Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2613

Search results for: porous media

2613 Numerical Study of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in the Spongy-Porous Media

Authors: Zeinab Sayed Abdel Rehim, M. A. Ziada, H. Salwa El-Deeb


Numerical study of fluid flow, heat transfer and thermal energy storing or released in/from spongy-porous media to predict the thermal performance and characteristics of the porous media as packed bed system is presented in this work. This system is cylindrical channel filled with porous media (carbon foam). The system consists of working fluid (air) and spongy-porous medium; they act as the heat exchanger (heating or cooling modes) where thermal interaction occurs between the working fluid and the porous medium. The spongy-porous media are defined by the different type of porous medium employed in the storing or cooling modes. Two different porous media are considered in this study: Carbon foam, and Silicon rubber. The flow of the working fluid (air) is one dimensional in the axial direction from the top to downward and steady state conditions. The numerical results of transient temperature distribution for both working fluid and the spongy-porous medium phases and the amount of stored/realized heat inside/from the porous medium for each case with respect to the operating parameters and the spongy-porous media characteristics are illustrated.

Keywords: fluid flow, heat transfer, numerical analysis, spongy-porous media, thermal performance, transient conditions

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2612 Compressible Flow Modeling in Pipes and Porous Media during Blowdown Experiment

Authors: Thomas Paris, Vincent Bruyere, Patrick Namy


A numerical model is developed to simulate gas blowdowns through a thin tube and a filter (porous media), separating a high pressure gas filled reservoir to low pressure ones. Based on a previous work, a one-dimensional approach is developed by using the finite element method to solve the transient compressible flow and to predict the pressure and temperature evolution in space and time. Mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations are solved in a fully coupled way in the reservoirs, the pipes and the porous media. Numerical results, such as pressure and temperature evolutions, are firstly compared with experimental data to validate the model for different configurations. Couplings between porous media and pipe flow are then validated by checking mass balance. The influence of the porous media and the nature of the gas is then studied for different initial high pressure values.

Keywords: compressible flow, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, porous media

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
2611 Experimental Technique to Study Colloid Deposition in Porous Media

Authors: Abdelkader Djehiche, Mostefa Gafsi, Henri Bertin, Aziz Omari


The flows of colloidal suspensions in porous media find many applications in fields such as Petroleum, Hydraulic engineering, deep-bed filtration. For each application, the scientific problems can be summarized the flow in porous medium of a colloidal suspension whose particles having characteristic dimension is considerable in comparison with the pores dimension. In certain cases, one can observe a deposit of particles on the surface of the pores which results in a significant modification in the physical properties of the porous medium. The objective of our study is to use a non-destructive experimental method, the attenuation of g-rays, to study the influence of the number of Peclet on the deposit of latex particles in a consolidated porous medium. The first results obtained show a good agreement between local and global measurements of the deposit of the particles in porous medium. The deposit takes place in a progressive way along the porous medium and leads to a monolayer deposit of which the average thickness is of about the size diameter of the colloidal particles.

Keywords: colloid, gamma ray, Peclet number, permeability, porous medium

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
2610 Performances Analysis of the Pressure and Production of an Oil Zone by Simulation of the Flow of a Fluid through the Porous Media

Authors: Makhlouf Mourad, Medkour Mihoub, Bouchher Omar, Messabih Sidi Mohamed, Benrachedi Khaled


This work is the modeling and simulation of fluid flow (liquid) through porous media. This type of flow occurs in many situations of interest in applied sciences and engineering, fluid (oil) consists of several individual substances in pure, single-phase flow is incompressible and isothermal. The porous medium is isotropic, homogeneous optionally, with the rectangular format and the flow is two-dimensional. Modeling of hydrodynamic phenomena incorporates Darcy's law and the equation of mass conservation. Correlations are used to model the density and viscosity of the fluid. A finite volume code is used in the discretization of differential equations. The nonlinearity is treated by Newton's method with relaxation coefficient. The results of the simulation of the pressure and the mobility of liquid flowing through porous media are presented, analyzed, and illustrated.

Keywords: Darcy equation, middle porous, continuity equation, Peng Robinson equation, mobility

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2609 Numerical Solution of Porous Media Equation Using Jacobi Operational Matrix

Authors: Shubham Jaiswal


During modeling of transport phenomena in porous media, many nonlinear partial differential equations (NPDEs) encountered which greatly described the convection, diffusion and reaction process. To solve such types of nonlinear problems, a reliable and efficient technique is needed. In this article, the numerical solution of NPDEs encountered in porous media is derived. Here Jacobi collocation method is used to solve the considered problems which convert the NPDEs in systems of nonlinear algebraic equations that can be solved using Newton-Raphson method. The numerical results of some illustrative examples are reported to show the efficiency and high accuracy of the proposed approach. The comparison of the numerical results with the existing analytical results already reported in the literature and the error analysis for each example exhibited through graphs and tables confirms the exponential convergence rate of the proposed method.

