignment is performed by dowel pin-hole pairs fabricated on the respective layers. The electrodes are formed on the surface of the electrode layer by Au ion sputtering using a suitable mask, which is also fabricated by a 3D-printer.For grounding the mirror layer, except the contact area with the electrode paths, all the surface is Au ion sputtered. 3D-printers are widely used for creating 3D models or mock-ups. The authors have recently proposed that these models can perform electromechanical functions such as actuators by suitably masking them followed by metallization process. Since the smallest possible fabrication size is in the order of sub-millimeters, these electromechanical devices are named by the authors as SMEMS (Sub-Milli Electro-Mechanical Systems) devices. The proposed mirror described in this paper which consists of parallel-plate electrostatic actuators is also one type of SMEMS devices. In addition, SMEMS is totally environment-clean compared to MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) fabrication processes because any hazardous chemicals or gases are utilized.

Keywords: MEMS, parallel-plate mirror, SMEMS, 3D-printer

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61 Nonlinear Structural Behavior of Micro- and Nano-Actuators Using the Galerkin Discretization Technique

Authors: Hassen M. Ouakad

Abstract:

In this paper, the influence of van der Waals, as well as electrostatic forces on the structural behavior of MEMS and NEMS actuators, has been investigated using of a Euler-Bernoulli beam continuous model. In the proposed nonlinear model, the electrostatic fringing-fields and the mid-plane stretching (geometric nonlinearity) effects have been considered. The nonlinear integro-differential equation governing the static structural behavior of the actuator has been derived. An original Galerkin-based reduced-order model has been developed to avoid problems arising from the nonlinearities in the differential equation. The obtained reduced-order model equations have been solved numerically using the Newton-Raphson method. The basic design parameters such as the pull-in parameters (voltage and deflection at pull-in), as well as the detachment length due to the van der Waals force of some investigated micro- and nano-actuators have been calculated. The obtained numerical results have been compared with some other existing methods (finite-elements method and finite-difference method) and the comparison showed good agreement among all assumed numerical techniques.

Keywords: MEMS, NEMS, fringing-fields, mid-plane stretching, Galerkin

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
60 Magnetophotonics 3D MEMS/NEMS System for Quantitative Mitochondrial DNA Defect Profiling

Authors: Dar-Bin Shieh, Gwo-Bin Lee, Chen-Ming Chang, Chen Sheng Yeh, Chih-Chia Huang, Tsung-Ju Li

Abstract:

Mitochondrial defects have a significant impact in many human diseases and aging associated phenotypes. The pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are diverse and usually present as heteroplasmic. mtDNA 4977bps deletion is one of the common mtDNA defects, and the ratio of mutated versus normal copy is significantly associated with clinical symptoms thus their quantitative detection has become an important unmet needs for advanced disease diagnosis and therapeutic guidelines. This study revealed a Micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) enabled automatic microfluidic chip that only required minimal sample. The system integrated multiple laboratory operation steps into a Lab-on-a-Chip for high-sensitive and prompt measurement. The entire process including magnetic nanoparticle based mtDNA extraction in chip, mutation selective photonic DNA cleavage, and nanoparticle accelerated photonic quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). All subsystems were packed inside a miniature three-dimensional micro structured system and operated in an automatic manner. Integration of magnetic beads with microfluidic transportation could promptly extract and enrich the specific mtDNA. The near infrared responsive magnetic nanoparticles enabled micro-PCR to be operated by pulse-width-modulation controlled laser pulsing to amplify the desired mtDNA while quantified by fluorescence intensity captured by a complementary metal oxide system array detector. The proportions of pathogenic mtDNA in total DNA were thus obtained. Micro capillary electrophoresis module was used to analyze the amplicone products. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a new magnetophotonic based qPCR MEMS system that successfully detects and quantify specific disease related DNA mutations thus provides a promising future for rapid diagnosis of mitochondria diseases.

Keywords: mitochondrial DNA, micro-electro-mechanical-system, magnetophotonics, PCR

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59 Compact Optical Sensors for Harsh Environments

Authors: Branislav Timotijevic, Yves Petremand, Markus Luetzelschwab, Dara Bayat, Laurent Aebi

Abstract:

Optical miniaturized sensors with remote readout are required devices for the monitoring in harsh electromagnetic environments. As an example, in turbo and hydro generators, excessively high vibrations of the end-windings can lead to dramatic damages, imposing very high, additional service costs. A significant change of the generator temperature can also be an indicator of the system failure. Continuous monitoring of vibrations, temperature, humidity, and gases is therefore mandatory. The high electromagnetic fields in the generators impose the use of non-conductive devices in order to prevent electromagnetic interferences and to electrically isolate the sensing element to the electronic readout. Metal-free sensors are good candidates for such systems since they are immune to very strong electromagnetic fields and given the fact that they are non-conductive. We have realized miniature optical accelerometer and temperature sensors for a remote sensing of the harsh environments using the common, inexpensive silicon Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) platform. Both devices show highly linear response. The accelerometer has a deviation within 1% from the linear fit when tested in a range 0 – 40 g. The temperature sensor can provide the measurement accuracy better than 1 °C in a range 20 – 150 °C. The design of other type of sensors for the environments with high electromagnetic interferences has also been discussed.

