Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 234

Search results for: filtration

234 Micro-Filtration with an Inorganic Membrane

Authors: Benyamina, Ouldabess, Bensalah

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to use membrane technique for filtration of a coloring solution. the preparation of the micro-filtration membranes is based on a natural clay powder with a low cost, deposited on macro-porous ceramic supports. The micro-filtration membrane provided a very large permeation flow. Indeed, the filtration effectiveness of membrane was proved by the total discoloration of bromothymol blue solution with initial concentration of 10-3 mg/L after the first minutes.

Keywords: the inorganic membrane, micro-filtration, coloring solution, natural clay powder

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
233 Valorization of Natural Vegetable Substances from Tunisia: Purification of Two Food Additives, Anthocyanins and Locust Bean Gum

Authors: N. Bouzouita, A. Snoussi , H. Ben Haj Koubaier, I. Essaidi, M. M. Chaabouni, S. Zgoulli, P. Thonart

Abstract:

Color is one of the most important quality attributes for the food industry. Grape marc, a complex lignocellulosic material is one of the most abundant and worth less byproduct, generated after the pressing process. The development of the process of purification by micro filtration, ultra filtration, nano filtration and drying by atomization of the anthocyanins of Tunisian origin is the aim of this work. Locust bean gum is the ground endosperm of the seeds of carob fruit; owing to its remarkable water-binding properties, it is widely used to improve the texture of food and largely employed in food industry. The purification of LGB causes drastically reduced ash and proteins contents but important increase for galactomannan.

Keywords: Carob, food additives, grape pomace, locust bean gum, natural colorant, nano filtration, thickener, ultra filtration

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
232 Permeodynamic Particulate Matter Filtration for Improved Air Quality

Authors: Hamad M. Alnagran, Mohammed S. Imbabi

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Particulate matter (PM) in the air we breathe is detrimental to health. Overcoming this problem has attracted interest and prompted research on the use of PM filtration in commercial buildings and homes to be carried out. The consensus is that tangible health benefits can result from the use of PM filters in most urban environments, to clean up the building’s fresh air supply and thereby reduce exposure of residents to airborne PM. The authors have investigated and are developing a new large-scale Permeodynamic Filtration Technology (PFT) capable of permanently filtering and removing airborne PMs from outdoor spaces, thus also benefiting internal spaces such as the interiors of buildings. Theoretical models were developed, and laboratory trials carried out to determine, and validate through measurement permeodynamic filtration efficiency and pressure drop as functions of PM particle size distributions. The conclusion is that PFT offers a potentially viable, cost effective end of pipe solution to the problem of airborne PM.

Keywords: air filtration, particulate matter, particle size distribution, permeodynamic

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
231 Investigation Particle Behavior in Gas-Solid Filtration with Electrostatic Discharge in a Hybrid System

Authors: Flávia M. Oliveira, Marcos V. Rodrigues, Mônica L. Aguiar

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Synthetic fibers are widely used in gas filtration. Previous attempts to optimize the filtration process have employed mixed fibers as the filter medium in gas-solid separation. Some of the materials most frequently used this purpose are composed of polyester, polypropylene, and glass fibers. In order to improve the retention of cement particles in bag filters, the present study investigates the use of synthetic glass fiber filters and polypropylene fiber for particle filtration, with electrostatic discharge of 0 to -2 kV in cement particles. The filtration curves obtained showed that charging increased the particle collection efficiency and lowered the pressure drop. Particle diameter had a direct influence on the formation of the dust cake, and the application of electrostatic discharge to the particles resulted in the retention of more particles, hence increasing the lifetime of fabric filters.

Keywords: glass fiber filter, particle, electrostatic discharge, cement

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
230 Bank Filtration System in Highly Mineralized Groundwater