Keywords: nonlinear porous media equation, shifted Jacobi polynomials, operational matrix, spectral collocation method

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
2608 A New Computational Method for the Solution of Nonlinear Burgers' Equation Arising in Longitudinal Dispersion Phenomena in Fluid Flow through Porous Media

Authors: Olayiwola Moruf Oyedunsi


This paper discusses the Modified Variational Iteration Method (MVIM) for the solution of nonlinear Burgers’ equation arising in longitudinal dispersion phenomena in fluid flow through porous media. The method is an elegant combination of Taylor’s series and the variational iteration method (VIM). Using Maple 18 for implementation, it is observed that the procedure provides rapidly convergent approximation with less computational efforts. The result shows that the concentration C(x,t) of the contaminated water decreases as distance x increases for the given time t.

Keywords: modified variational iteration method, Burger’s equation, porous media, partial differential equation

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2607 Temperature Fields in a Channel Partially-Filled by Porous Material with Internal Heat Generations: On Exact Solution

Authors: Yasser Mahmoudi, Nader Karimi


The present work examines analytically the effect internal heat generation on temperature fields in a channel partially-filled with a porous under local thermal non-equilibrium condition. The Darcy-Brinkman model is used to represent the fluid transport through the porous material. Two fundamental models (models A and B) represent the thermal boundary conditions at the interface between the porous medium and the clear region. The governing equations of the problem are manipulated, and for each interface model, exact solutions for the solid and fluid temperature fields are developed. These solutions incorporate the porous material thickness, Biot number, fluid to solid thermal conductivity ratio Darcy number, as the non-dimensional energy terms in fluid and solid as parameters. Results show that considering any of the two models and under zero or negative heat generation (heat sink) and for any Darcy number, an increase in the porous thickness increases the amount of heat flux transferred to the porous region. The obtained results are applicable to the analysis of complex porous media incorporating internal heat generation, such as heat transfer enhancement (THE), tumor ablation in biological tissues and porous radiant burners (PRBs).

Keywords: porous media, local thermal non-equilibrium, forced convection, heat transfer, exact solution, internal heat generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
2606 Generalized Correlation for the Condensation and Evaporation Heat Transfer Coefficients of Propane (R290), Butane (R600), R134a, and R407c in Porous Horizontal Tubes: Experimental Investigation

Authors: M. Tarawneh


This work is an experimental study on the heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of different refrigerants during the condensation and evaporation processes in porous media. Four different refrigerants (R134a, R407C, 600a, R290), with different porosities were used to reach a real understanding of the actual heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop when using porous material inside the condenser and evaporator. Steel balls were used as porous media with different porosities (38%, 43%, 48%). The main goal of this project is to enhance the heat transfer coefficient during the condensation and evaporation processes when using different refrigerants and different porosities. Different correlations for the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop of the different refrigerants were developed. Also a generalized empirical correlation was developed for the different refrigerants. The experimental and predicted heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops were compared. It was found that, the Absolute standard deviation for the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop not exceeded values of 15% and 20%, respectively.

Keywords: condensation, evaporation, porous media, horizontal tubes, heat transfer coefficient, propane, butane

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2605 Effect of Different Porous Media Models on Drug Delivery to Solid Tumors: Mathematical Approach

