Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4675

Search results for: blood pressure

4675 Signal Processing of the Blood Pressure and Characterization

Authors: Hadj Abd El Kader Benghenia, Fethi Bereksi Reguig


In clinical medicine, blood pressure, raised blood hemodynamic monitoring is rich pathophysiological information of cardiovascular system, of course described through factors such as: blood volume, arterial compliance and peripheral resistance. In this work, we are interested in analyzing these signals to propose a detection algorithm to delineate the different sequences and especially systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and the wave and dicrotic to do their analysis in order to extract the cardiovascular parameters.

Keywords: blood pressure, SBP, DBP, detection algorithm

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4674 Improving the Design of Blood Pressure and Blood Saturation Monitors

Authors: L. Parisi


A blood pressure monitor or sphygmomanometer can be either manual or automatic, employing respectively either the auscultatory method or the oscillometric method. The manual version of the sphygmomanometer involves an inflatable cuff with a stethoscope adopted to detect the sounds generated by the arterial walls to measure blood pressure in an artery. An automatic sphygmomanometer can be effectively used to monitor blood pressure through a pressure sensor, which detects vibrations provoked by oscillations of the arterial walls. The pressure sensor implemented in this device improves the accuracy of the measurements taken.

Keywords: blood pressure, blood saturation, sensors, actuators, design improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
4673 Effect of Hypertension Exercise and Slow Deep Breathing Combination to Blood Pressure: A Mini Research in Elderly Community

Authors: Prima Khairunisa, Febriana Tri Kusumawati, Endah Luthfiana


Background: Hypertension in elderly, caused by cardiovascular system cannot work normally, because the valves thickened and inelastic blood vessels. It causes vasoconstriction of the blood vessels. Hypertension exercise, increase cardiovascular function and the elasticity of the blood vessels. While slow deep breathing helps the body and mind feel relax. Combination both of them will decrease the blood pressure. Objective: To know the effect of hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing combination to blood pressure in elderly. Method: The study conducted with one group pre-post test experimental design. The samples were 10 elderly both male and female in a Village in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. The tool was manual sphygmomanometer to measure blood pressure. Result: Based on paired t-test between hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing with systole blood pressure showed sig (2-tailed) was 0.045, while paired t-test between hypertension exercise hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing with diastole blood pressure showed sig (2-tailed) was 0,343. The changes of systole blood pressure were 127.5 mmHg, and diastole blood pressure was 80 mmHg. Systole blood pressure decreases significantly because the average of systole blood pressure before implementation was 135-160 mmHg. While diastole blood pressure was not decreased significantly. It was influenced by the average of diastole blood pressure before implementation of hypertension exercise was not too high. It was between 80- 90 mmHg. Conclusion: There was an effect of hypertension exercise and slow deep breathing combination to the blood pressure in elderly after 6 times implementations.

Keywords: hypertension exercise, slow deep breathing, elderly, blood pressure

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4672 Blood Pressure and Anthropometric Measurements: A Correlational Study

Authors: Abdul-Monim Batiha, Manar AlAzzam, Mohammed ALBashtawy, Loai Tawalbeh, Ahmad Tubaishat, Fadwa N. Alhalaiqa


Background: Obesity is the major modifiable risk factor for many chronic illnesses especially high blood pressure. Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric indices and high blood pressure, and which one was most strongly correlated with high blood pressure in Jordanian population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a total 622 students and workers from three Jordanian universities. Results: Nearly half of the participant are overweight (34.7%) and obese (15.4%) and hypertension was detected among 138 (22.2%) of the participants. Linear correlation was significant (p<0.01) between both systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure for all anthropometric indices, except for A body shape index and diastolic blood pressure was significant at p< 0.05. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the influence of age and anthropometric measurements. Conclusions: The waist circumference was the only independent predictor of hypertension, showing that this simple measurement may be an importance marker of high blood pressure in Jordanian population.

Keywords: anthropometric indices, Jordan, blood pressure, cross-sectional study, obesity, hypertension, waist circumference

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4671 Monitoring Blood Pressure Using Regression Techniques

Authors: Qasem Qananwah, Ahmad Dagamseh, Hiam AlQuran, Khalid Shaker Ibrahim


Blood pressure helps the physicians greatly to have a deep insight into the cardiovascular system. The determination of individual blood pressure is a standard clinical procedure considered for cardiovascular system problems. The conventional techniques to measure blood pressure (e.g. cuff method) allows a limited number of readings for a certain period (e.g. every 5-10 minutes). Additionally, these systems cause turbulence to blood flow; impeding continuous blood pressure monitoring, especially in emergency cases or critically ill persons. In this paper, the most important statistical features in the photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals were extracted to estimate the blood pressure noninvasively. PPG signals from more than 40 subjects were measured and analyzed and 12 features were extracted. The features were fed to principal component analysis (PCA) to find the most important independent features that have the highest correlation with blood pressure. The results show that the stiffness index means and standard deviation for the beat-to-beat heart rate were the most important features. A model representing both features for Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) was obtained using a statistical regression technique. Surface fitting is used to best fit the series of data and the results show that the error value in estimating the SBP is 4.95% and in estimating the DBP is 3.99%.