Authors: Medalson Ronghang, Pranjal Barman, Heemantajeet Medhi

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Bank filtration (BF) being a natural method of abstracting surface water from the river or lake via sub-surface. It can be intensively used and operated under various operating conditions for sustainability. Field investigations were carried out at various location of Kokrajhar (Assam) and Srinagar (Uttarakhand) to assess the ground water and their bank filtration wells to compare and characterized the quality. Results obtained from the analysis of the data suggest that major water quality parameter were much below the drinking water standard of BIS 10500 (2012). However, the iron concentration was found to be more than permissible limit in more than 50% of the sampled hand pump; the concentration ranged between 0.33-3.50 mg/L with acidic in nature (5.4 to 7.4) in Kokrajhar and high nitrate in Srinagar. But the abstracted water from the RBF wells has attenuated water quality with no iron concentration in Kokrajhar. The aquifers and riverbed material collected along the bank of Rivers Gaurang and Alaknanda were sieved and classified as coarse silt to medium gravel. The hydraulic conductivity was estimated in the range 5×10⁻³ to 1.4×10⁻²- 3.09×10⁻⁴-1.29 ×10⁻³ for Kokrajhar and Srinagar respectively suggesting a good permeability of the aquifer. The maximum safe yield of the well was estimated to be in the range of 4000 to 7500 L/min. This paper aims at demonstrating bank filtration method as an alternative to mineralized groundwater for drinking water.

Keywords: Riverbank filtration, mineralization, water quality, groundwater

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
229 Computational Investigation of Gas-Solid Flow in High Pressure High Temperature Filter

Authors: M. H. Alhajeri, Hamad M. Alhajeri, A. H. Alenezi

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This paper reports a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) investigation for a high-temperature high-pressure filtration (ceramic candle filter). However, parallel flow to the filter is considered in this study. Different face (filtration) velocities are examined using the CFD code, FLUENT. Different sizes of particles are tracked through the domain to find the height at which the particles will impinge on the filter surface. Furthermore, particle distribution around the filter (or filter cake) is studied to design efficient cleaning mechanisms. Gravity effect to the particles with various inlet velocities and pressure drop are both considered. In the CFD study, it is found that the gravity influence should not be ignored if the particle sizes exceed 1 micron.

Keywords: fluid flow, CFD, filtration, HTHP

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
228 The Study of Heat and Mass Transfer for Ferrous Materials' Filtration Drying

Authors: Dmytro Symak

Abstract:

Drying is a complex technologic, thermal and energy process. Energy cost of drying processes in many cases is the most costly stage of production, and can be over 50% of total costs. As we know, in Ukraine over 85% of Portland cement is produced moist, and the finished product energy costs make up to almost 60%. During the wet cement production, energy costs make up over 5500 kJ / kg of clinker, while during the dry only 3100 kJ / kg, that is, switching to a dry Portland cement will allow result into double cutting energy costs. Therefore, to study raw materials drying process in the manufacture of Portland cement is very actual task. The fine ferrous materials drying (small pyrites, red mud, clay Kyoko) is recommended to do by filtration method, that is one of the most intense. The essence of filtration method drying lies in heat agent filtering through a stationary layer of wet material, which is located on the perforated partition, in the "layer-dispersed material - perforated partition." For the optimum drying purposes, it is necessary to establish the dependence of pressure loss in the layer of dispersed material, and the values of heat and mass transfer, depending on the speed of the gas flow filtering. In our research, the experimentally determined pressure loss in the layer of dispersed material was generalized based on dimensionless complexes in the form and coefficients of heat exchange. We also determined the relation between the coefficients of mass and heat transfer. As a result of theoretic and experimental investigations, it was possible to develop a methodology for calculating the optimal parameters for the thermal agent and the main parameters for the filtration drying installation. The comparison of calculated by known operating expenses methods for the process of small pyrites drying in a rotating drum and filtration method shows to save up to 618 kWh per 1,000 kg of dry material and 700 kWh during filtration drying clay.

Keywords: drying, cement, heat and mass transfer, filtration method

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
227 Numerical Simulation of Two-Dimensional Porous Cylinder Flow in In-Line Arrangement

Authors: Hamad Alhajeri, Abdulrahman Almutairi, A. H. Alenezi, M. H. Alhajeri, Ayedh Alajmi

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The flow around three porous cylinders in inline arrangement is investigated in this paper computationally using the commercial code FLUENT. The arrangement generally operates with the dirty gases passing through the porous cylinders, the particulate material being deposited on the outside of the cylinders. However, in a combined cycle power plant, filtration is required to allow the hot exhaust gases to be fed to a turbine without causing any physical damage to the turbine blades. Three cylinder elements are placed in a two-dimensional rectangle duct with fixed face velocity and varying the velocity ratio between the approach and face velocity. Particle trajectories are obtained for a number of particle diameters and different inlet (approach) velocity to face filtration velocity ratios to investigate the behavior of particles around the cylinder.

