Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3469

Search results for: pore pressure

3469 Effects of Pore-Water Pressure on the Motion of Debris Flow

Authors: Meng-Yu Lin, Wan-Ju Lee


Pore-water pressure, which mediates effective stress and shear strength at grain contacts, has a great influence on the motion of debris flow. The factors that control the diffusion of excess pore-water pressure play very important roles in the debris-flow motion. This research investigates these effects by solving the distribution of pore-water pressure numerically in an unsteady, surging motion of debris flow. The governing equations are the depth-averaged equations for the motion of debris-flow surges coupled with the one-dimensional diffusion equation for excess pore-water pressures. The pore-pressure diffusion equation is solved using a Fourier series, which may improve the accuracy of the solution. The motion of debris-flow surge is modelled using a Lagrangian particle method. From the computational results, the effects of pore-pressure diffusivities and the initial excess pore pressure on the formations of debris-flow surges are investigated. Computational results show that the presence of pore water can increase surge velocities and then changes the profiles of depth distribution. Due to the linear distribution of the vertical component of pore-water velocity, pore pressure dissipates rapidly near the bottom and forms a parabolic distribution in the vertical direction. Increases in the diffusivity of pore-water pressure cause the pore pressures decay more rapidly and then decrease the mobility of the surge.

Keywords: debris flow, diffusion, Lagrangian particle method, pore-pressure diffusivity, pore-water pressure

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3468 Investigation and Analysis on Pore Pressure Variation by Sonic Impedance under Influence of Compressional, Shear, and Stonely Waves in High Pressure Zones

Authors: Nouri, K., Ghassem Alaskari, M., K., Amiri Hazaveh, A., Nabi Bidhendi, M.


Pore pressure is one on the key Petrophysical parameter in exploration discussion and survey on hydrocarbon reservoir. Determination of pore pressure in various levels of drilling and integrity of drilling mud and high pressure zones in order to restrict blow-out and following damages are significant. The pore pressure is obtained by seismic and well logging data. In this study the pore pressure and over burden pressure through the matrix stress and Tarzaqi equation and other related formulas are calculated. By making a comparison on variation of density log in over normal pressure zones with change of sonic impedance under influence of compressional, shear, and Stonely waves, the correlation level of sonic impedance with density log is studied. The level of correlation and variation trend is recorded in sonic impedance under influence Stonely wave with density log that key factor in recording of over burden pressure and pore pressure in Tarzaqi equation is high. The transition time is in divert relation with porosity and fluid type in the formation and as a consequence to the pore pressure. The density log is a key factor in determination of pore pressure therefore sonic impedance under Stonley wave is denotes well the identification of high pressure besides other used factors.

Keywords: pore pressure, stonely wave, density log, sonic impedance, high pressure zone

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
3467 Comparison of Accumulated Stress Based Pore Pressure Model and Plasticity Model in 1D Site Response Analysis

Authors: Saeedullah J. Mandokhail, Shamsher Sadiq, Meer H. Khan


This paper presents the comparison of excess pore water pressure ratio (ru) predicted by using accumulated stress based pore pressure model and plasticity model. One dimensional effective stress site response analyses were performed on a 30 m deep sand column (consists of a liquefiable layer in between non-liquefiable layers) using accumulated stress based pore pressure model in Deepsoil and PDMY2 (PressureDependentMultiYield02) model in Opensees. Three Input motions with different peak ground acceleration (PGA) levels of 0.357 g, 0.124 g, and 0.11 g were used in this study. The developed excess pore pressure ratio predicted by the above two models were compared and analyzed along the depth. The time history of the ru at mid of the liquefiable layer and non-liquefiable layer were also compared. The comparisons show that the two models predict mostly similar ru values. The predicted ru is also consistent with the PGA level of the input motions.

Keywords: effective stress, excess pore pressure ratio, pore pressure model, site response analysis

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3466 CPT Pore Water Pressure Correlations with PDA to Identify Pile Drivability Problem

Authors: Fauzi Jarushi, Paul Cosentino, Edward Kalajian, Hadeel Dekhn


At certain depths during large diameter displacement pile driving, rebound well over 0.25 inches was experienced, followed by a small permanent set during each hammer blow. High pile rebound (HPR) soils may stop the pile driving and results in a limited pile capacity. In some cases, rebound leads to pile damage, delaying the construction project, and the requiring foundations redesign. HPR was evaluated at seven Florida sites, during driving of square precast, prestressed concrete piles driven into saturated, fine silty to clayey sands and sandy clays. Pile Driving Analyzer (PDA) deflection versus time data recorded during installation, was used to develop correlations between cone penetrometer (CPT) pore-water pressures, pile displacements and rebound. At five sites where piles experienced excessive HPR with minimal set, the pore pressure yielded very high positive values of greater than 20 tsf. However, at the site where the pile rebounded, followed by an acceptable permanent set, the measured pore pressure ranged between 5 and 20 tsf. The pore pressure exhibited values of less than 5 tsf at the site where no rebound was noticed. In summary, direct correlations between CPTu pore pressure and rebound were produced, allowing identification of soils that produce HPR.