Keywords: blood pressure, noninvasive optical system, principal component analysis, PCA, continuous monitoring

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4670 Effect of Inulin-Substituted Ice Cream on Waist Circumference and Blood Pressure of Adolescents with Abdominal Obesity

Authors: Nur H. Ahmad, Silvia S. Inge, Vanessa A. Julliete, A. Veraditias, Laila F. Febinda


Abdominal obesity is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and mostly found in adolescents. Waist circumference is related to abdominal obesity which has a significant effect on the increase of blood pressure. Inulin is one of prebiotic, that has health benefits by offering the potential for lipid management, that can be useful to decrease the risk factor of metabolic syndrome. The aim of the research is to evaluate the effect of 10 gram inulin-substituted ice cream in waist circumference and blood pressure of abdominal obesity adolescents. Inulin had the ability to produce Short Chain Fatty Acid which can improve blood pressure and waist circumference. Systolic blood pressure was significantly decreased in the treatment group (p=0.028) with the mean of reduction 7.35 ± 11.59 mmHg. However, diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference showed no significant effect. Waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was decreased in control group. These results suggest that inulin-substituted ice cream used as therapeutics and prevention for the early onset of metabolic syndrome.

Keywords: blood pressure, inulin, metabolic syndrome, waist circumference

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
4669 A Study of the Prevalence of Hypertension and Pre Hypertension in Adolescence Age between 10-17 in Ahvaz (2008-2009)

Authors: Armaghan Moravej Aleali, Seyed Mahmoud Latifi, Homeira Rashidi


Objective: High blood pressure in a risk factor for some disease like stroke, coronary heart disease, and renal failure. High blood pressure in children is an increasing health problem. The aim of this present was to determine prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension age between 10 to 17 years old. Material & Methods: This descriptive-analytic study was conducted using multiphase sampling method in Ahvaz (Southwest of Iran). A questionnaire include: height, weight, and body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressures filled for each participant. Blood pressure was measured twice for each person. For the diagnosis of hypertension, the fourth report of the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents of the National Health Institute of United States was used. Results: The subject participants of the study were 1707children and adolescents including 922 boys (54%) and 785 girls 46%). The prevalence of high blood pressure was 1.7% (boys 2.5% girls 0.8%). The prevalence of pre-hypertension was 9 % (7.6% in boys, 10.6% in girls). The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures increased with increasing body mass index. Conclusion: In this study, the prevalence of high blood pressure was found to be lower than other studies in our country. The prevalence of the high blood pressure in boys was significantly higher than girls. This study, like other studies, showed a high correlation between being overweight and an increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Keywords: hypertension, pre-hypertension, childhood, adolescence

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4668 A Preliminary Outcome of the Effect of an Accumulating 10,000 Daily Steps on Blood Pressure and Diabetes in Overweight Thai Participants

Authors: Kornanong Yuenyongchaiwat, Duangnate Pepatsitipong, Panthip Sangprasert


High blood pressure and diabetes have been suggested as being non-communicable disease (NCDs), and there is one of the components of the definition of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 12-week pedometer based community walking intervention on change in resting blood pressure and blood glucose in participants with overweight in the community setting. Method: Participants were recruited both males and females who had a sedentary lifestyle aged 35-59 years (mean aged 49.67 years). A longitudinal quasi-experimental study was designed with 35 overweight participants who had body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2. These volunteers were assigned to the 12-week pedometer-based walking program (an accumulated at least 10,000 steps a day). Blood pressure and blood glucose were measured initially before and after 12-week intervention. Results: Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly lower in 30 individuals who had accumulated 10,000 steps d-1 in the intervention group at 12 week follow-up (-13.74 mmHg and 5.3 bpm, respectively). In addition, reduction in blood glucose (-14.89 mmol) in the intervention participants was statistically significant (p < .001). A regression analysis indicated that reductions in systolic blood pressure were significantly related to the increase in steps per day. Conclusion: The accumulation of least 10,000 steps d-1 resulted in decreased resting systolic blood pressure and blood glucose in overweight participants. This has also shown that an increase in physical activity in overweight participants with sedentary lifestyle by accumulating at least 10,000 steps a day can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (e.g., hypertension and diabetes).

Keywords: blood glucose, blood pressure, diabetes, hypertension, physical activity, walking

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
4667 Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Pressure through Radial Velocity Difference in Arterial Blood Modeled by Drift Flux Model

Authors: Aicha Rima Cheniti, Hatem Besbes, Joseph Haggege, Christophe Sintes


In this paper, we are interested to determine the carbon dioxide pressure in the arterial blood through radial velocity difference. The blood was modeled as a two phase mixture (an aqueous carbon dioxide solution with carbon dioxide gas) by Drift flux model and the Young-Laplace equation. The distributions of mixture velocities determined from the considered model permitted the calculation of the radial velocity distributions with different values of mean mixture pressure and the calculation of the mean carbon dioxide pressure knowing the mean mixture pressure. The radial velocity distributions are used to deduce a calculation method of the mean mixture pressure through the radial velocity difference between two positions which is measured by ultrasound. The mean carbon dioxide pressure is then deduced from the mean mixture pressure.

Keywords: mean carbon dioxide pressure, mean mixture pressure, mixture velocity, radial velocity difference

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4666 Principal Components Analysis of the Causes of High Blood Pressure at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Ghana

Authors: Joseph K. A. Johnson


Hypertension affects 20 percent of the people within the ages 55 upward in Ghana. Of these, almost one-third are unaware of their condition. Also at the age of 55, more men turned to have hypertension than women. After that age, the condition becomes more prevalent with women. Hypertension is significantly more common in African Americans of both sexes than the racial or ethnic groups. This study was conducted to determine the causes of high blood pressure in Ashanti Region, Ghana. The study employed One Hundred and Seventy (170) respondents. The sample population for the study was all the available respondents at the time of the data collection. The research was conducted using primary data where convenience sampling was used to locate the respondents. A set of questionnaire were used to gather the data for the study. The gathered data was analysed using principal component analysis. The study revealed that, personal description, lifestyle behavior and risk awareness as some of the causes of high blood pressure in Ashanti Region. The study therefore recommend that people must be advice to see to their personal characteristics that may contribute to high blood pressure such as controlling of their temper and how to react perfectly to stressful situations. They must be educated on the factors that may increase the level of their blood pressure such as the essence of seeing a medical doctor before taking in any drug. People must also be made known by the public health officers to those lifestyles behaviour such as smoking and drinking of alcohol which are major contributors of high blood pressure.