Keywords: porous cylinders, CFD, fluid flow, filtration

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
226 A Sustainable and Low-Cost Filter to Treat Pesticides in Water

Authors: T. Abbas, J. McEvoy, E. Khan

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Pesticide contamination in water supply is a common environmental problem in rural agricultural communities. Advanced water treatment processes such as membrane filtration and adsorption on activated carbon only remove pesticides from water without degrading them into less toxic/easily degradable compounds leaving behind contaminated brine and activated carbon that need to be managed. Rural communities which normally cannot afford expensive water treatment technologies need an economical and sustainable filter which not only treats pesticides from water but also degrades them into benign products. In this study, iron turning waste experimented as potential point-of-use filtration media for the removal/degradation of a mixture of six chlorinated pesticides (lindane, heptachlor, endosulfan, dieldrin, endrin, and DDT) in water. As a common and traditional medium for water filtration, sand was also tested along with iron turning waste. Iron turning waste was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-Ray analyzer. Four glass columns with different filter media layer configurations were set up: (1) only sand, (2) only iron turning, (3) sand and iron turning (two separate layers), and (4) sand, iron turning and sand (three separate layers). The initial pesticide concentration and flow rate were 2 μg/L and 10 mL/min. Results indicate that sand filtration was effective only for the removal of DDT (100%) and endosulfan (94-96%). Iron turning filtration column effectively removed endosulfan, endrin, and dieldrin (85-95%) whereas the lindane and DDT removal were 79-85% and 39-56%, respectively. The removal efficiencies for heptachlor, endosulfan, endrin, dieldrin, and DDT were 90-100% when sand and iron turning waste (two separate layers) were used. However, better removal efficiencies (93-100%) for five out of six pesticides were achieved, when sand, iron turning and sand (three separate layers) were used as filtration media. Moreover, the effects of water pH, amounts of media, and minerals present in water such as magnesium, sodium, calcium, and nitrate on the removal of pesticides were examined. Results demonstrate that iron turning waste efficiently removed all the pesticides under studied parameters. Also, it completely de-chlorinated all the pesticides studied and based on the detection of by-products, the degradation mechanisms for all six pesticides were proposed.

Keywords: pesticide contamination, rural communities, iron turning waste, filtration

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
225 Characterization of Candlenut Shells and Its Application to Remove Oil and Fine Solids of Produced Water in Nutshell Filters of Water Cleaning Plant

Authors: Annur Suhadi, Haris B. Harahap, Zaim Arrosyidi, Epan, Darmapala

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Oilfields under waterflood often face the problem of plugging injectors either by internal filtration or external filter cake built up inside pore throats. The content of suspended solids shall be reduced to required level of filtration since corrective action of plugging is costly expensive. The performance of nutshell filters, where filtration takes place, is good using pecan and walnut shells. Candlenut shells were used instead of pecan and walnut shells since they were abundant in Indonesia, Malaysia, and East Africa. Physical and chemical properties of walnut, pecan, and candlenut shells were tested and the results were compared. Testing, using full-scale nutshell filters, was conducted to determine the oil content, turbidity, and suspended solid removal, which was based on designed flux rate. The performance of candlenut shells, which were deeply bedded in nutshell filters for filtration process, was monitored. Cleaned water outgoing nutshell filters had total suspended solids of 17 ppm, while oil content could be reduced to 15.1 ppm. Turbidity, using candlenut shells, was below the specification for injection water, which was less than 10 Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (NTU). Turbidity of water, outgoing nutshell filter, was ranged from 1.7-5.0 NTU at various dates of operation. Walnut, pecan, and candlenut shells had moisture content of 8.98 wt%, 10.95 wt%, and 9.95 wt%, respectively. The porosity of walnut, pecan, and candlenut shells was significantly affected by moisture content. Candlenut shells had property of toluene solubility of 7.68 wt%, which was much higher than walnut shells, reflecting more crude oil adsorption. The hardness of candlenut shells was 2.5-3 Mohs, which was close to walnut shells’ hardness. It was advantage to guarantee the cleaning filter cake by fluidization process during backwashing.