Keywords: CPTU, pore water pressure, pile rebound

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
3465 Prediction of Formation Pressure Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

Authors: Abdulmalek Ahmed


Formation pressure is the main function that affects drilling operation economically and efficiently. Knowing the pore pressure and the parameters that affect it will help to reduce the cost of drilling process. Many empirical models reported in the literature were used to calculate the formation pressure based on different parameters. Some of these models used only drilling parameters to estimate pore pressure. Other models predicted the formation pressure based on log data. All of these models required different trends such as normal or abnormal to predict the pore pressure. Few researchers applied artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to predict the formation pressure by only one method or a maximum of two methods of AI. The objective of this research is to predict the pore pressure based on both drilling parameters and log data namely; weight on bit, rotary speed, rate of penetration, mud weight, bulk density, porosity and delta sonic time. A real field data is used to predict the formation pressure using five different artificial intelligence (AI) methods such as; artificial neural networks (ANN), radial basis function (RBF), fuzzy logic (FL), support vector machine (SVM) and functional networks (FN). All AI tools were compared with different empirical models. AI methods estimated the formation pressure by a high accuracy (high correlation coefficient and low average absolute percentage error) and outperformed all previous. The advantage of the new technique is its simplicity, which represented from its estimation of pore pressure without the need of different trends as compared to other models which require a two different trend (normal or abnormal pressure). Moreover, by comparing the AI tools with each other, the results indicate that SVM has the advantage of pore pressure prediction by its fast processing speed and high performance (a high correlation coefficient of 0.997 and a low average absolute percentage error of 0.14%). In the end, a new empirical correlation for formation pressure was developed using ANN method that can estimate pore pressure with a high precision (correlation coefficient of 0.998 and average absolute percentage error of 0.17%).

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence (AI), Formation pressure, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Fuzzy Logic (FL), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Functional Networks (FN), Radial Basis Function (RBF)

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3464 Characteristics of Pore Pressure and Effective Stress Changes in Sandstone Reservoir Due to Hydrocarbon Production

Authors: Kurniawan Adha, Wan Ismail Wan Yusoff, Luluan Almanna Lubis


Preventing hazardous events during oil and gas operation is an important contribution of accurate pore pressure data. The availability of pore pressure data also contribute in reducing the operation cost. Suggested methods in pore pressure estimation were mostly complex by the many assumptions and hypothesis used. Basic properties which may have significant impact on estimation model are somehow being neglected. To date, most of pore pressure determinations are estimated by data model analysis and rarely include laboratory analysis, stratigraphy study or core check measurement. Basically, this study developed a model that might be applied to investigate the changes of pore pressure and effective stress due to hydrocarbon production. In general, this paper focused velocity model effect of pore pressure and effective stress changes due to hydrocarbon production with illustrated by changes in saturation. The core samples from Miri field from Sarawak Malaysia ware used in this study, where the formation consists of sandstone reservoir. The study area is divided into sixteen (16) layers and encompassed six facies (A-F) from the outcrop that is used for stratigraphy sequence model. The experimental work was firstly involving data collection through field study and developing stratigraphy sequence model based on outcrop study. Porosity and permeability measurements were then performed after samples were cut into 1.5 inch diameter core samples. Next, velocity was analyzed using SONIC OYO and AutoLab 500. Three (3) scenarios of saturation were also conducted to exhibit the production history of the samples used. Results from this study show the alterations of velocity for different saturation with different actions of effective stress and pore pressure. It was observed that sample with water saturation has the highest velocity while dry sample has the lowest value. In comparison with oil to samples with oil saturation, water saturated sample still leads with the highest value since water has higher fluid density than oil. Furthermore, water saturated sample exhibits velocity derived parameters, such as poisson’s ratio and P-wave velocity over S-wave velocity (Vp/Vs) The result shows that pore pressure value ware reduced due to the decreasing of fluid content. The decreasing of pore pressure result may soften the elastic mineral frame and have tendency to possess high velocity. The alteration of pore pressure by the changes in fluid content or saturation resulted in alteration of velocity value that has proportionate trend with the effective stress.

Keywords: pore pressure, effective stress, production, miri formation

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3463 Finite Difference Method of the Seismic Analysis of Earth Dam

Authors: Alaoua Bouaicha, Fahim Kahlouche, Abdelhamid Benouali


Many embankment dams have suffered failures during earthquakes due to the increase of pore water pressure under seismic loading. After analyzing of the behavior of embankment dams under severe earthquakes, major advances have been attained in the understanding of the seismic action on dams. The present study concerns numerical analysis of the seismic response of earth dams. The procedure uses a nonlinear stress-strain relation incorporated into the code FLAC2D based on the finite difference method. This analysis provides the variation of the pore water pressure and horizontal displacement.

Keywords: Earthquake, Numerical Analysis, FLAC2D, Displacement, Embankment Dam, Pore Water Pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
3462 Effect of Prefabricated Vertical Drain System Properties on Embankment Behavior

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Ali Namaei


This study presents the effect of prefabricated vertical drain system properties on embankment behavior by calculating the settlement, lateral displacement and induced excess pore pressure by numerical method. In order to investigate this behavior, three different prefabricated vertical drains have been simulated under an embankment. The finite element software PLAXIS has been carried out for analyzing the displacements and excess pore pressures. The results showed that the consolidation time and induced excess pore pressure are highly depended to the discharge capacity of the prefabricated vertical drain. The increase in the discharge capacity leads to decrease the consolidation process and the induced excess pore pressure. Moreover, it was seen that the vertical drains spacing does not have any significant effect on the consolidation time. However, the increase in the drains spacing would decrease the system stiffness.

