Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 451

Search results for: childhood

451 Parental Discourse on Childhood Vaccination Programme: A Case Study

Authors: Tengku Farah Petri Tengku Mahmood, Shameem Rafik-Galea, Zalina Mohd Kasim, Norlijah Othman

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Childhood vaccination programme is mandatory in Malaysia. However, the decision to vaccinate or not vaccinate children is still left to the parents. Presently, there are parents who are opting out of vaccination claiming that it causes autism and other chronic disorders despite inconclusive evidence. There appears to be a dangerous trend among some Malaysian parents to not vaccinate their children and to not participate in the childhood vaccination programme. This study presents preliminary findings of parental discourse on childhood vaccination programme through the perspective of the Integrated Threat Theory. An in-depth interview was carried out to investigate a parent’s concern of the effects of childhood vaccination on children. A thematic discourse analysis was used to analyse the transcribed data. The emerging themes based on the analysis and their relevance to our understanding of a parent’s concerns of the effects of childhood vaccination on children are discussed.

Keywords: case study, parental discourse, thematic discourse analysis, childhood vaccination

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
450 Identifying Factors Linking Childhood Neglect to Opiate Use

Authors: Usha Barahmand, Ali Khazaee, Goudarz Sadeghi Hashjin

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The purpose of this study is to assess the relative mediating effects of impulsivity and internalizing problems in the relationship between childhood neglect and motives for opiate use. Seventy-two adolescent opiate users were recruited for the study. Participants completed assessments of childhood abuse history, distress, impulsiveness and motives for substance use as well as a socio-demographic information sheet. Findings from bootstrap mediator analyses indicated that distress, but not impulsiveness, mediated the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and expansion and enhancement motives for substance use. The current study provides preliminary evidence that internalizing problems may function as a mechanism linking prior childhood experiences of emotional neglect to subsequent motives for substance use. Clinical implications of these findings suggest that targeting emotion dysregulation problems may be an effective adjunct in the treatment of adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment that are at risk for substance use.

Keywords: childhood neglect, impulsiveness, internalizing problems, substance use motives

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
449 Exploring 'Attachment Theory' in the Context of Early Childhood Education

Authors: Wendy Lee

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From the mid-twentieth century onward, the notion of ‘attachment’ has been used to define the optimum relationship between young children and their carers; first applied to parents and young children and more recently with early childhood educators and children in their care. However, it is seldom, if ever, asked whether the notion of ‘attachment’ and more especially so-called Attachment Theory, as propounded by John Bowlby and others, provides a sound basis for conceptualising child-adult relationships in early years. Even if appropriate in the context of family, the use of the term raises a number of questions when used in early childhood education. Research has shown that our youngest children (infants) in early childhood centre based care settings, are given the utmost priority to build 'attachments' with their educators. But exactly when, how and why does this priority diminish - and should it (for preschoolers)? This presentation will elaborate on such issues and will argue that there is a need to reconceptualise and redefine how 'quality relationships' should be measured and implemented in the daily practices and pedagogical methods adopted by early childhood educators. Moreover, this presentation will include data collected from the empirical study conducted, that observed various early childhood educators and children in Australian early childhood centres. Lastly, the thoughts, feelings and desires of parents of children in early childhood centre-based care, regarding the term 'attachment' and 'quality relationships' will be shared in the hope that we can take one step closer in bridging the needs of families, children, early childhood centres, educators, and the wider community.

Keywords: attachment, early childhood education, pedagogy, relationships

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448 The Family Sense of Coherence of Early Childhood Education Students

Authors: M. Demir, A. Demir

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The aim of this study is to examine the family sense of coherence of early childhood education students. The Family Sense of Coherence Inventory has applied to 233 (108 girls and 125 boys) early childhood education students in Turkey. At the stage of data collection, with the aim of determining the family sense of coherence of early childhood education students, Family Sense of Coherence Inventory which was developed by Çeçen (2007) was used. In the process of the analysis of data, independent samples t-test, and one-way ANOVA were used. According to the results of the study, there were significant differences between some demographic variables in terms of the family sense of coherence.

Keywords: family sense of coherence, early childhood education students

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
447 A Systematic Review on Assessing the Prevalence, Types, and Predictors of Sleep Disturbances in Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury

Authors: E. Botchway, C. Godfrey, V. Anderson, C. Catroppa

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Introduction: Sleep disturbances are common after childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). This systematic review aimed to assess the prevalence, types, and predictors of sleep disturbances in childhood TBI. Methods: Medline, Pubmed, PsychInfo, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases were searched. Out of the 547 articles assessed, 15 met selection criteria for this review. Results: Sleep disturbances were common in children and adolescents with TBI, irrespective of injury severity. Excessive daytime sleepiness and insomnia were the most common sleep disturbances reported. Sleep disturbance was predicted by sex, injury severity, pre-existing sleep disturbances, younger age, pain, and high body mass index. Conclusions: Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in childhood TBI, regardless of the injury severity. Routine assessment of sleep in survivors of childhood TBI is recommended.