Authors: Mostafa Sefidgar, Sohrab Zendehboudi, Hossein Bazmara, Madjid Soltani


Based on findings from clinical applications, most drug treatments fail to eliminate malignant tumors completely even though drug delivery through systemic administration may inhibit their growth. Therefore, better understanding of tumor formation is crucial in developing more effective therapeutics. For this purpose, nowadays, solid tumor modeling and simulation results are used to predict how therapeutic drugs are transported to tumor cells by blood flow through capillaries and tissues. A solid tumor is investigated as a porous media for fluid flow simulation. Most of the studies use Darcy model for porous media. In Darcy model, the fluid friction is neglected and a few simplified assumptions are implemented. In this study, the effect of these assumptions is studied by considering Brinkman model. A multi scale mathematical method which calculates fluid flow to a solid tumor is used in this study to investigate how neglecting fluid friction affects the solid tumor simulation. In this work, the mathematical model in our previous studies is developed by considering two model of momentum equation for porous media: Darcy and Brinkman. The mathematical method involves processes such as fluid flow through solid tumor as porous media, extravasation of blood flow from vessels, blood flow through vessels and solute diffusion, convective transport in extracellular matrix. The sprouting angiogenesis model is used for generating capillary network and then fluid flow governing equations are implemented to calculate blood flow through the tumor-induced capillary network. Finally, the two models of porous media are used for modeling fluid flow in normal and tumor tissues in three different shapes of tumors. Simulations of interstitial fluid transport in a solid tumor demonstrate that the simplifications used in Darcy model affect the interstitial velocity and Brinkman model predicts a lower value for interstitial velocity than the values that Darcy model does.

Keywords: solid tumor, porous media, Darcy model, Brinkman model, drug delivery

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
2604 Experimental Study of Flow Effects of Solid Particles’ Size in Porous Media

Authors: S. Akridiss, E. El Tabach, K. Chetehouna, N. Gascoin, M. S. Kadiri


Transpiration cooling combined to regenerative cooling is a technique that could be used to cool the porous walls of the future ramjet combustion chambers; it consists of using fuel that will flow through the pores of the porous material consisting of the chamber walls, as coolant. However, at high temperature, the fuel is pyrolysed and generates solid coke particles inside the porous materials. This phenomenon can lead to a significant decrease of the material permeability and can affect the efficiency of the cooling system. In order to better understand this phenomenon, an experimental laboratory study was undertaken to determine the transport and deposition of particles in a sintered porous material subjected to steady state flow. The test bench composed of a high-pressure autoclave is used to study the transport of different particle size (35

Keywords: experimental study, permeability, porous material, suspended particles

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2603 On the Influence of Thermal Radiation Upon Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Porous Media Under Local Thermal Non-Equilibrium Condition

Authors: Yasser Mahmoudi, Nader Karimi


The present work investigates numerically the effect of thermal radiation from the solid phase on the rate of heat transfer inside a porous medium. Forced convection heat transfer process within a pipe filled with a porous media is considered. The Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model is utilized to represent the fluid transport within the porous medium. A local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE), two-equation model is used to represent the energy transport for the solid and fluid phases. The radiative heat transfer equation is solved by discrete ordinate method (DOM) to compute the radiative heat flux in the porous medium. Two primary approaches (models A and B) are used to represent the boundary conditions for constant wall heat flux. The effects of radiative heat transfer on the Nusselt numbers of the two phases are examined by comparing the results obtained by the application of models A and B. The fluid Nusselt numbers calculated by the application of models A and B show that the Nusselt number obtained by model A for the radiative case is higher than those predicted for the non-radiative case. However, for model B the fluid Nusselt numbers obtained for the radiative and non-radiative cases are similar.

Keywords: porous media, local thermal non-equilibrium, forced convection heat transfer, thermal radiation, Discrete Ordinate Method (DOM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
2602 Analytical Solution for Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Analysis of Unsaturated Porous Media Using AG Method

Authors: Davood Yazdani Cherati, Hussein Hashemi Senejani


In this paper, a convenient analytical solution for a system of coupled differential equations, derived from thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis of three-phase porous media such as unsaturated soils is developed. This kind of analysis can be used in various fields such as geothermal energy systems and seepage of leachate from buried municipal and domestic waste in geomaterials. Initially, a system of coupled differential equations, including energy, mass, and momentum conservation equations is considered, and an analytical method called AGM is employed to solve the problem. The method is straightforward and comprehensible and can be used to solve various nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). Results indicate the accuracy of the applied method for solving nonlinear partial differential equations.

Keywords: AGM, analytical solution, porous media, thermo-hydro-mechanical, unsaturated soils

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2601 Assessment and Control for Oil Aerosol