Keywords: candlenut shells, filtration, nutshell filter, pecan shells, walnut shells

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
224 Effects of Inlet Filtration Pressure Loss on Single and Two-Spool Gas Turbine

Authors: Enyia James Diwa, Dodeye Ina Igbong, Archibong Archibong Eso

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Gas turbine operators have been faced with the dramatic financial setback resulting from compressor fouling. In a highly deregulated power industry where there is stiffness in the market competition, has made it imperative to improvise means of reducing maintenance cost in other to yield maximum profit. Compressor fouling results from the deposition of contaminants in the presence of oil and moisture on the compressor blade or annulus surfaces, which leads to a loss in flow capacity and compressor efficiency. These combined effects reduce power output, increase heat rate and cause creep life reduction. This paper also contains a model of two gas turbine engines via Cranfield University software known as TURBOMATCH, which is simulation software for detecting engine fouling rate. The model engines are of different configurations and capacities, and are operating in two different modes of constant output power and turbine inlet temperature for a two and three stage filter system. The idea is to investigate the more economically viable filtration systems by gas turbine users based on performance only. It has been demonstrated in the results that the two spool engine is a little more beneficial compared to the single spool. This is as a result of a higher pressure ratio of the two spools as well as the deceleration of the high-pressure compressor and high-pressure turbine speed in a constant TET. Meanwhile, the inlet filtration system was properly designed and balanced with a well-timed and economical compressor washing regime/scheme to control compressor fouling. The different technologies of inlet air filtration and compressor washing are considered and an attempt at optimization with respect to the cost of a combination of both control measures are made.

Keywords: inlet filtration, pressure loss, single spool, two spool

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
223 Ceramic Membrane Filtration Technologies for Oilfield Produced Water Treatment

Authors: Mehrdad Ebrahimi, Oliver Schmitz, Axel Schmidt, Peter Czermak

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“Produced water” (PW) is any fossil water that is brought to the surface along with crude oil or natural gas. By far, PW is the largest waste stream by volume associated with oil and gas production operations. Due to the increasing volume of waste all over the world in the current decade, the outcome and effect of discharging PW on the environment has lately become a significant issue of environmental concerns. Therefore, there is a need for new technologies for PW treatment due to increase focus on water conservation and environmental regulation. The use of membrane processes for treatment of PW has several advantages over many of the traditional separation techniques. In oilfield produced water treatment with ceramic membranes, process efficiency is characterized by the specific permeate flux and by the oil separation performance. Apart from the membrane properties, the permeate flux during filtration of oily wastewaters is known to be strongly dependent on the constituents of the feed solution, as well as on process conditions, e.g. trans-membrane pressure (TMP) and cross-flow velocity (CFV). The research project presented in these report describes the application of different ceramic membrane filtration technologies for the efficient treatment of oil-field produced water and different model oily solutions.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, membrane fouling, oil rejection, produced water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
222 Removal of Pharmaceuticals from Aquarius Solutions Using Hybrid Ceramic Membranes

Authors: Jenny Radeva, Anke-Gundula Roth, Christian Goebbert, Robert Niestroj-Pahl, Lars Daehne, Axel Wolfram, Juergen Wiese

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The technological advantages of ceramic filtration elements were combined with polyelectrolyte films in the development process of hybrid membrane for the elimination of pharmaceuticals from Aquarius solutions. Previously extruded alumina ceramic membranes were coated with nanosized polyelectrolyte films using Layer-by-Layer technology. The polyelectrolyte chains form a network with nano-pores on the ceramic surface and promote the retention of small molecules like pharmaceuticals and microplastics, which cannot be eliminated using standard ultrafiltration methods. Additionally, the polyelectrolyte coat contributes with its adjustable (based on application) Zeta Potential for repulsion of contaminant molecules with opposite charges. Properties like permeability, bubble point, pore size distribution and Zeta Potential of ceramic and hybrid membranes were characterized using various laboratory and pilot tests and compared with each other. The most significant role for the membrane characterization played the filtration behavior investigation, during which retention against widely used pharmaceuticals like Diclofenac, Ibuprofen and Sulfamethoxazol was subjected to series of filtration tests. The presented study offers a new perspective on nanosized molecules removal from aqueous solutions and shows the importance of combined techniques application for the elimination of pharmaceutical contaminants from drinking water.