Keywords: traumatic brain injury, sleep diatiurbances, childhood, systematic review

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
446 Character Education Model for Early Childhood Based Javanese Culture

Authors: Rafika Bayu Kusumandari, Istyarini, Ispen Safrel

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Character education will be more meaningful if carried out since early childhood. This is because early childhood education is the foundation of the formation of character. This study intends to find a model of character education in early childhood based on Javanese culture. In keeping with the focus of the study, long-term goals to be achieved through this research is to find once described the development of a model of character education in early childhood Javanese culture based in Semarang are then applied across early childhood education institutions in Semarang City. The specific objective of the study is: Describe the character models and management education in early childhood Java-based culture in Semarang City. The benefits of this research are; Provide an overview of the model and describe the management of character education in early childhood Java-based culture in Semarang City. Referring to the objectives of the research program was designed with a "Research and Development", meaning that a program of research followed by development programs for improvement or refinement. To produce a prototype model of character education in early childhood Java-based culture in the city, taken systematic measures in the form of the action, reflection, evaluation and innovation by applying qualitative research methods, descriptive, development, experimentation, and evaluation. This study aims to gain in-depth description of the model of character education in early childhood Java-based culture in the city of Semarang. The reason for the use of the use of qualitative methods researcher's knowledge, no study results and empirical research specifically about the model of character education in early childhood Java-based culture in the city of Semarang. On the implementation of character education early childhood adapted to the characteristics of each school and the emphasis of each agency arrangements for early childhood education, culture-based Java. Javanese culture should be introduced early in order not to erode the cultural lost outside the entrance as the era of globalization. In addition, Java is promoting a culture of courtesy and manners are very appropriate for the character formation of children of early age.

Keywords: education character, Javanese culture, childhood, character

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
445 The Most Effective Interventions to Prevent Childhood Obesity

Authors: Sarah-Anne Schumann, Chintan Shah, Sandeep Ponniah, Syeachia Dennis

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Effective interventions to prevent childhood obesity include limiting sugar-sweetened beverage intake (SOR: B, longitudinal study), school and home based strategies to reduce total screen time and increase physical activity, behavioral and dietary counseling, and support for parents and families (SOR: A, meta-analysis of randomized and non-randomized controlled trials). Risk factors for childhood obesity include maternal pre-pregnancy weight, high infant birth weight, early infant rapid weight gain and maternal smoking during pregnancy which may provide opportunities to intervene and prevent childhood obesity (SOR: B, meta-analysis of observational studies).

Keywords: childhood, obesity, prevent obesity, interventions to prevent obesity

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
444 Emerging Issues in Early Childhood Care and Development in Nigeria

Authors: Evelyn Fabian

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The focus of this discussion centres on the emerging issues in Early Childhood Care and development in Nigeria. Early childhood care is the bedrock of Nigeria’s educational system. However, there are critical issues that had not been addressed and it is frustrating the entire educational process. Thus, this paper will show the inter-connectedness between these issues such as poor funding, trained skillful teachers that would supervise the learning process of the kids, unconducive learning environment and lack of relevant facilities. For a clear grasp of these issues, the researcher visited 36 early childhood centres distributed across the 36 spates of Nigeria. The findings which were expressed in simple percentages revealed a near total absence or government neglect of these critical areas. The findings equally showed a misplaced priority in the government allocation of funds to early child care education and development. The study concludes that this mismatch in the training of these categories of pupils, government should expedite action in addressing these emerging issues in early childhood care and development in Nigeria.

Keywords: early childhood, ECCE, education, emerging issues

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443 A Diagnostic Challenge of Drug Resistant Childhood Tuberculosis in Developing World

Authors: Warda Fatima, Hasnain Javed

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The emerging trend of Drug resistance in childhood Tuberculosis is increasing worldwide and now becoming a priority challenge for National TB Control Programs of the world. Childhood TB accounts for 10-15% of total TB burden across the globe and same proportion is quantified in case of drug resistant TB. One third population suffering from MDR TB dies annually because of non-diagnosis and unavailability of appropriate treatment. However, true Childhood MDR TB cannot be estimated due to non-confirmation. Diagnosis of Pediatric TB by sputum Smear Microscopy and Culture inoculation are limited due to paucibacillary nature and difficulties in obtaining adequate sputum specimens. Diagnosis becomes more difficult when it comes to HIV infected child. New molecular advancements for early case detection of TB and MDR TB in adults have not been endorsed in children. Multi centered trials are needed to design better diagnostic approaches and efficient and safer treatments for DR TB in high burden countries. The aim of the present study is to sketch out the current situation of the childhood Drug resistant TB especially in the developing world and to highlight the classic and novel methods that are to be implemented in high-burden resource-limited locations.