Keywords: vertical drain, prefabricated, consolidation, embankment

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3461 Stresses Induced in Saturated Asphalt Pavement by Moving Loads

Authors: Yang Zhong, Meijie Xue


The purpose of this paper is to investigate the stresses and excess pore fluid pressure induced by the moving wheel pressure on saturated asphalt pavements, which is one of the reasons for a damage phenomenon in flexible pavement denoted stripping. The saturated asphalt pavement is modeled as multilayered poroelastic half space exerted by a wheel pressure, which is moving at a constant velocity along the surface of the pavement. The governing equations for the proposed analysis are based on the Biot’s theory of dynamics in saturated poroelastic medium. The governing partial differential equations are solved by using Laplace and Hankel integral transforms. The solutions for the stresses and excess pore pressure are expressed in the forms of numerical inversion Laplace and Hankel integral transforms. The numerical simulation results clearly demonstrate the induced deformation and water flow in the asphalt pavement.

Keywords: saturated asphalt pavements, moving loads, excess pore fluid pressure, stress of pavement, biot theory, stress and strain of pavement

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3460 Stability Analysis of Slopes during Pile Driving

Authors: Yeganeh Attari, Gudmund Reidar Eiksund, Hans Peter Jostad


In Geotechnical practice, there is no standard method recognized by the industry to account for the reduction of safety factor of a slope as an effect of soil displacement and pore pressure build-up during pile installation. Pile driving disturbs causes large strains and generates excess pore pressures in a zone that can extend many diameters from the installed pile, resulting in a decrease of the shear strength of the surrounding soil. This phenomenon may cause slope failure. Moreover, dissipation of excess pore pressure set-up may cause weakening of areas outside the volume of soil remoulded during installation. Because of complex interactions between changes in mean stress and shearing, it is challenging to predict installation induced pore pressure response. Furthermore, it is a complex task to follow the rate and path of pore pressure dissipation in order to analyze slope stability. In cohesive soils it is necessary to implement soil models that account for strain softening in the analysis. In the literature, several cases of slope failure due to pile driving activities have been reported, for instance, a landslide in Gothenburg that resulted in a slope failure destroying more than thirty houses and Rigaud landslide in Quebec which resulted in loss of life. Up to now, several methods have been suggested to predict the effect of pile driving on total and effective stress, pore pressure changes and their effect on soil strength. However, this is still not well understood or agreed upon. In Norway, general approaches applied by geotechnical engineers for this problem are based on old empirical methods with little accurate theoretical background. While the limitations of such methods are discussed, this paper attempts to capture the reduction in the factor of safety of a slope during pile driving, using coupled Finite Element analysis and cavity expansion method. This is demonstrated by analyzing a case of slope failure due to pile driving in Norway.

Keywords: cavity expansion method, excess pore pressure, pile driving, slope failure

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3459 Quantum Sieving for Hydrogen Isotope Separation

Authors: Hyunchul Oh


One of the challenges in modern separation science and technology is the separation of hydrogen isotopes mixtures since D2 and H2 consist of almost identical size, shape and thermodynamic properties. Recently, quantum sieving of isotopes by confinement in narrow space has been proposed as an alternative technique. Despite many theoretical suggestions, however, it has been difficult to discover a feasible microporous material up to now. Among various porous materials, the novel class of microporous framework materials (COFs, ZIFs and MOFs) is considered as a promising material class for isotope sieving due to ultra-high porosity and uniform pore size which can be tailored. Hence, we investigate experimentally the fundamental correlation between D2/H2 molar ratio and pore size at optimized operating conditions by using different ultramicroporous frameworks. The D2/H2 molar ratio is strongly depending on pore size, pressure and temperature. An experimentally determined optimum pore diameter for quantum sieving lies between 3.0 and 3.4 Å which can be an important guideline for designing and developing feasible microporous frameworks for isotope separation. Afterwards, we report a novel strategy for efficient hydrogen isotope separation at technologically relevant operating pressure through the development of quantum sieving exploited by the pore aperture engineering. The strategy involves installation of flexible components in the pores of the framework to tune the pore surface.

Keywords: gas adsorption, hydrogen isotope, metal organic frameworks(MOFs), quantum sieving

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3458 A Parallel Poromechanics Finite Element Method (FEM) Model for Reservoir Analyses

Authors: Henrique C. C. Andrade, Ana Beatriz C. G. Silva, Fernando Luiz B. Ribeiro, Samir Maghous, Jose Claudio F. Telles, Eduardo M. R. Fairbairn


The present paper aims at developing a parallel computational model for numerical simulation of poromechanics analyses of heterogeneous reservoirs. In the context of macroscopic poroelastoplasticity, the hydromechanical coupling between the skeleton deformation and the fluid pressure is addressed by means of two constitutive equations. The first state equation relates the stress to skeleton strain and pore pressure, while the second state equation relates the Lagrangian porosity change to skeleton volume strain and pore pressure. A specific algorithm for local plastic integration using a tangent operator is devised. A modified Cam-clay type yield surface with associated plastic flow rule is adopted to account for both contractive and dilative behavior.