Authors: Chane-Yu Lai, Xiang-Yu Huang


This study conducted an assessment of sampling result by using the new development rotation filtration device (RFD) filled with porous media filters integrating the method of cyclone centrifugal spins. The testing system established for the experiment used corn oil and potassium sodium tartrate tetrahydrate (PST) as challenge aerosols and were produced by using an Ultrasonic Atomizing Nozzle, a Syringe Pump, and a Collison nebulizer. The collection efficiency of RFD for oil aerosol was assessed by using an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS) and a Fidas® Frog. The results of RFD for the liquid particles condition indicated the cutoff size was 1.65 µm and 1.02 µm for rotation of 0 rpm and 9000 rpm, respectively, under an 80 PPI (pores per inch)foam with a thickness of 80 mm, and sampling velocity of 13.5 cm/s. As the experiment increased the foam thickness of RFD, the cutoff size reduced from 1.62 µm to 1.02 µm. However, when increased the foam porosity of RFD, the cutoff size reduced from 1.26 µm to 0.96 µm. Moreover, as increased the sampling velocity of RFD, the cutoff size reduced from 1.02 µm to 0.76 µm. These discrepancies of above cutoff sizes of RFD all had statistical significance (P < 0.05). The cutoff size of RFD for three experimental conditions of generated liquid oil particles, solid PST particles or both liquid oil and solid PST particles was 1.03 µm, 1.02 µm, or 0.99 µm, respectively, under a 80 PPI foam with thickness of 80 mm, rotation of 9000 rpm, and sampling velocity of 13.5 cm/s. In addition, under the best condition of the experiment, two hours of sampling loading, the RFD had better collection efficiency for particle diameter greater than 0.45 µm, under a 94 PPI nickel mesh with a thickness of 68 mm, rotation of 9000 rpm, and sampling velocity of 108.3 cm/s. The experiment concluded that increased the thickness of porous media, face velocity, and porosity of porous media of RFD could increase the collection efficiency of porous media for sampling oil particles. Moreover, increased the rotation speed of RFD also increased the collection efficiency for sampling oil particles. Further investigation is required for those above operation parameters for RFD in this study in the future.

Keywords: oil aerosol, porous media filter, rotation, filtration

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2600 Numerical Analysis of a Strainer Using Porous Media Technique

Authors: Ji-Hoon Byeon, Kwon-Hee Lee


Strainer filter serves to block the inflow of impurities while mixed fluid is entering or exiting the piping. The filter of the strainer has a perforated structure, so that the pressure drop and the velocity change necessarily occur when the mixed fluid passes through the filter. It is possible to predict the pressure drop and velocity change of the strainer by numerical analysis by implementing all the perforated plates. However, if the size of the perforated plate exceeds a certain size, it is difficult to perform the numerical analysis, and sometimes we cannot guarantee its accuracy. In this study, we tried to predict the pressure drop and velocity change by using the porous media technique to obtain the equivalent resistance without actual implementation of the perforation shape of the strainer. Ansys-CFX, a commercial software, is used to perform the numerical analysis. The analysis procedure is as follows. Firstly, the unit pattern of the perforated plate is modeled, and the pressure drop is analyzed by varying the velocity by symmetry of the wall surface. Secondly, since the equation for obtaining resistance is a quadratic equation of pressure having unknown velocity, the viscous resistance and the inertia resistance of the perforated plate are obtained from the relationship between pressure and speed. Thirdly, by using the calculated resistance values, the values are substituted into the flat plate implemented as a two-dimensional porous media, and the accuracy is verified by comparing the pressure drop and the velocity change. Fourthly, the pressure drop and velocity change in the whole strainer are analyzed by using the resistance values obtained on the perforated plate in the actual whole strainer model. Using the porous media technique, it is found that pressure drop and velocity change can be predicted in relatively short time without modeling the overall shape of the filter. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Valve Center from the Regional Innovation Center(RIC) Program of Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE).

Keywords: strainer, porous media, CFD, numerical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
2599 Topology Enhancement of a Straight Fin Using a Porous Media Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation Approach

Authors: S. Wakim, M. Nemer, B. Zeghondy, B. Ghannam, C. Bouallou


Designing the optimal heat exchanger is still an essential objective to be achieved. Parametrical optimization involves the evaluation of the heat exchanger dimensions to find those that best satisfy certain objectives. This method contributes to an enhanced design rather than an optimized one. On the contrary, topology optimization finds the optimal structure that satisfies the design objectives. The huge development in metal additive manufacturing allowed topology optimization to find its way into engineering applications especially in the aerospace field to optimize metal structures. Using topology optimization in 3d heat and mass transfer problems requires huge computational time, therefore coupling it with CFD simulations can reduce this it. However, existed CFD models cannot be coupled with topology optimization. The CFD model must allow creating a uniform mesh despite the initial geometry complexity and also to swap the cells from fluid to solid and vice versa. In this paper, a porous media approach compatible with topology optimization criteria is developed. It consists of modeling the fluid region of the heat exchanger as porous media having high porosity and similarly the solid region is modeled as porous media having low porosity. The switching from fluid to solid cells required by topology optimization is simply done by changing each cell porosity using a user defined function. This model is tested on a plate and fin heat exchanger and validated by comparing its results to experimental data and simulations results. Furthermore, this model is used to perform a material reallocation based on local criteria to optimize a plate and fin heat exchanger under a constant heat duty constraint. The optimized fin uses 20% fewer materials than the first while the pressure drop is reduced by about 13%.