Keywords: drug resistant TB, childhood, diagnosis, novel methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
442 The Investigation of Predictor Affect of Childhood Trauma, Dissociation, Alexithymia, and Gender on Dissociation in University Students

Authors: Gizem Akcan, Erdinc Ozturk

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The purpose of the study was to determine some psychosocial variables that predict dissociation in university students. These psychosocial variables were perceived childhood trauma, alexithymia, and gender. 150 (75 males, 75 females) university students (bachelor, master and postgraduate) were enrolled in this study. They were chosen from universities in Istanbul at the education year of 2016-2017. Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and Toronto Alexithymia Scale were used to assess related variables. Demographic Information Form was given to students in order to have their demographic information. Frequency Distribution, Linear Regression Analysis, and t-test analysis were used for statistical analysis. Childhood trauma and alexithymia were found to have predictive value on dissociation among university students. However, physical abuse, physical neglect and emotional neglect sub dimensions of childhood trauma and externally-oriented thinking sub dimension of alexithymia did not have predictive value on dissociation. Moreover, there was no significant difference between males and females in terms of dissociation scores of participants.

Keywords: childhood trauma, dissociation, alexithymia, gender

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
441 The Application of Local Wisdom in Health Care of Early Childhood at Ban Nam Chieo Community, Laem Ngop, Trat Province

Authors: Supalak Fakkhum, Wannita Pochanakul

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This research is qualitative research that aims to study the application of local wisdom in health care of early childhood at Ban Nam Chieo Community, Laem Ngop, Trat Province. The target is one folk medicine healer and 45 parents who have children or grandchildren aged between 0-5 years. The folk medicine healer was interviewed and observed during early childhood health care practice. Parents were interviewed. The results showed that local wisdom in health care of early childhood are as follows: 1. Local wisdom about early childhood diseases: It is believed that the disease was determined while the child was still in the womb, in the third month of pregnancy. When a child is born, they will have La, La-ong and Saang diseases, which are URI (upper respiratory infection) and DI (diarrhea) diseases. Supernatural aspect is also considered. 2. The treatment is chosen to match the symptoms of the disease. Caring for early childhood includes psychological therapy by rituals and spells. 3. For local wisdom concerning prevention and health promotion, parents normally bring their child to folk medicine healers for “throat paint” as an act of protection and health promotion. Folk healers often prescribe food according to belief and local wisdom.

Keywords: local wisdom, early childhood, folk medicine, healer

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
440 The Role of Information and Communication Technology in Early Childhood Education as Perceived by Early Childhood Teachers

Authors: Rabia Khalil

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The aim of the study is to find out the perception of early childhood education teacher‘s about the role and implementation of information communication technology in early childhood education. The main purpose of the study is to investigate the role of information and communication technology in early childhood education as perceived by early childhood education teachers. The objectives of the study were to identify the roles of ICT in today’s early years and the impacts of Information communication technology in early childhood education. This study is to find out the role of ICT at ECE level & how it will be useful for teachers to implement this technique for the development of student skills. This is a quantitative research in which a survey study was conducted. The Population of the study was the primary teachers of the public and private primary schools of Lahore. By using random sampling technique the sample consists of 300 teachers but only 260 respond from 52 primary schools of Lahore. In this research, questionnaire was developed for primary school teachers. The questionnaires were based on liker type scale which comprises of section of strongly agree to strongly disagree. Data were analyzed by using descriptive analysis. The data was arranged and then entered in computer, having the software package for social sciences (SPSS) version 15. The importance of this study is to find out the role of ICT at ECE level & how it will be useful for teachers to implement this technique for the development of student skills.

Keywords: ECE, ICT, PC, C AI

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439 Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Field; An Invisible Risk Association between High Power Transmission Lines and Childhood Leukemia and Adult Brain Cancer: Literature Review

Authors: Ali Azeem, Seung-Cheol Hong

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This study focuses on the epidemiological association between childhood leukaemia & adult brain cancer to offer strong evidence that extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) produced from power lines caused cancer. It also gives a comprehensive literature review on epidemiological studies of ELF-MF risk associated with HVTL and childhood leukaemia & adult brain cancer. From the literature review, it is concluded that there is a weak association present between ELF-MF and childhood leukaemia. No consistent association was present between brain cancer and ELF-MF. This study is done on Scielo data and PubMed using the terms extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF+cancer), adult brain cancer, high power transmission lines, etc., for the past 10 years.