Keywords: high blood pressure, principal component analysis, hypertension, public health

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4665 Blood Pressure Level, Targeted Blood Pressure Control Rate, and Factors Related to Blood Pressure Control in Post-Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients

Authors: Nannapus Saramad, Rewwadee Petsirasan, Jom Suwanno


Background: This retrospective study design was to describe average blood pressure, blood pressure level, target blood pressure control rate post-stroke BP control in the year following discharge from Sichon hospital, Sichon District, Nakhon Si Thammarat province. The secondary data analysis was employed from the patient’s health records with patient or caregiver interview. A total of 232 eligible post-acute ischemic strokes in the year following discharge (2017-2018) were recruited. Methods: Data analyses were applied to identify the relationship values of single variables were determined through univariate analyses: The Chi-square test, Fisher exact test, the variables found to have a p-value < 0.2 were analyzed by the binary logistic regression Results: Most of the patients in this study were men 61.6%, an average age of 65.4 ± 14.8 years. Systolic blood pressure levels were in the grade 1-2 hypertension and diastolic pressure at optimal and normal at all times during the initial treatment through the present. The results revealed 25% among the groups under the age of 60 achieved BP control; 36.3% for older than 60 years group; and 27.9% for diabetic group. The multivariate analysis revealed the final relationship of four significant variables: 1) receiving calcium-channel blocker (p =.027); 2) medication adherence of antihypertensive (p = .024) 3) medication adherence of antiplatelet ( p = .020); and 4) medication behavior ( p = . 010) . Conclusion: The medical nurse and health care provider should promote their adherence to behavior to improve their blood pressure control.

Keywords: acute ischemic stroke, target blood pressure control, medication adherence, recurrence stroke

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4664 The Role of Physical Activity on Some Factors Affecting Cardiovascular Disease

Authors: M. J. Pourvaghar, M. E. Bahram, Sh. Khoshemehry


Hyperlipidemia or an increase in blood lipids is a condition that has been rising, especially during the last decade, with the advancement of the life-span of the car, as an important disease. In fact, it is one of the complications of industrial life and semi-industrial. Hyperlipidemia alone is not a disease, but it is recognized as an important risk factor for coronary artery disease. The methodology of this review article is the use of research to provide the best solution for physical activity and exercise in relation to lowering blood lipids and lowering blood pressure. Also, factors that contribute to improving the health status of humans should be introduced. Research findings in this article show that physical activity with a specific duration and severity can keep a person away from the cardiovascular disease. The result shows that regular physical activity with low intensity and long periods of time is essential for human health. Physical mobility reduces blood pressure, reduces the harmful fats and does not cause cardiovascular disease. More than half of the patients suffering from cardiovascular problems are afflicted with blood lipids. On the other hand, high blood pressure is one of the serious health hazards in the world today, which causes a large number of cardiovascular problems and mortality in the world. Undoubtedly, the second most common risk factor for heart disease is high blood pressure after cigarette smoking.

Keywords: blood pressure, cardiovascular, hyperlipidemia, risk factor

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4663 Microfluidic Method for Measuring Blood Viscosity

Authors: Eunseop Yeom


Many cardiovascular diseases, such as thrombosis and atherosclerosis, can change biochemical molecules in plasma and red blood cell. These alterations lead to excessive increase of blood viscosity contributing to peripheral vascular diseases. In this study, a simple microfluidic-based method is used to measure blood viscosity. Microfluidic device is composed of two parallel side channels and a bridge channel. To estimate blood viscosity, blood samples and reference fluid are separately delivered into each inlet of two parallel side channels using pumps. An interfacial line between blood samples and reference fluid occurs by blocking the outlet of one side-channel. Since width for this interfacial line is determined by pressure ratio between blood and reference flows, blood viscosity can be estimated by measuring width for this interfacial line. This microfluidic-based method can be used for evaluating variations in the viscosity of animal models with cardiovascular diseases under flow conditions.

Keywords: blood viscosity, microfluidic chip, pressure, shear rate

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4662 Effects of Handgrip Isometric Training in Blood Pressure of Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease

Authors: Raphael M. Ritti-Dias, Marilia A. Correia, Wagner J. R. Domingues, Aline C. Palmeira, Paulo Longano, Nelson Wolosker, Lauro C. Vianna, Gabriel G. Cucato


Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) have a high prevalence of hypertension, which contributes to a high risk of acute cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality. Strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk of these patients are needed. Meta-analysis studies have shown that isometric handgrip training promotes reductions in clinical blood pressure in normotensive, pre-hypertensive and hypertensive individuals. However, the effect of this exercise training on other cardiovascular function indicators in PAD patients remains unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of isometric handgrip training on blood pressure in patients with PAD. In this clinical trial, 28 patients were randomly allocated into two groups: isometric handgrip training (HG) and control (CG). The HG conducted the unilateral handgrip training three days per week (four sets of two minutes, with 30% of maximum voluntary contraction with an interval of four minutes between sets). CG was encouraged to increase their physical activity levels. At baseline and after eight weeks blood pressure and heart rate were obtained. ANOVA two-way for repeated measures with the group (GH and GC) and time (pre- and post-intervention) as factors was performed. After 8 weeks of training there were no significant changes in systolic blood pressure (HG pre 141 ± 24.0 mmHg vs. HG post 142 ± 22.0 mmHg; CG pre 140 ± 22.1 mmHg vs. CG post 146 ± 16.2 mmHg; P=0.18), diastolic blood pressure (HG pre 74 ± 10.4 mmHg vs. HG post 74 ± 11.9 mmHg; CG pre 72 ± 6.9 mmHg vs. CG post 74 ± 8.0 mmHg; P=0.22) and heart rate (HG pre 61 ± 10.5 bpm vs. HG post 62 ± 8.0 bpm; CG pre 64 ± 11.8 bpm vs. CG post 65 ± 13.6 bpm; P=0.81). In conclusion, our preliminary data indicate that isometric handgrip training did not modify blood pressure and heart rate in patients with PAD.