Keywords: water treatment, hybrid membranes, layer-by-layer coating, filtration, polyelectrolytes

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
221 Iron Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Fabricated Calcite Ooids

Authors: Al-Sayed A. Bakr, W. A. Makled

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The precipitated low magnesium calcite ooids in assembled softening unit from natural Mediterranean seawater samples were used as adsorbent media in a comparative study with granular activated carbon media in a two separated single-media filtration vessels (operating in parallel) for removal of iron from aqueous solutions. In each vessel, the maximum bed capacity, which required to be filled, was 13.2 l and the bed filled in the vessels of ooids and GAC were 8.6, and 6.6 l, respectively. The operating conditions applied to the semi-pilot filtration unit were constant pH (7.5), different temperatures (293, 303 and 313 k), different flow rates (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 l/min), different initial Fe(II) concentrations (15–105 mg/ l) and the calculated adsorbent masses were 34.1 and 123 g/l for GAC and calcite ooids, respectively. At higher temperature (313 k) and higher flow rate (60 l/min), the maximum adsorption capacities for ferrous ions by GAC and calcite ooids filters were 3.87 and 1.29 mg/g and at lower flow rate (20 l/min), the maximum adsorption capacities were 2.21 and 3.95 mg/g, respectively. From the experimental data, Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms were used to verify the adsorption performance. Therefore, the calcite ooids could act as new highly effective materials in iron removal from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: water treatment, calcite ooids, activated carbon, Fe(II) removal, filtration

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
220 A Horn Antenna Loaded with FSS of Crossed Dipoles

Authors: Ibrahim Mostafa El-Mongy, Abdelmegid Allam

Abstract:

In this article analysis and investigation of the effect of loading a horn antenna with frequency selective surface (FSS) of crossed dipoles of finite size is presented. It is fabricated on Rogers RO4350 (lossy) of relative permittivity 3.33, thickness 1.524 mm and loss tangent 0.004. Basically it is applied for filtering and minimizing the interference and noise in the desired band. The filtration is carried out using a finite FSS of crossed dipoles of overall dimensions 98x58 mm2. The filtration is shown by limiting the transmission bandwidth from 4 GHz (8–12 GHz) to 0.25 GHz (10.75–11 GHz). It is simulated using CST MWS and measured using network analyzer. There is a good agreement between the simulated and measured results.

Keywords: antenna, filtenna, frequency selective surface (FSS), horn

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
219 Cold Flow Investigation of Silicon Carbide Cylindrical Filter Element

Authors: Mohammad Alhajeri

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This paper reports a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) investigation of cylindrical filter. Silicon carbide cylindrical filter elements have proven to be an effective mean of removing particulates to levels exceeding the new source performance standard. The CFD code is used here to understand the deposition process and the factors that affect the particles distribution over the filter element surface. Different approach cross flow velocity to filter face velocity ratios and different face velocities (ranging from 2 to 5 cm/s) are used in this study. Particles in the diameter range 1 to 100 microns are tracked through the domain. The radius of convergence (or the critical trajectory) is compared and plotted as a function of many parameters.

Keywords: filtration, CFD, CCF, hot gas filtration

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
218 Simulation of 'Net' Nutrients Removal by Green Mussel (Perna viridis) in Estuarine and Coastal Areas

Authors: Chayarat Tantanasarit, Sandhya Babel

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Green mussels (Perna viridis) can effectively remove nutrients from seawater through their filtration process. This study aims to estimate 'net' nutrient removal rate by green mussel through calculation of nutrient uptake and release. Nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) uptake was calculated based on the mussel filtration rate. Nutrient release was evaluated from carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus released as mussel feces. By subtracting nutrient release from nutrient uptake, net nutrient removal by green mussel can be found as 3302, 380 and 124 mg/year/indv. Mass balance model was employed to simulate nutrient removal in actual green mussel farming conditions. Mussels farm area, seawater flow rate and amount of mussels were considered in the model. Results show that although larger quantity of green mussel farms lead to higher nutrient removal rate, the maximum green mussel cultivation should be taken into consideration as nutrients released through mussel excretion can strongly affect marine ecosystem.