Keywords: childhood leukaemia, high voltage transmission lines, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, power lines

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438 Exploring Ways Early Childhood Teachers Integrate Information and Communication Technologies into Children's Play: Two Case Studies from the Australian Context

Authors: Caroline Labib

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This paper reports on a qualitative study exploring the approaches teachers used to integrate computers or smart tablets into their program planning. Their aim was to integrate ICT into children’s play, thereby supporting children’s learning and development. Data was collected in preschool settings in Melbourne in 2016. Interviews with teachers, observations of teacher interactions with children and copies of teachers’ planning and observation documents informed the study. The paper looks closely at findings from two early childhood settings and focuses on exploring the differing approaches two EC teachers have adopted when integrating iPad or computers into their settings. Data analysis revealed three key approaches which have been labelled: free digital play, guided digital play and teacher-led digital use. Importantly, teacher decisions were influenced by the interplay between the opportunities that the ICT tools offered, the teachers’ prior knowledge and experience about ICT and children’s learning needs and contexts. This paper is a snapshot of two early childhood settings, and further research will encompass data from six more early childhood settings in Victoria with the aim of exploring a wide range of motivating factors for early childhood teachers trying to integrate ICT into their programs.

Keywords: early childhood education (ECE), digital play, information and communication technologies (ICT), play, and teachers' interaction approaches

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
437 An Exploratory Research on Childhood Sexual Victimization and Its Psychological Impacts

Authors: Urwah Ali

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The aim of this study is to carry out a meta-analysis in order to establish an overall international figure and to summarize the evidence relating to the possible relationship between child sexual abuse and subsequent mental and physical health outcomes. A systematic review was conducted using the HEC Digital Library, Pub Med, PsycINFO and SAHIL databases published after 2010 containing empirical data pertaining to CSA. Out of 124 articles assessed for eligibility, 32 studies provided evidence of a relationship between sexual child maltreatment and various health outcomes for use in subsequent meta-analyses. Statistical significance associations were observed between childhood sexual victimization and psychological problems in their adulthood [odds ratio (OR) = 1.5; 95%Cl 3.07–4.43]. For most studies included for meta-analysis, the odds ratio falls above 1.00, indicating that patients having history of childhood sexual victimization were more likely to develop psychological disorders.

Keywords: abuse, sexual abuse, childhood sexual abuse, mental health

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
436 Exploring Thai Early Childhood Teachers’ Experience and Concerns regarding Teaching Children with Disabilities in Inclusive Classrooms

Authors: Sunanta Klibthong

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In view of the Thailand government policy creating increasing awareness of opportunity for children with special needs, the number of children with disabilities enrolled in kindergartens in Thailand has increased. This study explores early childhood teachers’ experiences and concerns of teaching children with disabilities in inclusive classrooms. The population of the study was private early childhood teachers who teach in inclusive classrooms in Thailand. Quantitative data obtained through a questionnaire were supplemented by early childhood teachers’ interviews to identify key experiences and concerns of the teachers when teaching children with and without disabilities in the same classrooms. The results of this study indicated that many teachers face challenges including lack of professional development opportunities, difficulty identifying the needs of all children and how to use effective strategies to support inclusive practices in their classrooms. Teachers also expressed concern about parents’ lack of willingness to accept children without disabilities studying together with those with disabilities in the same classrooms. Findings from this study can inform program support for parents and professional support needs of teachers in the provision of high-quality inclusive programs for all students.

Keywords: the concern, early childhood, experience, inclusive education, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
435 Breastfeeding in Childhood Asthma: A Boon or a Bane

Authors: Harish Peri, Amit Devgan

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on asthma and lung function in childhood asthma. A case-control study comprising 80 cases (children with asthma) and 80 controls(children without asthma) in the age group 6-12 years were included. A diagnosis was made by the treating pediatrician. A parental questionnaire was given and data regarding the name, age, sex of the child, duration of asthma, whether breastfed or not, duration, exclusiveness of breastfeeding and maternal asthmatic status were collected. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate was measured for every child using a Peak Expiratory Flow Meter. Results showed Exclusively Breastfed children were found to better protected against asthma and have improved lung function as compared to Non-exclusively Breastfeed children, irrespective of the mother’s asthmatic status. This study demonstrated that exclusive breastfeeding has a protective action against childhood asthma.