Keywords: blood pressure, exercise, isometric, peripheral artery disease

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4661 Effects of Acute Exposure to WIFI Signals (2,45 GHz) on Heart Variability and Blood Pressure in Albinos Rabbit

Authors: Linda Saili, Amel Hanini, Chiraz Smirani, Iness Azzouz, Amina Azzouz, Hafedh Abdemelek, Zihad Bouslama


Electrocardiogram and arterial pressure measurements were studied under acute exposures to WIFI (2.45 GHz) during one hour in adult male rabbits. Antennas of WIFI were placed at 25 cm at the right side near the heart. Acute exposure of rabbits to WIFI increased heart frequency (+ 22%) and arterial blood pressure (+14%). Moreover, analysis of ECG revealed that WIFI induced a combined increase of PR and QT intervals. By contrast, the same exposure failed to alter the maximum amplitude and P waves. After intravenously injection of dopamine (0.50 ml/kg) and epinephrine (0.50ml/kg) under acute exposure to RF we found that WIFI alter catecholamines(dopamine, epinephrine) action on heart variability and blood pressure compared to control. These results suggest for the first time, as far as we know, that exposure to WIFI affect heart rhythm, blood pressure, and catecholamines efficacy on cardiovascular system; indicating that radio frequency can act directly and/or indirectly on the cardiovascular system.

Keywords: heart rate (HR), arterial pressure (PA), electrocardiogram (ECG), the efficacy of catecholamines, dopamine, epinephrine

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4660 A Physiological Approach for Early Detection of Hemorrhage

Authors: Rabie Fadil, Parshuram Aarotale, Shubha Majumder, Bijay Guargain


Hemorrhage is the loss of blood from the circulatory system and leading cause of battlefield and postpartum related deaths. Early detection of hemorrhage remains the most effective strategy to reduce mortality rate caused by traumatic injuries. In this study, we investigated the physiological changes via non-invasive cardiac signals at rest and under different hemorrhage conditions simulated through graded lower-body negative pressure (LBNP). Simultaneous electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmogram (PPG), blood pressure (BP), impedance cardiogram (ICG), and phonocardiogram (PCG) were acquired from 10 participants (age:28 ± 6 year, weight:73 ± 11 kg, height:172 ± 8 cm). The LBNP protocol consisted of applying -20, -30, -40, -50, and -60 mmHg pressure to the lower half of the body. Beat-to-beat heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean aerial pressure (MAP) were extracted from ECG and blood pressure. Systolic amplitude (SA), systolic time (ST), diastolic time (DT), and left ventricle Ejection time (LVET) were extracted from PPG during each stage. Preliminary results showed that the application of -40 mmHg i.e. moderate stage simulated hemorrhage resulted significant changes in HR (85±4 bpm vs 68 ± 5bpm, p < 0.01), ST (191 ± 10 ms vs 253 ± 31 ms, p < 0.05), LVET (350 ± 14 ms vs 479 ± 47 ms, p < 0.05) and DT (551 ± 22 ms vs 683 ± 59 ms, p < 0.05) compared to rest, while no change was observed in SA (p > 0.05) as a consequence of LBNP application. These findings demonstrated the potential of cardiac signals in detecting moderate hemorrhage. In future, we will analyze all the LBNP stages and investigate the feasibility of other physiological signals to develop a predictive machine learning model for early detection of hemorrhage.

Keywords: blood pressure, hemorrhage, lower-body negative pressure, LBNP, machine learning

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4659 The Exact Specification for Consumption of Blood-Pressure Regulating Drugs with a Numerical Model of Pulsatile Micropolar Fluid Flow in Elastic Vessel

Authors: Soroush Maddah, Houra Asgarian, Mahdi Navidbakhsh


In the present paper, the problem of pulsatile micropolar blood flow through an elastic artery has been studied. An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation for the governing equations has been produced to model the fully-coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) and has been solved numerically using finite difference scheme by exploiting a mesh generation technique which leads to a uniformly spaced grid in the computational plane. Effect of the variations of cardiac output and wall artery module of elasticity on blood pressure with blood-pressure regulating drugs like Atenolol has been determined. Also, a numerical model has been produced to define precisely the effects of various dosages of a drug on blood flow in arteries without the numerous experiments that have many mistakes and expenses.