Keywords: finite element method, poromechanics, poroplasticity, reservoir analysis

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3457 Wetting Induced Collapse Behavior of Loosely Compacted Kaolin Soil: A Microstructural Study

Authors: Dhanesh Sing Das, Bharat Tadikonda Venkata


Collapsible soils undergo significant volume reduction upon wetting under the pre-existing mechanically applied normal stress (inundation pressure). These soils exhibit a very high strength in air-dried conditions and can carry up to a considerable magnitude of normal stress without undergoing significant volume change. The soil strength is, however, lost upon saturation and results in a sudden collapse of the soil structure under the existing mechanical stress condition. The intrusion of water into the dry deposits of such soil causes ground subsidence leading to damages in the overlying buildings/structures. A study on the wetting-induced volume change behavior of collapsible soils is essential in dealing with the ground subsidence problems in various geotechnical engineering practices. The collapse of loosely compacted Kaolin soil upon wetting under various inundation pressures has been reported in recent studies. The collapse in the Kaolin soil is attributed to the alteration in the soil particle-particle association (fabric) resulting due to the changes in the various inter-particle (microscale) forces induced by the water saturation. The inundation pressure plays a significant role in the fabric evolution during the wetting process, thus controls the collapse potential of the compacted soil. A microstructural study is useful to understand the collapse mechanisms at various pore-fabric levels under different inundation pressure. Kaolin soil compacted to a dry density of 1.25 g/cc was used in this work to study the wetting-induced volume change behavior under different inundation pressures in the range of 10-1600 kPa. The compacted specimen of Kaolin soil exhibited a consistent collapse under all the studied inundation pressure. The collapse potential was observed to be increasing with an increase in the inundation pressure up to a maximum value of 13.85% under 800 kPa and then decreased to 11.7% under 1600 kPa. Microstructural analysis was carried out based on the fabric images and the pore size distributions (PSDs) obtained from FESEM analysis and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), respectively. The PSDs and the soil fabric images of ‘as-compacted’ specimen and post-collapse specimen under 400 kPa were analyzed to understand the changes in the soil fabric and pores due to wetting. The pore size density curve for the post-collapse specimen was found to be on the finer side with respect to the ‘as-compacted’ specimen, indicating the reduction of the larger pores during the collapse. The inter-aggregate pores in the range of 0.1-0.5μm were identified as the major contributing pore size classes to the macroscopic volume change. Wetting under an inundation pressure results in the reduction of these pore sizes and lead to an increase in the finer pore sizes. The magnitude of inundation pressure influences the amount of reduction of these pores during the wetting process. The collapse potential was directly related to the degree of reduction in the pore volume contributed by these pore sizes.

Keywords: collapse behavior, inundation pressure, kaolin, microstructure

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3456 Relationship between Wave Velocities and Geo-Pressures in Shallow Libyan Carbonate Reservoir

Authors: Tarek Sabri Duzan


Knowledge of the magnitude of Geo-pressures (Pore, Fracture & Over-burden pressures) is vital especially during drilling, completions, stimulations, Enhance Oil Recovery. Many times problems, like lost circulation could have been avoided if techniques for calculating Geo-pressures had been employed in the well planning, mud weight plan, and casing design. In this paper, we focused on the relationships between Geo-pressures and wave velocities (P-Wave (Vp) and S-wave (Vs)) in shallow Libyan carbonate reservoir in the western part of the Sirte Basin (Dahra F-Area). The data used in this report was collected from four new wells recently drilled. Those wells were scattered throughout the interested reservoir as shown in figure-1. The data used in this work are bulk density, Formation Mult -Tester (FMT) results and Acoustic wave velocities. Furthermore, Eaton Method is the most common equation used in the world, therefore this equation has been used to calculate Fracture pressure for all wells using dynamic Poisson ratio calculated by using acoustic wave velocities, FMT results for pore pressure, Overburden pressure estimated by using bulk density. Upon data analysis, it has been found that there is a linear relationship between Geo-pressures (Pore, Fracture & Over-Burden pressures) and wave velocities ratio (Vp/Vs). However, the relationship was not clear in the high-pressure area, as shown in figure-10. Therefore, it is recommended to use the output relationship utilizing the new seismic data for shallow carbonate reservoir to predict the Geo-pressures for future oil operations. More data can be collected from the high-pressure zone to investigate more about this area.

Keywords: bulk density, formation mult-tester (FMT) results, acoustic wave, carbonate shalow reservoir, d/jfield velocities

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3455 Influence of Rainfall Intensity on Infiltration and Deformation of Unsaturated Soil Slopes

Authors: Bouziane Mohamed Tewfik


In order to improve the understanding of the influence of rainfall intensity on infiltration and deformation behaviour of unsaturated soil slopes, numerical 2D analyses are carried out by a three phase elasto-viscoplastic seepage-deformation coupled method. From the numerical results, it is shown that regardless of the saturated permeability of the soil slope, the increase in the pore water pressure (reduction in suction) during rainfall infiltration is localized close to the slope surface. In addition, the generation of the pore water pressure and the lateral displacement are mainly controlled by the ratio of the rainfall intensity to the saturated permeability of the soil.