Keywords: asthmatic mothers, childhood asthma, exclusive breastfeeding, non-asthmatic mothers

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434 The Influence of Guided and Independent Training Toward Teachers’ Competence to Plan Early Childhood Education Learning Program

Authors: Sofia Hartati

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This research is aimed at describing training in early childhood education program empirically, describing teachers ability to plan lessons empirically, and acquiring empirical data as well as analyzing the influence of guided and independent training toward teachers competence in planning early childhood learning program. The method used is an experiment. It collected data with a population of 76 early childhood educators in Tunjung Teja Sub District area through random sampling technique and grouped into two namely 38 people in an experiment class and 38 people in a controlled class. The technique used for data collections is a test. The result of the research shows that there is a significant influence between training for guided educators toward Teachers Ability toward Planning Early Childhood Learning Program. Guided training has been proven to improve the ability to comprehend planning a learning program. The ability to comprehend planning a learning program owned by teachers of early childhood program comprises of 1) determining the characteristics and competence of students prior to learning; 2) formulating the objective of the learning; 3) selecting materials and its sequences; 4) selecting teaching methods; 5) determining the means or learning media; 6) selecting evaluation strategy as a part of teachers pedagogic competence. The result of this research describes a difference in the competence level of teachers who have joined guided training which is relatively higher than the teachers who joined the independent training. Guided training is one of an effective way to improve the knowledge and competence of early childhood educators.

Keywords: competence, planning, teachers, training

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
433 The Development of a School-Based Wellbeing Programme to Enhance the Social Functioning of Learners in Middle Childhood

Authors: Soretha Beets, Izanette Van Schalkwyk, Doret K. Kirsten

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Children in middle childhood are exposed to various risks, for example, risks associated with poverty and/or dysfunctional families, that may threaten their social functioning. The aim of this study was to develop and design a programme that can be presented to children in middle childhood in order to enhance their social functioning towards better wellbeing. The skills and competencies needed to be included in the programme were identified by means of a literature review and 4 focus groups with educators from 4 sub-areas in a certain district in the North-West Province of South Africa. The programme consists of 8 sessions, presented in a certain order. The sessions cover the following aspects: self-esteem and gratitude, self-regulation and goal-setting, values and relationships, communication and listening, conflict management, emotional competence, and resilient coping. These aspects may benefit children in the middle child’s wellbeing and live on the short-term and may also hold long-term benefits.

Keywords: middle childhood, programme development, social functioning, wellbeing

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
432 Emotion Dysregulation as Mediator between Child Abuse and Opiate Use Motives

Authors: Usha Barahmand, Ali Khazaee, Goudarz Sadeghi Hashjin

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Coping motives are considered to be indicators of problematic substance use. The present investigation examined a model with emotional abuse as an antecedent and emotional dysregulation as a mediator leading to substance use. The intent of this study was to examine the associations between various types of childhood maltreatment and motives for substance use. The sample consisted of 72 male opiate users recruited from those enrolled for Methadone Maintenance treatment. Participants responded to measures of childhood maltreatment, emotion dysregulation, and motives for opiate use. All data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients and bootstrap analysis of mediation. Results supported the hypothesis that the experience of emotional abuse in childhood is associated with problems in regulating emotions which in turn correlates with opiate use as a way to cope with negative affect, to enhance positive effect or to obtain social rewards. Bootstrap analysis confirmed the mediating role of emotion dysregulation. Findings support the potential utility of further research into emotion dysregulation and motives as antecedents of problematic opiate use.

Keywords: childhood abuse, emotion dysregulation, motives, substance use

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431 Research Trends in Early Childhood Education Graduate Theses: A Content Analysis

Authors: Seden Demirtaş, Feyza Tantekin Erden

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The importance of research in early childhood education is growing all around the world. This study aims to investigate research trends in graduate theses written in Turkey in the area of early childhood education. Descriptive, contextual and methodological aspects of graduate theses were analyzed to investigate the trends. A sample of the study consisted of 1000 graduate theses (n= 1000) including both MS theses and Ph.D. dissertations. Theses and dissertations were obtained from the thesis database of Council of Higher Education (CoHE). An investigation form was developed by the researcher to analyze graduate theses. The investigation forms validated by expert opinion from early childhood education department. To enhance the reliability of the investigation form, inter-coder agreement was measured by Cohen’s Kappa value (.86). Data were gathered via using the investigation form, and content analysis method was used to analyze the data. Results of the analysis were presented by descriptive statistics and frequency tables. Analysis of the study is on-going and preliminary results of the study show that master theses related to early childhood education have started to be written in 1986, and the number of the theses has increased gradually. In most of the studies, sample group consisted of children especially in between 5-6 age group. Child development, activities (applied in daily curriculum of preschools) and teaching methods are the mostly examined concepts in graduate theses. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were referred equally by researchers in these theses.