Keywords: arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian, Atenolol, fluid structure interaction, micropolar fluid, pulsatile blood flow

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4658 Prevalence, Awareness and Control of Hypertension among the University of Venda Academic Staff, South Africa

Authors: Thizwilondi Madzaga, Jabu Tsakani Mabunda, Takalani Tshitangano


Hypertension is a global public health problem. In most cases, hypertension individuals are not aware of their condition, and they only detected it accidentally during public awareness programmes. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence, awareness and control of hypertension among University of Venda academic staff. UNIVEN is situated in Thohoyandou, South Africa. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence, awareness and control of hypertension among University of Venda academic staff. Slovin’s formula was used to randomly select 179 academic staff (male=104 and female=75). WHO stepwise Questionnaire version 23.0 was used to get information on demographic information. Blood pressure was measured twice after five minutes rest using electronic blood pressure monitor. In this study, hypertension referred to self-reported to be on hypertension medication or having blood pressure equal or exceeding 140 over 90 mmHg. Statistical Package of Social Sciences version 23.0 was used to analyse data. Prevalence of hypertension was 20% and 46% prehypertension. Only 34% had a normal blood pressure. About 34% were not sure of their current blood pressure status (within 12 months). About 10% of the total respondents had been previously diagnosed with hypertension and half of them who were hypertensive were not aware that they had it. Among those who were aware that they are hypertensive, about 90% were on treatment whereas 10% had stopped taking treatment. About 13% of those who were on treatment had controlled blood pressure. There is a need for health education programmes to increase hypertension awareness.

Keywords: academic staff, awareness, control, hypertension, prevalence

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
4657 Evaluation of Resting Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure of Staff of Multi-National Petroleum Company in Warri, Nigeria

Authors: Ekpon Oghenetega Philip, Tayire Okabare Favour, Boye Ejobowah Thomas


The study evaluated the resting systolic blood pressure (RSBP) and resting diastolic blood pressure (RDBP) of staff of a multi-national petroleum company in Nigeria with the aim of helping the staff maintain optimal health which is necessary to carry out their secular work. Eleven healthy male (age 36.9±10.48 years, mean±S.D) and 38 healthy female (39.99±12.23 years, mean±S.D) staff of the multi-national petroleum company performed an incremental exercise on a treadmill and cycle ergometers to determine RSBP and RDBP. An assessment of the health status of the staff of the company was carried out using a physical activity readiness questionnaire (PAR-Q) to determine their suitability for the program. Analysis of the t-test for male staff of RSBP shows that it was statistically significant with a calculated t value of 2.19, α = 0.05 and t-calculated for RSBP of female staff was 1.897, α = 0.05 showing a significance. While the t-calculated RSBP for male staff of the multi-national company is 0.44 with α =0.05 and the female RDBP is 4.129, α = 0.05 and they are all significant. It was recommended that staff of the company should regularly visit the company gym during their leisure hours to maintain optimum health.

Keywords: systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, exercise, pressure staff

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4656 Relationship Salt Sensitivity and с825т Polymorphism of gnb3 Gene in Patients with Essential Hypertension

Authors: Aleksandr Nagay, Gulnoz Khamidullayeva


It is known that an unbalanced intake of salt (NaCI), lifestyle and genetic predisposition to pathology is a key component of the risk and the development of essential hypertension (EH). Purpose: To study the relationship between salt-sensitivity and blood pressure (BP) on systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, depending on the C825T polymorphism of GNB3 in individuals of Uzbek nationality with EH. Method: studied 148 healthy and 148 patients with EH with I-II degree (WHO/ISH, 2003) with disease duration 6,5±1,3 years. Investigation of the gene GNB3 was produced by PCR-RFLP method. Determination of salt-sensitivity was performed by the method of R. Henkin. Results: For a comparative analysis of BP, the groups with carriage of CТ and TT genotypes were combined. The analysis showed that carriers of CC genotype and low salt-sensitivity were determined by higher levels of SBP compared with carriers of CT and TT genotypes, and low salt-sensitivity of SBP: 166,2±4,3 against 158,2±9,1 mm Hg (p=0,000). A similar analysis on the values of DBP also showed significantly higher values of blood pressure in carriers of CC genotype DBP: 105,8±10,6 vs. 100,5±7,2 mm Hg, respectively (p=0,001). The average values of SBP and DBP in groups with carriers of CC genotype at medium or high salt-sensitivity in comparison with carriers of CT or TT genotype did not differ statistically SBP: 165,0±0,1 vs. 160,0±8,6 mm Hg (p=0,275) and DBP: 100,1±0,1 vs. 101,6±7,6 mm Hg (p=0,687), respectively. Conclusion: It is revealed that in patients with EH CC genotype of the gene GNB3 given salt-sensitivity has a negative effect on blood pressure profile. Since patients with EH with the CC genotype of GNB3 gene with low-salt taste sensitivity is determined by a higher level of blood pressure, both on SBP and DBP.

Keywords: salt sensitivity, essential hypertension EH, blood pressure BP, genetic predisposition

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
4655 GUI Design of Mathematical Model of Cardiovascular-Respiratory System

Authors: Ntaganda J.M., Maniraguha J.D., Mukeshimana S., Harelimana D, Bizimungu T., Ruataganda E.


This paper presents the design of Graphic User Interface (GUI) in Matlab as interaction tool between human and machine. The designed GUI can be used by medical doctors and other experts particularly the physiologists. Matlab packages and estimated parameters of the mathematical model of cardiovascular-respiratory system developed in Rwandan context are used in GUI. The ordinary differential equations (ODE’s) govern a mathematical model in designing GUI in Matlab and a window that sets model estimated parameters and the measured parameters by any user. For healthy subject, these measured parameters include heart rate, systolic blood and diastolic blood pressure, partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood, partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood, concentration of bound and dissolved oxygen in the mixed venous blood entering the lungs, and concentration of bound and dissolved carbon dioxide in the mixed venous blood entering the lungs. The results of numerical test give a consistent appearance as empirically known results.