Keywords: computational methods, finite element method, heat exchanger, porous media, topology optimization

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2598 Experimental Approach and Numerical Modeling of Thermal Properties of Porous Materials: Application to Construction Materials

Authors: Nassima Sotehi


This article presents experimental and numerical results concerning the thermal properties of the porous materials used as heat insulator in the buildings sector. Initially, the thermal conductivity of three types of studied walls (classic concrete, concrete with cork aggregate and polystyrene concrete) was measured in experiments by the method of the boxes. Then a numerical modeling of the heat and mass transfers which occur within porous materials was applied to these walls. This work shows the influence of the presence of water in building materials on their thermophysical properties, as well as influence of the nature of materials and dosage of fibers introduced within these materials on the thermal and mass transfers.

Keywords: modeling, porous media, thermal materials, thermal properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
2597 Thermal Analysis of a Channel Partially Filled with Porous Media Using Asymmetric Boundary Conditions and LTNE Model

Authors: Mohsen Torabi, Kaili Zhang


This work considers forced convection in a channel partially filled with porous media from local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) point of view. The channel is heated with constant heat flux from the lower side and is isolated on the top side. The wall heat flux is considered to be divided between the solid and fluid phases based on their temperature gradients and effective thermal conductivities. The general forms of the velocity and temperature fields are analytically obtained. To obtain the constant parameters for temperature equations, a numerical solution is considered. Using different thermophysical parameters, both velocity and temperature fields are comprehensively illustrated. Discussions regarding bifurcation phenomenon are provided. Since this geometry has not been considered yet, the present analysis is a useful addition to the literature on thermal performance of porous systems from LTNE perspective.

Keywords: local thermal non-equilibrium, forced convection, thermal bifurcation, porous-fluid interface, combined analytical-numerical solution

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2596 Preparation of Porous Metal Membrane by Thermal Annealing for Thin Film Encapsulation

Authors: Jaibir Sharma, Lee JaeWung, Merugu Srinivas, Navab Singh


This paper presents thermal annealing dewetting technique for the preparation of porous metal membrane for thin film encapsulation application. Thermal annealing dewetting experimental results reveal that pore size in porous metal membrane depend upon i.e. 1. The substrate on which metal is deposited for formation of porous metal cap membrane, 2. Melting point of metal used for porous metal cap layer membrane formation, 3. Thickness of metal used for cap layer, 4. Temperature used for porous metal membrane formation. Silver (Ag) was used as a metal for preparation of porous metal membrane by annealing the film at different temperature. Pores in porous silver film were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). In order to check the usefulness of porous metal film for thin film encapsulation application, the porous silver film prepared on amorphous silicon (a-Si) was release using XeF2. Finally, guide line and structures are suggested to use this porous membrane for thin film encapsulation (TFE) application.

Keywords: dewetting, themal annealing, metal, melting point, porous

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2595 Entropy Production in Mixed Convection in a Horizontal Porous Channel Using Darcy-Brinkman Formulation

Authors: Amel Tayari, Atef Eljerry, Mourad Magherbi


The paper reports a numerical investigation of the entropy generation analysis due to mixed convection in laminar flow through a channel filled with porous media. The second law of thermodynamics is applied to investigate the entropy generation rate. The Darcy-Brinkman Model is employed. The entropy generation due to heat transfer and friction dissipations has been determined in mixed convection by solving numerically the continuity, momentum and energy equations, using a control volume finite element method. The effects of Darcy number, modified Brinkman number and the Rayleigh number on averaged entropy generation and averaged Nusselt number are investigated. The Rayleigh number varied between 103 ≤ Ra ≤ 105 and the modified Brinkman number ranges between 10-5 ≤ Br≤ 10-1 with fixed values of porosity and Reynolds number at 0.5 and 10 respectively. The Darcy number varied between 10-6 ≤ Da ≤10.