Keywords: unsaturated soil, slope stability, rainfall infiltration, numerical analysis

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3454 Experimental Study to Determine the Effect of Wire Mesh Pore Size on Natural Draft Chimney Performance

Authors: Md. Mizanur Rahman, Chu Chi Ming, Mohd Suffian Bin Misaran


Chimney is an important part of the industries to remove waste heat from the processes side to the atmosphere. The increased demand of energy helps to restart to think about the efficiency of chimney as well as to find out a valid option to replace forced draft chimney system from industries. In this study natural draft chimney model is air flow rate; exit air temperature and pressure losses are studied through modification with wire mesh screen and compare the results with without wire mesh screen chimney model. The heat load is varies from 0.1 kW to 1kW and three different wire mesh screens that have pore size 0.15 mm2, 0.40 mm2 and 4.0 mm2 respectively are used. The experimental results show that natural draft chimney model with wire mesh screens significantly restored the flow losses compared to the system without wire mesh screen. The natural draft chimney model with 0.40 mm2 pore size wire mesh screen can minimize the draft losses better than others and able to enhance velocity about 54 % exit air temperature about 41% and pressure loss decreased by about 20%. Therefore, it can be decided that the wire mesh screens significantly minimize the draft losses in the natural draft chimney and 0.40 mm2 pore size screen will be a suitable option.

Keywords: natural draft dhimney, wire mesh screen, natural draft flow, mechanical engineering

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3453 Morphological Characterization and Gas Permeation of Commercially Available Alumina Membrane

Authors: Ifeyinwa Orakwe, Ngozi Nwogu, Edward Gobina


This work presents experimental results relating to the structural characterization of a commercially available alumina membrane. A γ-alumina mesoporous tubular membrane has been used. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy and gas permeability test has been carried out on the alumina membrane to characterize its structural features. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the pore size distribution of the membrane. Pore size, specific surface area and pore size distribution were also determined with the use of the Nitrogen adsorption-desorption instrument. Gas permeation tests were carried out on the membrane using a variety of single and mixed gases. The permeabilities at different pressure between 0.05-1 bar and temperature range of 25-200oC were used for the single and mixed gases: nitrogen (N2), helium (He), oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), 14%CO₂/N₂, 60%CO₂/N₂, 30%CO₂/CH4 and 21%O₂/N₂. Plots of flow rate verses pressure were obtained. Results got showed the effect of temperature on the permeation rate of the various gases. At 0.5 bar for example, the flow rate for N2 was relatively constant before decreasing with an increase in temperature, while for O2, it continuously decreased with an increase in temperature. In the case of 30%CO₂/CH4 and 14%CO₂/N₂, the flow rate showed an increase then a decrease with increase in temperature. The effect of temperature on the membrane performance of the various gases is presented and the influence of the trans membrane pressure drop will be discussed in this paper.

Keywords: alumina membrane, Nitrogen adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy, gas permeation, temperature

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3452 Managing Shallow Gas for Offshore Platforms via Fit-For-Purpose Solutions: Case Study for Offshore Malaysia

Authors: Noorizal Huang, Christian Girsang, Mohamad Razi Mansoor


Shallow gas seepage was first spotted at a central processing platform offshore Malaysia in 2010, acknowledged as Platform T in this paper. Frequent monitoring of the gas seepage was performed through remotely operated vehicle (ROV) baseline survey and a comprehensive geophysical survey was conducted to understand the characteristics of the gas seepage and to ensure that the integrity of the foundation at Platform T was not compromised. The origin of the gas back then was unknown. A soil investigation campaign was performed in 2016 to study the origin of the gas seepage. Two boreholes were drilled; a composite borehole to 150m below seabed for the purpose of soil sampling and in-situ testing and a pilot hole to 155m below the seabed, which was later converted to a fit-for-purpose relief well as an alternate migration path for the gas. During the soil investigation campaign, dissipation tests were performed at several layers which were potentially the source or migration path for the gas. Five (5) soil samples were segregated for headspace test, to identify the gas type which subsequently can be used to identify the origin of the gas. Dissipation tests performed at four depth intervals indicates pore water pressure less than 20 % of the effective vertical stress and appear to continue decreasing if the test had not been stopped. It was concluded that a low to a negligible amount of excess pore pressure exist in clayey silt layers. Results from headspace test show presence of methane corresponding to the clayey silt layers as reported in the boring logs. The gas most likely comes from biogenic sources, feeding on organic matter in situ over a large depth range. It is unlikely that there are large pockets of gas in the soil due to its homogeneous clayey nature and the lack of excess pore pressure in other permeable clayey silt layers encountered. Instead, it is more likely that when pore water at certain depth encounters a more permeable path, such as a borehole, it rises up through this path due to the temperature gradient in the soil. As the water rises the pressure decreases, which could cause gases dissolved in the water to come out of solution and form bubbles. As a result, the gas will have no impact on the integrity of the foundation at Platform T. The fit-for-purpose relief well design as well as adopting headspace testing can be used to address the shallow gas issue at Platform T in a cost effective and efficient manners.

Keywords: dissipation test, headspace test, excess pore pressure, relief well, shallow gas

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3451 Hydraulic Characteristics of Mine Tailings by Metaheuristics Approach

Authors: Akhila Vasudev, Himanshu Kaushik, Tadikonda Venkata Bharat


A large number of mine tailings are produced every year as part of the extraction process of phosphates, gold, copper, and other materials. Mine tailings are high in water content and have very slow dewatering behavior. The efficient design of tailings dam and economical disposal of these slurries requires the knowledge of tailings consolidation behavior. The large-strain consolidation theory closely predicts the self-weight consolidation of these slurries as the theory considers the conservation of mass and momentum conservation and considers the hydraulic conductivity as a function of void ratio. Classical laboratory techniques, such as settling column test, seepage consolidation test, etc., are expensive and time-consuming for the estimation of hydraulic conductivity variation with void ratio. Inverse estimation of the constitutive relationships from the measured settlement versus time curves is explored. In this work, inverse analysis based on metaheuristics techniques will be explored for predicting the hydraulic conductivity parameters for mine tailings from the base excess pore water pressure dissipation curve and the initial conditions of the mine tailings. The proposed inverse model uses particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, which is based on the social behavior of animals searching for food sources. The finite-difference numerical solution of the forward analytical model is integrated with the PSO algorithm to solve the inverse problem. The method is tested on synthetic data of base excess pore pressure dissipation curves generated using the finite difference method. The effectiveness of the method is verified using base excess pore pressure dissipation curve obtained from a settling column experiment and further ensured through comparison with available predicted hydraulic conductivity parameters.