Keywords: Graphic User Interface, mathematical model, cardiovascur-respiratory system, walking physical activity, blood pressure, oxygen

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4654 A Portable Device for Pulse Wave Velocity Measurements

Authors: Chien-Lin Wang, Cha-Ling Ko, Tainsong Chen


Pulse wave velocity (PWV) of blood flow provides important information of vessel property and blood pressure which can be used to assess cardiovascular disease. However, the above measurements need expensive equipment, such as Doppler ultrasound, MRI, angiography etc. The photoplethysmograph (PPG) signals are commonly utilized to detect blood volume changes. In this study, two infrared (IR) probes are designed and placed at a fixed distance from finger base and fingertip. An analog circuit with automatic gain adjustment is implemented to get the stable original PPG signals from above two IR probes. In order to obtain the time delay precisely between two PPG signals, we obtain the pulse transit time from the second derivative of the original PPG signals. To get a portable, wireless and low power consumption PWV measurement device, the low energy Bluetooth 4.0 (BLE) and the microprocessor (Cortex™-M3) are used in this study. The PWV is highly correlated with blood pressure. This portable device has potential to be used for continuous blood pressure monitoring.

Keywords: pulse wave velocity, photoplethysmography, portable device, biomedical engineering

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4653 The Importance of the Fluctuation in Blood Sugar and Blood Pressure of Insulin-Dependent Diabetic Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

Authors: Hitoshi Minakuchi, Izumi Takei, Shu Wakino, Koichi Hayashi, Hiroshi Itoh


Objectives: Among type 2 diabetics, patients with CKD(chronic kidney disease), insulin resistance, impaired glyconeogenesis in kidney and reduced degradation of insulin are recognized, and we observed different fluctuational patterns of blood sugar between CKD patients and non-CKD patients. On the other hand, non-dipper type blood pressure change is the risk of organ damage and mortality. We performed cross-sectional study to elucidate the characteristic of the fluctuation of blood glucose and blood pressure at insulin-treated diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods: From March 2011 to April 2013, at the Ichikawa General Hospital of Tokyo Dental College, we recruited 20 outpatients. All participants are insulin-treated type 2 diabetes with CKD. We collected serum samples, urine samples for several hormone measurements, and performed CGMS(Continuous glucose measurement system), ABPM (ambulatory blood pressure monitoring), brain computed tomography, carotid artery thickness, ankle brachial index, PWV, CVR-R, and analyzed these data statistically. Results: Among all 20 participants, hypoglycemia was decided blood glucose 70mg/dl by CGMS of 9 participants (45.0%). The event of hypoglycemia was recognized lower eGFR (29.8±6.2ml/min:41.3±8.5ml/min, P<0.05), lower HbA1c (6.44±0.57%:7.53±0.49%), higher PWV (1858±97.3cm/s:1665±109.2cm/s), higher serum glucagon (194.2±34.8pg/ml:117.0±37.1pg/ml), higher free cortisol of urine (53.8±12.8μg/day:34.8±7.1μg/day), and higher metanephrin of urine (0.162±0.031mg/day:0.076±0.029mg/day). Non-dipper type blood pressure change in ABPM was detected 8 among 9 participants with hypoglycemia (88.9%), 4 among 11 participants (36.4%) without hypoglycemia. Multiplex logistic-regression analysis revealed that the event of hypoglycemia is the independent factor of non-dipper type blood pressure change. Conclusions: Among insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients with CKD, the events of hypoglycemia were frequently detected, and can associate with the organ derangements through the medium of non-dipper type blood pressure change.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease, hypoglycemia, non-dipper type blood pressure change, diabetic patients

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4652 Hypertensive Response to Maximal Exercise Test in Young and Middle Age Hypertensive on Blood Pressure Lowering Medication: Monotherapy vs. Combination Therapy

Authors: James Patrick A. Diaz, Raul E. Ramboyong


Background: Hypertensive response during maximal exercise test provides important information on the level of blood pressure control and evaluation of treatment. Method: A single center retrospective descriptive study was conducted among 117 young (aged 20 to 40) and middle age (aged 40 to 65) hypertensive patients, who underwent treadmill stress test. Currently on maintenance frontline medication either monotherapy (Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/Angiotensin receptor blocker [ACEi/ARB], Calcium channel blocker [CCB], Diuretic - Hydrochlorthiazide [HCTZ]) or combination therapy (ARB+CCB, ARB+HCTZ), who attained a maximal exercise on treadmill stress test (TMST) with hypertensive response (systolic blood pressure: male >210 mm Hg, female >190 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure >100 mmHg, or increase of >10 mm Hg at any time during the test), on Bruce and Modified Bruce protocol. Exaggerated blood pressure response during exercise (systolic [SBP] and diastolic [DBP]), peak exercise blood pressure (SBP and DBP), recovery period (SBP and DBP) and test for ischemia and their antihypertensive medication/s were investigated. Analysis of variance and chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Hypertensive responses on maximal exercise test were seen mostly among female population (P < 0.000) and middle age (P < 0.000) patients. Exaggerated diastolic blood pressure responses were significantly lower in patients who were taking CCB (P < 0.004). A longer recovery period that showed a delayed decline in SBP was observed in patients taking ARB+HCTZ (P < 0.036). There were no significant differences in the level of exaggerated systolic blood pressure response and during peak exercise (both systolic and diastolic) in patients using either monotherapy or combination antihypertensives. Conclusion: Calcium channel blockers provided lower exaggerated diastolic BP response during maximal exercise test in hypertensive middle age patients. Patients on combination therapy using ARB+HCTZ exhibited a longer recovery period of systolic blood pressure.