Keywords: entropy generation, porous media, heat transfer, mixed convection, numerical methods, darcy, brinkman

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
2594 Development of Academic Software for Medial Axis Determination of Porous Media from High-Resolution X-Ray Microtomography Data

Authors: S. Jurado, E. Pazmino


Determination of the medial axis of a porous media sample is a non-trivial problem of interest for several disciplines, e.g., hydrology, fluid dynamics, contaminant transport, filtration, oil extraction, etc. However, the computational tools available for researchers are limited and restricted. The primary aim of this work was to develop a series of algorithms to extract porosity, medial axis structure, and pore-throat size distributions from porous media domains. A complementary objective was to provide the algorithms as free computational software available to the academic community comprising researchers and students interested in 3D data processing. The burn algorithm was tested on porous media data obtained from High-Resolution X-Ray Microtomography (HRXMT) and idealized computer-generated domains. The real data and idealized domains were discretized in voxels domains of 550³ elements and binarized to denote solid and void regions to determine porosity. Subsequently, the algorithm identifies the layer of void voxels next to the solid boundaries. An iterative process removes or 'burns' void voxels in sequence of layer by layer until all the void space is characterized. Multiples strategies were tested to optimize the execution time and use of computer memory, i.e., segmentation of the overall domain in subdomains, vectorization of operations, and extraction of single burn layer data during the iterative process. The medial axis determination was conducted identifying regions where burnt layers collide. The final medial axis structure was refined to avoid concave-grain effects and utilized to determine the pore throat size distribution. A graphic user interface software was developed to encompass all these algorithms, including the generation of idealized porous media domains. The software allows input of HRXMT data to calculate porosity, medial axis, and pore-throat size distribution and provide output in tabular and graphical formats. Preliminary tests of the software developed during this study achieved medial axis, pore-throat size distribution and porosity determination of 100³, 320³ and 550³ voxel porous media domains in 2, 22, and 45 minutes, respectively in a personal computer (Intel i7 processor, 16Gb RAM). These results indicate that the software is a practical and accessible tool in postprocessing HRXMT data for the academic community.

Keywords: medial axis, pore-throat distribution, porosity, porous media

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2593 Unsteady Natural Convection in a Square Cavity Partially Filled with Porous Media Using a Thermal Non-Equilibrium Model

Authors: Ammar Alsabery, Habibis Saleh, Norazam Arbin, Ishak Hashim


Unsteady natural convection and heat transfer in a square cavity partially filled with porous media using a thermal non-equilibrium model is studied in this paper. The left vertical wall is maintained at a constant hot temperature and the right vertical wall is maintained at a constant cold temperature, while the horizontal walls are adiabatic. The governing equations are obtained by applying the Darcy model and Boussinesq approximation. COMSOL's finite element method is used to solve the non-dimensional governing equations together with specified boundary conditions. The governing parameters of this study are the Rayleigh number, the modified thermal conductivity ratio, the inter-phase heat transfer coefficien and the time independent. The results presented for values of the governing parameters in terms of streamlines in both fluid/porous layer, isotherms of fluid and solid porous layer, isotherms of fluid layer, and average Nusselt number.

Keywords: unsteady natural convection, thermal non-equilibrium model, Darcy model

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2592 On the Well-Posedness of Darcy–Forchheimer Power Model Equation

Authors: Johnson Audu, Faisal Fairag


In a bounded subset of R^d, d=2 or 3, we consider the Darcy-Forchheimer power model with the exponent 1 < m ≤ 2 for a single-phase strong-inertia fluid flow in a porous medium. Under necessary compatibility condition, and some mild regularity assumptions on the interior and the boundary data, we prove the existence and uniqueness of solution (u, p) in L^(m+1 ) (Ω)^d X (W^(1,(m+1)/m) (Ω)^d ⋂L_0^2 (Ω)^d) and its stability.

Keywords: porous media, power law, strong inertia, nonlinear, monotone type

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2591 Estimation of Effective Mechanical Properties of Linear Elastic Materials with Voids Due to Volume and Surface Defects

Authors: Sergey A. Lurie, Yury O. Solyaev, Dmitry B. Volkov-Bogorodsky, Alexander V. Volkov