Keywords: base excess pore pressure, hydraulic conductivity, large strain consolidation, mine tailings

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3450 Seal Capacity Evaluation by Using Mercury Injection Capillary Pressure Method Integrated with Petrographic Data: A Case Study in Green Dragon Oilfield Offshore Vietnam

Authors: Quoc Ngoc Phan, Hieu Van Nguyen, Minh Hong Nguyen


This study presents an integrated approach using Mercury Injection Capillary Pressure (MICP) and petrographic analysis to assess the seal quality of the inter-bedded shale formations which are considered the intra-formation top seals of hydrocarbon bearing zones in Green Dragon structure. Based on the hydrocarbon column height (HCH) at leak point derived from capillary pressure data, four seal types were identified. Furthermore, the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were interpreted to clarify the influence of clay minerals on seal capacity. The result of the study indicated that the inter-bedded shale formations are the good sealing quality with a majority of analyzed samples ranked type A and B seals in the sample set. Both seal types occurred mainly in mudstones with pore radius estimated less than 0.251 µm. Overall, type A and B seals contained a large amount of authigenic clay minerals such as illite, chlorite which showed the complexity of morphological arrangement in pore space. Conversely, the least common seal type C and D were presented in moderately compacted sandstones with more open pore radius. It is noticeable that there was a reduction of illite and chlorite in clay mineral fraction of these seal type. It is expected that the integrated analysis approach using Mercury Injection Capillary Pressure and petrographic data employed in this study can be applied to assess the sealing quality of future well sites in Green Dragon or other structures.

Keywords: seal capacity, hydrocarbon height column, seal type, SEM, XRD

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3449 Factors Affecting Special Core Analysis Resistivity Parameters

Authors: Hassan Sbiga


Laboratory measurements methods were undertaken on core samples selected from three different fields (A, B, and C) from the Nubian Sandstone Formation of the central graben reservoirs in Libya. These measurements were conducted in order to determine the factors which affect resistivity parameters, and to investigate the effect of rock heterogeneity and wettability on these parameters. This included determining the saturation exponent (n) in the laboratory at two stages. The first stage was before wettability measurements were conducted on the samples, and the second stage was after the wettability measurements in order to find any effect on the saturation exponent. Another objective of this work was to quantify experimentally pores and porosity types (macro- and micro-porosity), which have an affect on the electrical properties, by integrating capillary pressure curves with other routine and special core analysis. These experiments were made for the first time to obtain a relation between pore size distribution and saturation exponent n. Changes were observed in the formation resistivity factor and cementation exponent due to ambient conditions and changes of overburden pressure. The cementation exponent also decreased from GHE-5 to GHE-8. Changes were also observed in the saturation exponent (n) and water saturation (Sw) before and after wettability measurement. Samples with an oil-wet tendency have higher irreducible brine saturation and higher Archie saturation exponent values than samples with an uniform water-wet surface. The experimental results indicate that there is a good relation between resistivity and pore type depending on the pore size. When oil begins to penetrate micro-pore systems in measurements of resistivity index versus brine saturation (after wettability measurement), a significant change in slope of the resistivity index relationship occurs.

Keywords: part of thesis, cementation, wettability, resistivity

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3448 Simulation Studies of High-Intensity, Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Induced Dynamic Membrane Electroporation

Authors: Jiahui Song


The application of an electric field can cause poration at cell membranes. This includes the outer plasma membrane, as well as the membranes of intracellular organelles. In order to analyze and predict such electroporation effects, it becomes necessary to first evaluate the electric fields and the transmembrane voltages. This information can then be used to assess changes in the pore formation energy that finally yields the pore distributions and their radii based on the Smolchowski equation. The dynamic pore model can be achieved by including a dynamic aspect and a dependence on the pore population density into the pore formation energy equation. These changes make the pore formation energy E(r) self-adjusting in response to pore formation without causing uncontrolled growth and expansion. By using dynamic membrane tension, membrane electroporation in response to a 180kV/cm trapezoidal pulse with a 10 ns on time and 1.5 ns rise- and fall-times is discussed. Poration is predicted to occur at times beyond the peak at around 9.2 ns. Modeling also yields time-dependent distributions of the membrane pore population after multiple pulses. It shows that the pore distribution shifts to larger values of the radius with multiple pulsing. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are also carried out for a fixed field of 0.5 V/nm to demonstrate nanopore formation from a microscopic point of view. The result shows that the pore is predicted to be about 0.9 nm in diameter and somewhat narrower at the central point.