Keywords: carbon, ecretion, filtration, nitrogen, phosphorus

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
217 The Nutritional Status and the Kidney Function in Older Patients

Authors: Magdalena Barbara Kaziuk, Waldemar Kosiba

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Background: Obesity, particularly abdominal type, lead to accelerated progress of atherosclerosis and thus affects the functioning of various human organs. Non-HDL cholesterol includes residual risk of the cardiovascular diseases which persists in patients after achieved recommended level of LDL cholesterol. The maintenance of normal body mass index plays a particularly important role in both the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. Materials and Methods: The study covered 96 patients (55 females, 42 males, age 66,9 +/-10,2 years). The nutritional status was determined with the Waist to Height Ratio (WHtR) and the Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR). A function of the kidney was evaluated by calculating the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the MDRD formula. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL) is simply the difference between the total cholesterol concentration and the HDL cholesterol concentration. Results: The higher was level of non-HDL cholesterol, the lower eGFR had studied subjects (p<0.001). Significant correlation was found between higher WHtR and lower the eGFR (p=0.002). Also underweight (30% of patient) led to obtaining lower values of eGFR in subjects over 65 years old. The poorer nutrition the lower was glomerular filtration rate. Conclusions: Nutritional statuses of patients have a significant impact on the level of kidney function. Not only accumulated excess fat in the abdominal area, but also its deficiency affects the deterioration in renal filtration. Higher level of non-HDL not only raises the residual risk of the heart disease but also influences on kidney by worsening eGFR. Proper diet in connection with physical activity should lead to achieving good nutrition in these patients and protect their kidney function.

Keywords: nutrition, non-HDL cholesterol, glomerular filtration rate, lifestyle

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
216 A Horn Antenna Loaded with SIW FSS of Crossed Dipoles

Authors: Ibrahim Mostafa El-Mongy, Abdelmegid Allam

Abstract:

In this article analysis and investigation of the effect of loading a horn antenna with substrate integrated waveguide frequency selective surface (SIW FSS) of crossed dipoles of finite size is presented. It is fabricated on Rogers RO4350 (lossy) of relative permittivity 3.33, thickness 1.524mm and loss tangent 0.004. This structure is called a filtering antenna (filtenna). Basically it is applied for filtering and minimizing the interference and noise in the desired band. The filtration is carried out using a finite SIW FSS of crossed dipoles of overall dimensions 98x58 mm2. The filtration is shown by limiting the transmission bandwidth from 4 GHz (8–12 GHz) to 0.3 GHz (0.955–0.985 GHz). It is simulated using CST MWS and measured using network analyzer. There is a good agreement between the simulated and measured results.

Keywords: antenna, filtenna, frequency-selective surface (FSS), horn antennas

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
215 Evolution of Nettlespurge Oil Mud for Drilling Mud System: A Comparative Study of Diesel Oil and Nettlespurge Oil as Oil-Based Drilling Mud

Authors: Harsh Agarwal, Pratikkumar Patel, Maharshi Pathak

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Recently the low prices of Crude oil and increase in strict environmental regulations limit limits the use of diesel based muds as these muds are relatively costlier and toxic, as a result disposal of cuttings into the eco-system is a major issue faced by the drilling industries. To overcome these issues faced by the Oil Industry, an attempt has been made to develop oil-in-water emulsion mud system using nettlespurge oil. Nettlespurge oil could be easily available and its cost is around ₹30/litre which is about half the price of diesel in India. Oil-based mud (OBM) was formulated with Nettlespurge oil extracted from Nettlespurge seeds using the Soxhlet extraction method. The formulated nettlespurge oil mud properties were analysed with diesel oil mud properties. The compared properties were rheological properties, yield point and gel strength, and mud density and filtration loss properties, fluid loss and filter cake. The mud density measurement showed that nettlespurge OBM was slightly higher than diesel OBM with mud density values of 9.175 lb/gal and 8.5 lb/gal, respectively, at barite content of 70 g. Thus it has a higher lubricating property. Additionally, the filtration loss test results showed that nettlespurge mud fluid loss volumes, oil was 11 ml, compared to diesel oil mud volume of 15 ml. The filtration loss test indicated that the nettlespurge oil mud with filter cake thickness of 2.2 mm had a cake characteristic of thin and squashy while the diesel oil mud resulted in filter cake thickness of 2.7 mm with cake characteristic of tenacious, rubbery and resilient. The filtration loss test results showed that nettlespurge oil mud fluid loss volumes was much less than the diesel based oil mud. The filtration loss test indicated that the nettlespurge oil mud filter cake thickness less than the diesel oil mud filter cake thickness. So Low formation damage and the emulsion stability effect was analysed with this experiment. The nettlespurge oil-in-water mud system had lower coefficient of friction than the diesel oil based mud system. All the rheological properties have shown better results relative to the diesel based oil mud. Therefore, with all the above mentioned factors and with the data of the conducted experiment we could conclude that the Nettlespurge oil based mud is economically and well as eco-logically much more feasible than the worn out and shabby diesel-based oil mud in the Drilling Industry.