Keywords: antihypertensive, exercise test, hypertension, hyperytensive response

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4651 The Effect of a Test Pump Supplement on the Physiological and Functional Performance of Futsal Women

Authors: Samaneh Rahsepar, Mehrzad Moghadasi


To evaluate the effect of Test Pump supplement on the physiological and functional performance of futsal women, twenty female futsal subjects were divided into two groups: placebo (n = 10) and supplement (n = 10) and were given buccal tablets for 7 days and 12 g daily supplement each day. The placebo group used starch powder during this period. Speed, agility with ball, agility without ball and dribbling time were measured before and after supplementation. In addition, the rate of heart rate and blood pressure changes were measured before and after the YOYO test. The results showed that the test pump had no significant effect on improving speed, agility with ball, agility without ball, dribbling time and heart rate changes and diastolic blood pressure, and only affect the maximum oxygen consumption and systolic blood pressure (P <0.05). In general, the use of the test-pump supplement does not have a significant effect on the physiological and functional performance of futsal women. The results of this study showed that the use of supplementary pump tests on women's futsal heart rate changes after loading period had a significant difference between the two groups in resting heart rate with heart rate after exercise and 5 minutes after exercise. However, it did not have a significant effect on the increase in heart rate. Supplementation significantly increased systolic blood pressure after exercise compared to resting blood pressure, as well as a significant increase in systolic blood pressure after exercise compared to resting systolic blood pressure and 5 minutes after exercise in both groups from the loading period. On the other hand, there was a significant difference in systolic blood pressure in both placebo and supplemented groups.

Keywords: test pump supplement, women, speed, dribble, agility, maximum oxygen consumption, cardiovascular

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4650 Effects of Self-Management Programs on Blood Pressure Control, Self-Efficacy, Medication Adherence, and Body Mass Index among Older Adult Patients with Hypertension: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Authors: Van Truong Pham


Background: Self-management was described as a potential strategy for blood pressure control in patients with hypertension. However, the effects of self-management interventions on blood pressure, self-efficacy, medication adherence, and body mass index (BMI) in older adults with hypertension have not been systematically evaluated. We evaluated the effects of self-management interventions on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), self-efficacy, medication adherence, and BMI in hypertensive older adults. Methods: We followed the recommended guidelines of preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Searches in electronic databases including CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, Ovid-Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and other sources were performed to include all relevant studies up to April 2019. Studies selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed by two reviewers independently. We summarized intervention effects as Hedges' g values and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a random-effects model. Data were analyzed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software 2.0. Results: Twelve randomized controlled trials met our inclusion criteria. The results revealed that self-management interventions significantly improved blood pressure control, self-efficacy, medication adherence, whereas the effect of self-management on BMI was not significant in older adult patients with hypertension. The following Hedges' g (effect size) values were obtained: SBP, -0.34 (95% CI, -0.51 to -0.17, p < 0.001); DBP, -0.18 (95% CI, -0.30 to -0.05, p < 0.001); self-efficacy, 0.93 (95%CI, 0.50 to 1.36, p < 0.001); medication adherence, 1.72 (95%CI, 0.44 to 3.00, p=0.008); and BMI, -0.57 (95%CI, -1.62 to 0.48, p = 0.286). Conclusions: Self-management interventions significantly improved blood pressure control, self-efficacy, and medication adherence. However, the effects of self-management on obesity control were not supported by the evidence. Healthcare providers should implement self-management interventions to strengthen patients' role in managing their health care.

Keywords: self-management, meta-analysis, blood pressure control, self-efficacy, medication adherence, body mass index

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4649 Construction of a Dynamic Model of Cerebral Blood Circulation for Future Integrated Control of Brain State

Authors: Tomohiko Utsuki


Currently, brain resuscitation becomes increasingly important due to revising various clinical guidelines pertinent to emergency care. In brain resuscitation, the control of brain temperature (BT), intracranial pressure (ICP), and cerebral blood flow (CBF) is required for stabilizing physiological state of brain, and is described as the essential treatment points in many guidelines of disorder and/or disease such as brain injury, stroke, and encephalopathy. Thus, an integrated control system of BT, ICP, and CBF will greatly contribute to alleviating the burden on medical staff and improving treatment effect in brain resuscitation. In order to develop such a control system, models related to BT, ICP, and CBF are required for control simulation, because trial and error experiments using patients are not ethically allowed. A static model of cerebral blood circulation from intracranial arteries and vertebral artery to jugular veins has already constructed and verified. However, it is impossible to represent the pooling of blood in blood vessels, which is one cause of cerebral hypertension in this model. And, it is also impossible to represent the pulsing motion of blood vessels caused by blood pressure change which can have an affect on the change of cerebral tissue pressure. Thus, a dynamic model of cerebral blood circulation is constructed in consideration of the elasticity of the blood vessel and the inertia of the blood vessel wall. The constructed dynamic model was numerically analyzed using the normal data, in which each arterial blood flow in cerebral blood circulation, the distribution of blood pressure in the Circle of Willis, and the change of blood pressure along blood flow were calculated for verifying against physiological knowledge. As the result, because each calculated numerical value falling within the generally known normal range, this model has no problem in representing at least the normal physiological state of the brain. It is the next task to verify the accuracy of the present model in the case of disease or disorder. Currently, the construction of a migration model of extracellular fluid and a model of heat transfer in cerebral tissue are in progress for making them parts of an integrated model of brain physiological state, which is necessary for developing an future integrated control system of BT, ICP and CBF. The present model is applicable to constructing the integrated model representing at least the normal condition of brain physiological state by uniting with such models.