Keywords: content analysis, early childhood education, graduate thesis, research trends

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430 A Model for a Continuous Professional Development Program for Early Childhood Teachers in Villages: Insights from the Coaching Pilot in Indonesia

Authors: Ellen Patricia, Marilou Hyson

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Coaching has been showing great potential to strengthen the impact of brief group trainings and help early childhood teachers solve specific problems at work with the goal of raising the quality of early childhood services. However, there have been some doubts about the benefits that village teachers can receive from coaching. It is perceived that village teachers may struggle with the thinking skills needed to make coaching beneficial. Furthermore, there are reservations about whether principals and supervisors in villages are open to coaching’s facilitative approach, as opposed to the directive approach they have been using. As such, the use of coaching to develop the professionalism of early childhood teachers in the villages needs to be examined. The Coaching Pilot for early childhood teachers in Indonesia villages provides insights for the above issues. The Coaching Pilot is part of the ECED Frontline Pilot, which is a collaboration project between the Government of Indonesia and the World Bank with the support from the Australian Government (DFAT). The Pilot started with coordinated efforts with the local government in two districts to select principals and supervisors who have been equipped with basic knowledge about early childhood education to take part in 2-days coaching training. Afterwards, the participants were asked to collect 25 hours of coaching early childhood teachers who have participated in the Enhanced Basic Training for village teachers. The participants who completed this requirement were then invited to come for an assessment of their coaching skills. Following that, a qualitative evaluation was conducted using in-depth interviews and Focus Group Discussion techniques. The evaluation focuses on the impact of the coaching pilot in helping the village teachers to develop in their professionalism, as well as on the sustainability of the intervention. Results from the evaluation indicated that although their low education may limit their thinking skills, village teachers benefited from the coaching that they received. Moreover, the evaluation results also suggested that with enough training and support, principals and supervisors in the villages were able to provide an adequate coaching service for the teachers. On top of that, beyond this small start, interest is growing, both within the pilot districts and even beyond, due to word of mouth of the benefits that the Coaching Pilot has created. The districts where coaching was piloted have planned to continue the coaching program, since a number of early childhood teachers have requested to be coached, and a number of principals and supervisors have also requested to be trained as a coach. Furthermore, the Association for Early Childhood Educators in Indonesia has started to adopt coaching into their program. Although further research is needed, the Coaching Pilot suggests that coaching can positively impact early childhood teachers in villages, and village principals and supervisors can become a promising source of future coaches. As such, coaching has a significant potential to become a sustainable model for a continuous professional development program for early childhood teachers in villages.

Keywords: coaching, coaching pilot, early childhood teachers, principals and supervisors, village teachers

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429 Maternal Smoking and Risk of Childhood Overweight and Obesity: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Martina Kanciruk, Jac J. W. Andrews, Tyrone Donnon

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The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of maternal smoking for the development of childhood overweight and/or obesity. Accordingly, a systematic literature review of English-language studies published from 1980 to 2012 using the following data bases: MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Dissertation Abstracts International was conducted. The following terms were used in the search: pregnancy, overweight, obesity, smoking, parents, childhood, risk factors. Eighteen studies of maternal smoking during pregnancy and obesity conducted in Europe, Asia, North America, and South America met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of these studies indicated that maternal smoking during pregnancy is a significant risk factor for overweight and obesity; mothers who smoke during pregnancy are at a greater risk for developing obesity or overweight; the quantity of cigarettes consumed by the mother during pregnancy influenced the odds of offspring overweight and/or obesity. In addition, the results from moderator analyses suggest that part of the heterogeneity discovered between the studies can be explained by the region of world that the study occurred in and the age of the child at the time of weight assessment.

Keywords: childhood obesity, overweight, smoking, parents, risk factors

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428 Selected Childhood Experiences, Current Psychological Status and Its Associates among Imprisoned Women in Welikada Prison, Colombo Sri Lanka

Authors: Jayathilake Wijethunga B. G. Mudiyanselage, Jeewantha Ranawaka, Nirosha Lansakara