The media with voids is considered and the method of the analytical estimation of the effective mechanical properties in the theory of elastic materials with voids is proposed. The variational model of the porous media is discussed, which is based on the model of the media with fields of conserved dislocations. It is shown that this model is fully consistent with the known model of the linear elastic materials with voids. In the present work, the generalized model of the porous media is proposed in which the specific surface properties are associated with the field of defects-pores in the volume of the deformed body. Unlike typical surface elasticity model, the strain energy density of the considered model includes the special part of the surface energy with the quadratic form of the free distortion tensor. In the result, the non-classical boundary conditions take modified form of the balance equations of volume and surface stresses. The analytical approach is proposed in the present work which allows to receive the simple enough engineering estimations for effective characteristics of the media with free dilatation. In particular, the effective flexural modulus and Poisson's ratio are determined for the problem of a beam pure bending. Here, the known voids elasticity solution was expanded on the generalized model with the surface effects. Received results allow us to compare the deformed state of the porous beam with the equivalent classic beam to introduce effective bending rigidity. Obtained analytical expressions for the effective properties depend on the thickness of the beam as a parameter. It is shown that the flexural modulus of the porous beam is decreased with an increasing of its thickness and the effective Poisson's ratio of the porous beams can take negative values for the certain values of the model parameters. On the other hand, the effective shear modulus is constant under variation of all values of the non-classical model parameters. Solutions received for a beam pure bending and the hydrostatic loading of the porous media are compared. It is shown that an analytical estimation for the bulk modulus of the porous material under hydrostatic compression gives an asymptotic value for the effective bulk modulus of the porous beam in the case of beam thickness increasing. Additionally, it is shown that the scale effects appear due to the surface properties of the porous media. Obtained results allow us to offer the procedure of an experimental identification of the non-classical parameters in the theory of the linear elastic materials with voids based on the bending tests for samples with different thickness. Finally, the problem of implementation of the Saint-Venant hypothesis for the transverse stresses in the porous beam are discussed. These stresses are different from zero in the solution of the voids elasticity theory, but satisfy the integral equilibrium equations. In this work, the exact value of the introduced surface parameter was found, which provides the vanishing of the transverse stresses on the free surfaces of a beam.

Keywords: effective properties, scale effects, surface defects, voids elasticity

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2590 Fabrication of Highly-Ordered Interconnected Porous Polymeric Particles and Structures

Authors: Mohammad Alroaithi


Porous polymeric materials have attracted a great attention due to their distinctive porous structure within a polymer matrix. They are characterised by the presence of external pores on the surface as well as inner interconnected windows. Conventional techniques to produce porous polymeric materials encounters major challenge in controlling the properties of the resultant structures including morphology, pores, cavities size, and porosity. Herein, we present a facile and versatile microfluidics technique for the fabrication of uniform porous polymeric structures with highly ordered and well-defined interconnected windows. The shapes of the porous structures can either be a microparticles or foam. Both shapes used microfluidics platform to first produce monodisperse emulsion. The uniform emulsions, were then consolidated into porous structures through UV photopolymerisation. The morphology, pores, cavities size, and porosity of the structures can be precisely manipulated by the flowrate. The proposed strategy might provide a key advantage for fabrication of uniform porous materials over many existing technologies.

Keywords: polymer, porous particles, microfluidics, porous structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
2589 Evaluation of Efficiency of Naturally Available Disinfectants and Filter Media in Conventional Gravity Filters

Authors: Abhinav Mane, Kedar Karvande, Shubham Patel, Abhayraj Lodha


Gravity filters are one of the most commonly used, economically viable and moderately efficient water purification systems. Their efficiency is mainly based on the type of filter media installed and its location within the filter mass. Several researchers provide valuable input in decision of the type of filter media. However, the choice is mainly restricted to the chemical combinations of different substances. This makes it very much dependent on the factory made filter media, and no cheap alternatives could be found and used. This paper presents the use of disinfectants and filter medias either available naturally or could be prepared using natural resources in conventional mechanism of gravity filter. A small scale laboratory investigation was made with variation in filter media thickness and its location from the top surface of the filter. A rigid steel frame based custom fabricated test setup was used to facilitate placement of filter media at different height within the filter mass. Finely grinded sun dried Neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts and porous burnt clay pads were used as two distinct filter media and placed in isolation as well as in combination with each other. Ground water available in Marathwada region of Maharashtra, India which mainly consists of harmful materials like Arsenic, Chlorides, Iron, Magnesium and Manganese, etc. was treated in the filters fabricated in the present study. The evaluation was made mainly in terms of the input/output water quality assessment through laboratory tests. The present paper should give a cheap and eco-friendly solution to prepare gravity filter at the merit of household skills and availability.