Keywords: dynamic model, cerebral blood circulation, brain resuscitation, automatic control

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4648 Regression-Based Approach for Development of a Cuff-Less Non-Intrusive Cardiovascular Health Monitor

Authors: Pranav Gulati, Isha Sharma


Hypertension and hypotension are known to have repercussions on the health of an individual, with hypertension contributing to an increased probability of risk to cardiovascular diseases and hypotension resulting in syncope. This prompts the development of a non-invasive, non-intrusive, continuous and cuff-less blood pressure monitoring system to detect blood pressure variations and to identify individuals with acute and chronic heart ailments, but due to the unavailability of such devices for practical daily use, it becomes difficult to screen and subsequently regulate blood pressure. The complexities which hamper the steady monitoring of blood pressure comprises of the variations in physical characteristics from individual to individual and the postural differences at the site of monitoring. We propose to develop a continuous, comprehensive cardio-analysis tool, based on reflective photoplethysmography (PPG). The proposed device, in the form of an eyewear captures the PPG signal and estimates the systolic and diastolic blood pressure using a sensor positioned near the temporal artery. This system relies on regression models which are based on extraction of key points from a pair of PPG wavelets. The proposed system provides an edge over the existing wearables considering that it allows for uniform contact and pressure with the temporal site, in addition to minimal disturbance by movement. Additionally, the feature extraction algorithms enhance the integrity and quality of the extracted features by reducing unreliable data sets. We tested the system with 12 subjects of which 6 served as the training dataset. For this, we measured the blood pressure using a cuff based BP monitor (Omron HEM-8712) and at the same time recorded the PPG signal from our cardio-analysis tool. The complete test was conducted by using the cuff based blood pressure monitor on the left arm while the PPG signal was acquired from the temporal site on the left side of the head. This acquisition served as the training input for the regression model on the selected features. The other 6 subjects were used to validate the model by conducting the same test on them. Results show that the developed prototype can robustly acquire the PPG signal and can therefore be used to reliably predict blood pressure levels.

Keywords: blood pressure, photoplethysmograph, eyewear, physiological monitoring

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4647 A Study to Identify Resistant Hypertension and Role of Spironolactone in its Management

Authors: A. Kumar, D. Himanshu, Ak Vaish, K. Usman , A. Singh, R. Misra, V. Atam, S. P. Verma, S. Singhal


Introduction: Resistant and uncontrolled hypertension offer great challenge, in terms of higher risk of morbidity, mortality and not the least, difficulty in diagnosis and management. Our study tries to identify the importance of two crucial aspects of hypertension management, i.e. drug compliance and optimum dosing and also the effect of spironolactone on blood pressure in cases of resistant hypertension. Methodology: A prospective study was carried out among patients, who were referred as case of resistant hypertension to Hypertension Clinic at Gandhi memorial and associated hospital, Lucknow, India from August, 2013 to July 2014. A total of 122 Subjects having uncontrolled BP with ≥3 antihypertensives were selected. After ruling out secondary resistance and with appropriate lifestyle modifications, effect of adherence and optimum doses was seen with monitoring of BP. Only those having blood pressure still uncontrolled were true resistant. These patients were given spironolactone to see its effect on BP over next 12 weeks. Results: Mean baseline BP of all (n=122) patients was 150.4±7.2 mmHg systolic and 92.1±5.7 mmHg diastolic. After promoting adherence to the regimen, there was reduction of 4.20±3.65 mmHg systolic and 2.08±4.74 mmHg Diastolic blood pressure, with 26 patients achieving target blood pressure goal. Further reduction of 6.66±5.99 mmHg in systolic and 2.59±3.67 mmHg in diastolic BP was observed after optimizing the drug doses with another 66 patients achieving target blood pressure goal. Only 30 patients were true resistant hypertensive and prescribed spironolactone. Over 12 weeks, mean reduction of 20.62±3.65 mmHg in systolic and 10.08 ± 6.46 mmHg in diastolic BP was observed. Out of these 30, BP was controlled in 24 patients. Side effects observed were hyperkalemia in 2 patients and breast tenderness in 2 patients. Conclusion: Improper adherence and suboptimal regimen appear to be the important reasons for uncontrolled hypertension. By virtue of maintaining proper adherence to an optimum regimen, target BP goal can be reached in many without adding much to the regimen. Spironolactone is effective in patients with resistant hypertension, in terms of blood pressure reduction with minimal side effects.

Keywords: resistant, hypertension, spironolactone, blood pressure

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4646 Effect of Acute Ingestion of Ice Water on Blood Pressure in Relation to Body Mass Index

Authors: Savitri Siddanagoudra, Shantala Herlekar, Priya Arjunwadekar


Background: The physiological response to water drinking in healthy subjects is an integrated response with an increase in sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity with induced bradycardia. Obesity is a modern pandemic, implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. In autonomic failure patients, water drinking has been shown the increased high blood pressure and bradycardia. Acute effects of ice water ingestion on blood pressure (BP) in relation to body mass index (BMI) is not addressed in literature. Objectives: Objective of this study is to evaluate BP before and after ingestion of cold water in all the three groups. Methods and Material: 60 healthy subjects between the age group of 18-24 yrs were selected and assigned into 3 groups based on BMI. BMI less than and equal to 25 kg/m2 is selected as Normal BMI group ,between 25- 29 kg/m2 as Overweight and BMI more than and equal to 30 kg/m2 as Obese. Procedure: Basal and after ingestion of 250 ml of cold water (7 0C ± 0.5 0C)BP was recorded in all the 3 groups. Results: Basal and after ice water ingestion BP increased statistically in all 3 groups. Conclusion: On acute ingestion of ice water overweight, obese may have more sympathoexcitaion compared to normal subjects.

Keywords: blood pressure, body mass index, ice water, symathoexcitation

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