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Introduction: Women imprisonment is rising in the world. Imprisoned women have more psychological problems and more adverse childhood experiences than the general population. Female prisoners who had psychological problems had more adverse childhood experiences than the prisoners who did not have psychological problems. Most of the imprisoned women are mothers. Mothers are the principal carer for the children. The psychological status of imprisoned female is worth seeking along with its associates since this is a group of women who need others assistance to make their life adjusted. Any intervention that could uplift their psychological wellbeing would make their life better if they are to be released out of the prison. Since there are no studies done in Sri Lanka to study the imprisoned women psychological wellbeing and their childhood experiences, it is important to study on this to find the magnitude of the problem in Sri Lanka. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study was done at the Welikada Prison, Colombo, among the imprisoned women. 273 imprisoned women were selected using simple random sampling technique. Using interviewer administered questionnaire 270 women were interviewed. Three women did not consent for the study. Frequencies of the selected socio demographic characteristics and selected childhood experiences calculated. GHQ 30 questionnaire was used to assess the psychological distress. Odds ratio was used to calculate the associations between the psychological distress and the selected socio demographic characteristics, selected childhood experiences. Results: Response rate was 98.9%. Mean age of the imprisoned women were 41.28years (SD ±11.86yrs) and Most of women were within the age group of 35-49 years (38.1%). Of them 68.5% were currently married and majority had at least one child. (86.3%). House hold member’s smoking (58.5%) and alcohol (40.4%) use was the commonest adverse childhood experience experienced by the imprisoned women. Nearly one fourth (22.6%) of the imprisoned women had attempted suicide during their life and more than half (55.7%) of them had attempted before the age of 18 years. Similarly of the 258 women who had been sexually active during their life, half (50.0%) of the women had exposed to sexual activities during first eighteen years of life and mean age at first sexual exposure was 19.2 (SD±4.86) years. Nearly three forth (73.7%) of imprisoned women were psychologically distressed in the study sample. Being a women of aged less than 25 years((OR=4.51, 95% CI=1.035-19.64)),previous history of suicidal attempts(OR=2.10,95%CI =1.00-4.41), not having enough foods to eat( OR=2.97, 1.009-8.75) and absence of someone to tell worries (OR=0.355, 95% CI =0.113-0.945) during childhood were significantly associate with psychological distress. Conclusion: Nearly three forth of the imprisoned women were psychologically distressed and younger age, history of suicidal attempts, the absence of someone to tell their worries and not having enough food to eat during childhood were risk factors for psychological distress. Recommendation: Need to strengthen the rehabilitation and mental health services to the imprisoned women.

Keywords: adverse childhood experiences, imprisoned women, psychological distress, prisoners

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
427 Family History of Obesity and Risk of Childhood Overweight and Obesity: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Martina Kanciruk, Jac J. W. Andrews, Tyrone Donnon

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The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of history of obesity for the development of childhood overweight and/or obesity. Accordingly, a systematic literature review of English-language studies published from 1980 to 2012 using the following data bases: MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Dissertation Abstracts International was conducted. The following terms were used in the search: pregnancy, overweight, obesity, family history, parents, childhood, risk factors. Eleven studies of family history and obesity conducted in Europe, Asia, North America, and South America met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of these studies indicated that family history of obesity is a significant risk factor of overweight and /or obesity in offspring; risk for offspring overweight and/or obesity associated with family history varies depending of the family members included in the analysis; and when family history of obesity is present, the offspring are at greater risk for developing obesity or overweight. In addition, the results from moderator analyses suggest that part of the heterogeneity discovered between the studies can be explained by the region of world that the study occurred in and the age of the child at the time of weight assessment.

Keywords: childhood obesity, overweight, family history, risk factors, meta-analysis

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426 The Link between Childhood Maltreatment and Psychological Distress: The Mediation and Moderation Roles of Cognitive Distortion, Alexithymia, and Eudemonic Well-Being

Authors: Siqi Fang, Man Cheung Chung

Abstract:

This study examined the inter-relationship between childhood maltreatment, cognitive distortion, alexithymia, eudemonic well-being, and psychological distress. One hundred and eighty-two university students participated in the study and completed an online survey comprising the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Cognitive Distortion Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Psychological Well-Being Scale, and General Health Questionnaire-28. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that child maltreatment, perceptions of hopelessness and helplessness, preoccupation with danger, personal growth, and purpose in life predicted psychological distress. However, alexithymia was not a significant predictor. Further analysis using the regression models with bootstrapping procedure showed that feeling hopeless, helpless and preoccupation with danger mediated the path between child maltreatment and psychological distress. Meanwhile, coping with beliefs in personal growth and life purpose moderated the mediation effects of distorted cognition on psychological distress. To conclude, childhood maltreatment is associated with psychological distress. This relationship is influenced by people’s perceptions of life being hopeless, helpless or dangerous. At the same time, the effect of hopelessness, helplessness, and feelings of danger also depends on the degree of using coping strategies of positive psychological functioning.