Keywords: optical MEMS, temperature sensor, accelerometer, remote sensing, harsh environment

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58 Optimization of Temperature Coefficients for MEMS Based Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor

Authors: Vijay Kumar, Jaspreet Singh, Manoj Wadhwa

Abstract:

Piezo-resistive pressure sensors were one of the first developed micromechanical system (MEMS) devices and still display a significant growth prompted by the advancements in micromachining techniques and material technology. In MEMS based piezo-resistive pressure sensors, temperature can be considered as the main environmental condition which affects the system performance. The study of the thermal behavior of these sensors is essential to define the parameters that cause the output characteristics to drift. In this work, a study on the effects of temperature and doping concentration in a boron implanted piezoresistor for a silicon-based pressure sensor is discussed. We have optimized the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and temperature coefficient of sensitivity (TCS) values to determine the effect of temperature drift on the sensor performance. To be more precise, in order to reduce the temperature drift, a high doping concentration is needed. And it is well known that the Wheatstone bridge in a pressure sensor is supplied with a constant voltage or a constant current input supply. With a constant voltage supply, the thermal drift can be compensated along with an external compensation circuit, whereas the thermal drift in the constant current supply can be directly compensated by the bridge itself. But it would be beneficial to also compensate the temperature coefficient of piezoresistors so as to further reduce the temperature drift. So, with a current supply, the TCS is dependent on both the TCπ and TCR. As TCπ is a negative quantity and TCR is a positive quantity, it is possible to choose an appropriate doping concentration at which both of them cancel each other. An exact cancellation of TCR and TCπ values is not readily attainable; therefore, an adjustable approach is generally used in practical applications. Thus, one goal of this work has been to better understand the origin of temperature drift in pressure sensor devices so that the temperature effects can be minimized or eliminated. This paper describes the optimum doping levels for the piezoresistors where the TCS of the pressure transducers will be zero due to the cancellation of TCR and TCπ values. Also, the fabrication and characterization of the pressure sensor are carried out. The optimized TCR value obtained for the fabricated die is 2300 ± 100ppm/ᵒC, for which the piezoresistors are implanted at a doping concentration of 5E13 ions/cm³ and the TCS value of -2100ppm/ᵒC is achieved. Therefore, the desired TCR and TCS value is achieved, which are approximately equal to each other, so the thermal effects are considerably reduced. Finally, we have calculated the effect of temperature and doping concentration on the output characteristics of the sensor. This study allows us to predict the sensor behavior against temperature and to minimize this effect by optimizing the doping concentration.

Keywords: piezo-resistive, pressure sensor, doping concentration, TCR, TCS

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57 Nanocomposites Based Micro/Nano Electro-Mechanical Systems for Energy Harvesters and Photodetectors

Authors: Radhamanohar Aepuru, R. V. Mangalaraja

Abstract:

Flexible electronic devices have drawn potential interest and provide significant new insights to develop energy conversion and storage devices such as photodetectors and nanogenerators. Recently, self-powered electronic systems have captivated huge attention for next generation MEMS/NEMS devices that can operate independently by generating built-in field without any need of external bias voltage and have wide variety of applications in telecommunication, imaging, environmental and defence sectors. The basic physical process involved in these devices are charge generation, separation, and charge flow across the electrodes. Many inorganic nanostructures have been exploring to fabricate various optoelectronic and electromechanical devices. However, the interaction of nanostructures and their excited charge carrier dynamics, photoinduced charge separation, and fast carrier mobility are yet to be studied. The proposed research is to address one such area and to realize the self-powered electronic devices. In the present work, nanocomposites of inorganic nanostructures based on ZnO, metal halide perovskites; and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based nanocomposites are realized for photodetectors and nanogenerators. The characterization of the inorganic nanostructures is carried out through steady state optical absorption and luminescence spectroscopies as well as X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. The detailed carrier dynamics is investigated using various spectroscopic techniques. The developed composite nanostructures exhibit significant optical and electrical properties, which have wide potential applications in various MEMS/NEMS devices such as photodetectors and nanogenerators.

Keywords: dielectrics, nanocomposites, nanogenerators, photodetectors

Procedia PDF Downloads 43