Keywords: high-intensity, nanosecond, dynamics, electroporation

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3447 Reactive Transport Modeling in Carbonate Rocks: A Single Pore Model

Authors: Priyanka Agrawal, Janou Koskamp, Amir Raoof, Mariette Wolthers


Calcite is the main mineral found in carbonate rocks, which form significant hydrocarbon reservoirs and subsurface repositories for CO2 sequestration. The injected CO2 mixes with the reservoir fluid and disturbs the geochemical equilibrium, triggering calcite dissolution. Different combinations of fluid chemistry and injection rate may therefore result in different evolution of porosity, permeability and dissolution patterns. To model the changes in porosity and permeability Kozeny-Carman equation K∝〖(∅)〗^n is used, where K is permeability and ∅ is porosity. The value of n is mostly based on experimental data or pore network models. In pore network models, this derivation is based on accuracy of relation used for conductivity and pore volume change. In fact, at a single pore scale, this relationship is the result of the pore shape development due to dissolution. We have prepared a new reactive transport model for a single pore which simulates the complex chemical reaction of carbonic-acid induced calcite dissolution and subsequent pore-geometry evolution at a single pore scale. We use COMSOL Multiphysics package 5.3 for the simulation. COMSOL utilizes the arbitary-Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) method for the free-moving domain boundary. We examined the effect of flow rate on the evolution of single pore shape profiles due to calcite dissolution. We used three flow rates to cover diffusion dominated and advection-dominated transport regimes. The fluid in diffusion dominated flow (Pe number 0.037 and 0.37) becomes less reactive along the pore length and thus produced non-uniform pore shapes. However, for the advection-dominated flow (Pe number 3.75), the fast velocity of the fluid keeps the fluid relatively more reactive towards the end of the pore length, thus yielding uniform pore shape. Different pore shapes in terms of inlet opening vs overall pore opening will have an impact on the relation between changing volumes and conductivity. We have related the shape of pore with the Pe number which controls the transport regimes. For every Pe number, we have derived the relation between conductivity and porosity. These relations will be used in the pore network model to get the porosity and permeability variation.

Keywords: single pore, reactive transport, calcite system, moving boundary

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3446 Critical Heights of Sloped Unsupported Trenches in Unsaturated Sand

Authors: Won Taek Oh, Adin Richard


Workers are often required to enter unsupported trenches during the construction process, which may present serious risks. Trench failures can result in death or damage to adjacent properties, therefore trenches should be excavated with extreme precaution. Excavation work is often done in unsaturated soils, where the critical height (i.e. maximum depth that can be excavated without failure) of unsupported trenches can be more reliably estimated by considering the influence of matric suction. In this study, coupled stress/pore-water pressure analyses are conducted to investigate the critical height of sloped unsupported trenches considering the influence of pore-water pressure redistribution caused by excavating. Four different wall slopes (1.5V:1H, 2V:1H, 3V:1H, and 90°) and a vertical trench with the top 0.3 m sloped 1:1 were considered in the analyses with multiple depths of the ground water table in a sand. For comparison, the critical heights were also estimated using the limit equilibrium method for the same excavation scenarios used in the coupled analyses.

Keywords: critical height, matric suction, unsaturated soil, unsupported trench

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3445 Effect of Dynamic Loading by Cyclic Triaxial Tests on Sand Stabilized with Cement

Authors: Priyanka Devi, Mohammad Muzzaffar Khan, G. Kalyan Kumar


Liquefaction of saturated soils due to dynamic loading is an important and interesting area in the field of geotechnical earthquake engineering. When the soil liquefies, the structures built on it develops uneven settlements thereby producing cracks in the structure and weakening the foundation. The 1964 Alaskan Good Friday earthquake, the 1989 San Francisco earthquake and 2011 Tōhoku earthquake are some of the examples of liquefaction occurred due to an earthquake. To mitigate the effect of liquefaction, several methods such use of stone columns, increasing the vertical stress, compaction and removal of liquefiable soil are practiced. Grouting is one of those methods used to increase the strength of the foundation and develop resistance to liquefaction of soil without affecting the superstructure. In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the undrained cyclic behavior of locally available soil, stabilized by cement to mitigate the seismically induced soil liquefaction. The specimens of 75mm diameter and 150mm height were reconstituted in the laboratory using water sedimentation technique. A series of strain-controlled cyclic triaxial tests were performed on saturated soil samples followed by consolidation. The effects of amplitude, confining pressure and relative density on the dynamic behavior of sand was studied for soil samples with varying cement content. The results obtained from the present study on loose specimens and medium dense specimens indicate that (i) the higher the relative density, the more will be the liquefaction resistance, (ii) with increase of effective confining pressure, a decrease in developing of excess pore water pressure during cyclic loading was observed and (iii) sand specimens treated with cement showed reduced excess pore pressures and increased liquefaction resistance suggesting it as one of the mitigation methods.

Keywords: cyclic triaxial test, liquefaction, soil-cement stabilization, pore pressure ratio

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3444 3-D Numerical Model for Wave-Induced Seabed Response around an Offshore Pipeline

Authors: Zuodong Liang, Dong-Sheng Jeng


Seabed instability around an offshore pipeline is one of key factors that need to be considered in the design of offshore infrastructures. Unlike previous investigations, a three-dimensional numerical model for the wave-induced soil response around an offshore pipeline is proposed in this paper. The numerical model was first validated with 2-D experimental data available in the literature. Then, a parametric study will be carried out to examine the effects of wave, seabed characteristics and confirmation of pipeline. Numerical examples demonstrate significant influence of wave obliquity on the wave-induced pore pressures and the resultant seabed liquefaction around the pipeline, which cannot be observed in 2-D numerical simulation.