Keywords: alexithymia, childhood maltreatment, cognitive distortion, eudemonic well-being, psychological distress

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425 Smart Kids Coacher: Model for Childhood Obesity in Thailand

Authors: Pornwipa Daoduong, Jairak Loysongkroa, Napaphan Viriyautsahakul, Wachira Pengjuntr

Abstract:

Obesity is on of serious health problem in many countries including Thailand where the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased from 8.8 % in 2014 to 9.5 % in 2015 and 12.9 % in 2016. The Ministry of Public Health’s objective is to reduce prevalence of childhood Obesity to 10% or lower in 2017, by implementing the measure in relation to nutrition, physical activity (PA) and environment in 6,405 targeted school with proportion of school children with obesity is higher than 10 %. Smart Kids Coacher (SKC)” is a new innovative intervention created by Department of Health and consists of 252 regional and provincial officers. The SKC aims to train the super trainers about food and nutrition.PA and emotional control through implementing three learning activities including 1) Food for Fun is about Nutrition flag, Nutrition label, food portion and Nutrition surveillance; 2) Fun for Fit includes intermediated- and advanced level workouts within 60 minutes such as kangaroo dance, Chair stretching; and 3) Control emotional is about to prevent probability of access to unhealthy food, to ensure for having meal in appropriate time, and to recruit peers and family member to increase awareness among target groups. Apart from providing SKC lesson for 3,828 officers at district level, a number of students (2,176) as role model are selected through implementing “Smart Kids Leader: (SKL)”.Consequently. The SKC lowers proportion of childhood obesity from 17% in 2012 to 12.9% in 2016. Further, the SKC coverage should be expanded to other setting. Policy maker should be aware of the important of reduction of the prevalence of childhood obesity, and it’s related risk. Network and Collaboration between stakeholders are essential as well as an improvement of holistic intervention and knowledge “NuPETHS” for kids in the future.

Keywords: childhood obesity, model, obesity, smart kids coacher

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424 An Electronic and Performance Test for the Applicants to Faculty of Education for Early Childhood in Egypt for Measuring the Skills of Teacher Students

Authors: Ahmed Amin Mousa, Gehan Azam

Abstract:

The current study presents an electronic test to measure teaching skills. This test is a part of the admission system of the Faculty of Education for Early Childhood, Cairo University. The test has been prepared to evaluate university students who apply for admission the Faculty. It measures some social and physiological skills which are important for successful teachers, such as emotional adjustment and problem solving; moreover, the extent of their love for children and their capability to interact with them. The test has been approved by 13 experts. Finally, it has been introduced to 1,100 students during the admission system of the academic year 2016/2017. The results showed that most of the applicants have an auditory learning style. In addition, 97% of them have the minimum requirement skills for teaching children.

Keywords: electronic test, performance, early childhood, skills, teacher student

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423 The Development of Speaking Using Folk Tales Based on Performance Activities for Early Childhood Student

Authors: Yaowaluck Ruampol, Suthakorn Wasupokin

Abstract:

The research on the development of speaking using folk tales based on performance activities aimed to (1) study the development of speaking skill for early- childhood students, and (2) evaluate the development of speaking skill before and after speaking activities. Ten students of Kindergarten level 2, who have enrolled in the subject of the research for speaking development of semester 2 in 2013 were purposively selected as the research cohort. The research tools were lesson plans for speaking activities and pre-post test for speaking development that were approved as content validity and reliability (IOC=.66-1.00,α=0.967). The research found that the development of speaking skill of the research samples before using performance activities on folk tales in developing speaking skill was in the normal high level. Additionally, the results appeared that the preschoolers after applying speaking skill on performance activities also imaginatively created their speaking skill.

Keywords: speaking development, folk tales, performance activities, early-childhood students

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422 Saudi Teachers’ Perceptions of Rough and Tumble Play in Early Learning

Authors: Rana Alghamdi

Abstract:

This study explored teachers’ perceptions of rough-and-tumble (R&T) play in early childhood education in Saudi Arabia. The literature on rough-and-tumble play in Saudi Arabia is limited in scope, and more research is needed to explore teachers’ perceptions on this type of play for early learners. The pertinent literature reveals that R&T play, which includes running, jumping, fighting, wrestling, chasing, pulling, pushing, and climbing, among other rough playful activities, can positively impact learning and development across psychosocial, emotional, and cognitive domains. Teachers’ understanding of R & T play is key, and the attitudes of Saudi early childhood teachers who are responsible for implementing curriculum-based play have not been fully researched. Four early childhood teachers from an urban Saudi preschool participated in the study. The data collected in this study were interpreted through a sociocultural lens. Data sources included in-depth interviews, photo-elicitation interviews, and participant-generated drawings. Three overarching themes emerged: teachers’ concerns about rough-and-tumble play, teachers’ perceptions about the benefits of rough-and-tumble play, and teachers’ expression of gender roles in R & T play as contextualized within Saudi culture. Saudi teachers’ perceptions are discussed in detail, and implications of the findings and recommendations for future research are put forth.

Keywords: rough and tumble play, gender, culture, early childhood, Saudi Arabia

Procedia PDF Downloads 29