Keywords: economical feasible, ecological feasible, emulsion stability, nettle spurge oil, rheological properties, soxhlet extraction method

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
214 Oil Water Treatment by Nutshell and Dates Pits

Authors: Abdalrahman D. Alsulaili, Sheikha Y. Aljeraiwi, Athba N. Almanaie, Raghad Y. Alhajeri, Mariam Z. Almijren

Abstract:

The water accompanying oil in the oil production process is increasing and due to its increasing rates a problem with handling it occurred. Current solutions like discharging into the environment, dumping water in evaporation pits, usage in the industry and reinjection in oil reservoirs to enhance oil production are used worldwide. The water injection method has been introduced to the oil industry with a process that either immediately injects water to the reservoir or goes to the filtration process before injection all depending on the porosity of the soil. Reinjection of unfiltered effluent water with high Total Suspended Solid (TSS) and Oil in Water (O/W) into soils with low porosity cause a blockage of pores, whereas soils with high porosity do not need high water quality. Our study mainly talks about the filtration and adsorption of the water using organic media as the adsorbent. An adsorbent is a substance that has the ability to physically hold another substance in its surface. Studies were done on nutshell and date pits with different surface areas and flow rates by using a 10inch filter connected with three tanks to perform as one system for the filtration process. Our approach in the filtration process using different types of medias went as follow: starting first with crushed nutshell, second with ground nutshell, and third using carbonized date pits with medium flow rate then high flow rate to compare different results. The result came out nearly as expected from our study where both O/W and TSS were reduced from our oily water sample by using this organic material. The effect of specific area was noticed when using nutshell as the filter media, where the crushed nutshell gave us better results than ground nutshell. The effect of flow rate was noticed when using carbonized date pits as the filter media whereas the treated water became more acceptable when the flow rate was on the medium level.

Keywords: date pits, nutshell, oil water, TSS

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
213 Reducing Environmental Impact of Olive Oil Production in Sakaka City Using Combined Chemical, Physical, and Biological Treatment

Authors: Abdullah Alhajoj, Bassam Alowaiesh

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This work aims to reduce the risks of discharging olive mill waste directly to the environment without treatment in Sakaka City, KSA. The organic loads expressed by chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) of the produced wastewater (OMWW) as well as the solid waste (OMW) were evaluated. The wastes emitted from the three-phase centrifuge decanters was found to be higher than that emitted from the two-phase centrifuge decanters. The olive mill wastewater (OMWW) was treated using advanced oxidation combined with filtration treatment. The results indicated that the concentration of COD, BOD, TSS, oil and grease and phenol was reduced by using complex sand filtration from 72150, 21660 10256, 36430, and 1470 mg/l to 980, 421, 58, 68, and 0.35 mg/l for three-phase OMWW and from 150562, 17955, 15325, 19658 and 2153 mg/l to 1050, 501, 29, 0.75, and 0.29 mg/l, respectively. While, by using modified trickling filter (packed with the neck of waste plastic bottles the concentration of the previously mentioned parameters was reduced to 1190, 570, 55, 0.85, and 0.3 mg/l, respectively. This work supports the application of such treatment technique for reducing the environmental threats of olive mill waste effluents in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: two-phase, three-phase, olive mill, olive oil, waste treatment, filtration, advanced oxidation, waste plastic bottles

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
212 Two and Three Layer Lamination of Nanofiber