Keywords: pore pressure, 3D wave model, seabed liquefaction, pipeline

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3443 Mechanism of Performance of Soil-Cement Columns under Shallow Foundations in Liquefiable Soil

Authors: Zaheer Ahmed Almani, Agha Faisal Habib Pathan, Aneel Kumar Hindu


In this study, the effects of ground reinforcement with stiff soil-cement columns on liquefiable ground and on the shallow foundation of structure were investigated. The modelling and analysis of shallow foundation of the structure founded on the composite reinforced ground were carried out with finite difference FLAC commercial software. The results showed that stiff columns were not effective to the redistribute the shear stresses in the composite ground, thus, were not effective to reduce shear stress and shear strain on the soil between the columns. The excessive pore pressure increase which is dependent on volumetric strain (contractive) tendency of loose sand upon shearing, was not reduced to a significant level that liquefaction potential could be remediated. Thus, mechanism of performance with reduction of pore pressure and consequent liquefaction was not predicted in numerical analysis. Nonetheless, the columns were effective to resist the load of structure in compression and reduced the liquefaction-induced large settlements of structure to tolerable limits when provided adjacent and beneath the pad of shallow foundation.

Keywords: earthquake, liquefaction, mechanism, soil-cement columns

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3442 Seepage Analysis through Earth Dam Embankment: Case Study of Batu Dam

Authors: Larifah Mohd Sidik, Anuar Kasa


In recent years, the demands for raw water are increasing along with the growth of the economy and population. Hence, the need for the construction and operation of dams is one of the solutions for the management of water resources problems. The stability of the embankment should be taken into consideration to evaluate the safety of retaining water. The safety of the dam is mostly based on numerous measurable components, for instance, seepage flowrate, pore water pressure and deformation of the embankment. Seepage and slope stability is the primary and most important reason to ascertain the overall safety behavior of the dams. This research study was conducted to evaluate static condition seepage and slope stability performances of Batu dam which is located in Kuala Lumpur capital city. The numerical solution Geostudio-2012 software was employed to analyse the seepage using finite element method, SEEP/W and slope stability using limit equilibrium method, SLOPE/W for three different cases of reservoir level operations; normal and flooded condition. Results of seepage analysis using SEEP/W were utilized as parental input for the analysis of SLOPE/W. Sensitivity analysis on hydraulic conductivity of material was done and calibrated to minimize the relative error of simulation SEEP/W, where the comparison observed field data and predicted value were also carried out. In seepage analysis, such as leakage flow rate, pore water distribution and location of a phreatic line are determined using the SEEP/W. The result of seepage analysis shows the clay core effectively lowered the phreatic surface and no piping failure is shown in the result. Hence, the total seepage flux was acceptable and within the permissible limit.

Keywords: earth dam, dam safety, seepage, slope stability, pore water pressure

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3441 Liquefaction Susceptibility of Tailing Storage Facility-Comparison of National Centre for Earthquake Engineering Research and Finite Element Methods

Authors: Mehdi Ghatei, Masoomeh Lorestani


Upstream Tailings Storage Facilities (TSFs) may experience slope instabilities due to soil liquefaction, especially in regions known to be seismically active. In this study, liquefaction susceptibility of an upstream-raised TSF in Western Australia was assessed using two different approaches. The first approach assessed liquefaction susceptibility using Cone Penetration Tests with pore pressure measurement (CPTu) as described by the National Centre for Earthquake Engineering Research (NCEER). This assessment was based on the four CPTu tests that were conducted on the perimeter embankment of the TSF. The second approach used the Finite Element (FE) method with application of an equivalent linear model to predict the undrained cyclic behavior, the pore water pressure and the liquefaction of the materials. The tailings parameters were estimated from the CPTu profiles and from the laboratory tests. The cyclic parameters were estimated from the literature where test results of similar material were available. The results showed that there was a good agreement, in the liquefaction susceptibility of the tailings material, between the NCEER and FE methods with equivalent linear model.

Keywords: liquefaction , CPTU, NCEER, finite element method, equivalent linear model

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3440 Numerical Analysis of Prefabricated Horizontal Drain Induced Consolidation Using ABAQUS

Authors: Anjana R. Menon, Anjana Bhasi


This paper deals with the numerical analysis of Prefabricated Horizontal Drain (PHD) induced consolidation of clayey deposits, using ABAQUS. PHDs are much like Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVDs) installed in horizontal layers, used mainly for enhancing the consolidation of clayey fill embankments, and dredged mud deposits. The efficiency of the system depends mainly on the spacing and layout of the drain. Hence, two spacing related parameters are defined, namely WH (width to horizontal spacing ratio) and VH (vertical to horizontal spacing ratio), and the finite element models are developed based on plane strain unit cell conditions under various combinations of these parameters. The analysis results, in terms of degree of consolidation (U), are compared with the established theories. Based on the analysis, a set of equations are proposed to analyse the PHD induced consolidation. The proposed method is found to be reasonably accurate. Further, the effect of PHDs at different spacing ratios, in accelerating consolidation of a clayey embankment fill is analysed in terms of pore pressure dissipation rate, and settlement. The PHD is found to accelerate the rate of pore pressure dissipation by more than 50%, thus reducing the time for final settlement significantly.

Keywords: ABAQUS, consolidation, plane strain, prefabricated horizontal drain

Procedia PDF Downloads 243