Keywords: fliter media, gravity filters, natural disinfectants, porous clay pads

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2588 Effect of Porous Multi-Layer Envelope System on Effective Wind Pressure of Building Ventilation

Authors: Ying-Chang Yu, Yuan-Lung Lo


Building ventilation performance is an important indicator of indoor comfort. However, in addition to the geometry of the building or the proportion of the opening, the ventilation performance is also very much related to the actual wind pressure of the building. There are more and more contemporary building designs built with multi-layer exterior envelope. Due to ventilation and view observatory requirement, the porous outer layer of the building is commonly adopted and has a significant wind damping effect, causing the phenomenon of actual wind pressure loss. However, the relationship between the wind damping effect and the actual wind pressure is not linear. This effect can make the indoor ventilation of the building rationalized to reasonable range under the condition of high wind pressure, and also maintain a good amount of ventilation performance under the condition of low wind pressure. In this study, wind tunnel experiments were carried out to simulate the different wind pressures flow through the porous outer layer, and observe the actual wind pressure strength engage with the window layer to find the decreasing relationship between the damping effect of the porous shell and the wind pressure. Experiment specimen scale was designed to be 1:50 for testing real-world building conditions; the study found that the porous enclosure has protective shielding without affecting low-pressure ventilation. Current study observed the porous skin may damp more wind energy to ease the wind pressure under high-speed wind. Differential wind speed may drop the pressure into similar pressure level by using porous skin. The actual mechanism and value of this phenomenon will need further study in the future.

Keywords: multi-layer facade, porous media, wind damping, wind tunnel test, building ventilation

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2587 Humidity Sensing Behavior of Graphene Oxide on Porous Silicon Substrate

Authors: Amirhossein Hasani, Shamin Houshmand Sharifi


In this work, we investigate humidity sensing behavior of the graphene oxide with porous silicon substrate. By evaporation method, aluminum interdigital electrodes have been deposited onto porous silicon substrate. Then, by drop-casting method graphene oxide solution was deposited onto electrodes. The porous silicon was formed by electrochemical etching. The experimental results showed that using porous silicon substrate, we obtained two times larger sensitivity and response time compared with the results obtained with silicon substrate without porosity.

Keywords: graphene oxide, porous silicon, humidity sensor, electrochemical

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2586 Forced Heat Transfer Convection in a Porous Channel with an Oriented Confined Jet

Authors: Azzedine Abdedou, Khedidja Bouhadef


The present study is an analysis of the forced convection heat transfer in porous channel with an oriented jet at the inlet with uniform velocity and temperature distributions. The upper wall is insulated when the bottom one is kept at constant temperature higher than that of the fluid at the entrance. The dynamic field is analysed by the Brinkman-Forchheimer extended Darcy model and the thermal field is traduced by the energy one equation model. The numerical solution of the governing equations is obtained by using the finite volume method. The results mainly concern the effect of Reynolds number, jet angle and thermal conductivity ratio on the flow structure and local and average Nusselt numbers evolutions.

Keywords: forced convection, porous media, oriented confined jet, fluid mechanics

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2585 Investigation of the Cooling and Uniformity Effectiveness in a Sinter Packed Bed

Authors: Uzu-Kuei Hsu, Chang-Hsien Tai, Kai-Wun Jin


When sinters are filled into the cooler from the sintering machine, and the non-uniform distribution of the sinters leads to uneven cooling. This causes the temperature difference of the sinters leaving the cooler to be so large that it results in the conveyors being deformed by the heat. The present work applies CFD method to investigate the thermo flowfield phenomena in a sinter cooler by the Porous Media Model. Using the obtained experimental data to simulate porosity (Ε), permeability (κ), inertial coefficient (F), specific heat (Cp) and effective thermal conductivity (keff) of the sinter packed beds. The physical model is a similar geometry whose Darcy numbers (Da) are similar to the sinter cooler. Using the Cooling Index (CI) and Uniformity Index (UI) to analyze the thermo flowfield in the sinter packed bed obtains the cooling performance of the sinter cooler.

Keywords: porous media, sinter, cooling index (CI), uniformity index (UI), CFD

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2584 Iraqi Media Entrepreneurs across Social Media: Factors and Challenges

Authors: Ahmed Omar Bali, Sherko Jabar, Hazhar Jalal, Mahdi Sofi-Karim


For a long while in Iraq, media organizations were owned by political parties, particularly the ruling parties, because media traditional organizations required big capital and human resources. This paper has examined the dynamics of Iraqi media market transformation with emphasizing on factors that help to merge media entrepreneurs and digital media firms which target audience on social media. A qualitative method was adopted in this study using open, in-depth interviews with 19 media entrepreneurs and three managers of media firms. The study revealed that relative freedom and advanced communication technologies have encouraged media entrepreneurs to drive the new media on producing short videos and broadcast them on social media which has become popular among media consumers.

Keywords: media entrepreneur, Iraq, journalists, media technicians, digital media firms, media market

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