Authors: Roman Knizek, Denisa Karhankova, Ludmila Fridrichova

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For their exceptional properties nanofibers, respectively, nanofiber layers are achieving an increasingly wider range of uses. Nowadays nanofibers are used mainly in the field of air filtration where they are removing submicron particles, bacteria, and viruses. Their efficiency is not changed in time, and the power consumption is much lower than that of electrically charged filters. Nanofibers are primarily used for converting and storage of energy in both air and liquid filtration, in food and packaging, protecting the environment, but also in health care which is made possible by their newly discovered properties. However, a major problem of the nanofiber layer is practically zero abrasion resistance; it is, therefore, necessary to laminate the nanofiber layer with another suitable material. Unfortunately, lamination of nanofiber layers is a major problem since the nanofiber layer contains small pores through which it is very difficult for adhesion to pass through. Therefore, there is still only a small percentage of products with these unique fibers 5.

Keywords: nanofiber layer, nanomembrane, lamination, electrospinning

Procedia PDF Downloads 506
211 Effects of Various Wavelet Transforms in Dynamic Analysis of Structures

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi, Sadegh Balaghi, Ehsan Khojastehfar

Abstract:

Time history dynamic analysis of structures is considered as an exact method while being computationally intensive. Filtration of earthquake strong ground motions applying wavelet transform is an approach towards reduction of computational efforts, particularly in optimization of structures against seismic effects. Wavelet transforms are categorized into continuum and discrete transforms. Since earthquake strong ground motion is a discrete function, the discrete wavelet transform is applied in the present paper. Wavelet transform reduces analysis time by filtration of non-effective frequencies of strong ground motion. Filtration process may be repeated several times while the approximation induces more errors. In this paper, strong ground motion of earthquake has been filtered once applying each wavelet. Strong ground motion of Northridge earthquake is filtered applying various wavelets and dynamic analysis of sampled shear and moment frames is implemented. The error, regarding application of each wavelet, is computed based on comparison of dynamic response of sampled structures with exact responses. Exact responses are computed by dynamic analysis of structures applying non-filtered strong ground motion.

Keywords: wavelet transform, computational error, computational duration, strong ground motion data

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210 Environmental Engineering Case Study of Waste Water Treatement

Authors: Harold Jideofor

Abstract:

Wastewater treatment consists of applying known technology to improve or upgrade the quality of a wastewater. Usually wastewater treatment will involve collecting the wastewater in a central, segregated location (the Wastewater Treatment Plant) and subjecting the wastewater to various treatment processes. Most often, since large volumes of wastewater are involved, treatment processes are carried out on continuously flowing wastewaters (continuous flow or "open" systems) rather than as "batch" or a series of periodic treatment processes in which treatment is carried out on parcels or "batches" of wastewaters. While most wastewater treatment processes are continuous flow, certain operations, such as vacuum filtration, involving storage of sludge, the addition of chemicals, filtration and removal or disposal of the treated sludge, are routinely handled as periodic batch operations.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, environmental engineering, waste water

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209 Overcoming the Problems Affecting Drip Irrigation System through the Design of an Efficient Filtration and Flushing System

Authors: Stephen A. Akinlabi, Esther T. Akinlabi

Abstract:

The drip irrigation system is one of the important areas that affect the livelihood of farmers directly. The use of drip irrigation system has been the most efficient system compared to the other types of irrigations systems because the drip irrigation helps to save water and increase the productivity of crops. But like any other system, it can be considered inefficient when the filters and the emitters get clogged while in operation. The efficiency of the entire system is reduced when the emitters are clogged and blocked. This consequently impact and affect the farm operations which may result in scarcity of farm products and increase the demand. This design work focuses on how to overcome some of the challenges affecting drip irrigation system through the design of an efficient filtration and flushing system.

Keywords: drip irrigation system, filters, soil texture, mechanical engineering design, analysis

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208 Removal of Nitrate and Phosphates from Waste Water Using Activated Bio-Carbon Produced from Agricultural Waste

Authors: Kgomotso Matobole, Natania De Wet, Tefo Mbambo, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng

Abstract:

Nitrogen and phosphorus are nutrients which are required in the ecosystem, however, at high levels, these nutrients contribute to the process of eutrophication in the receiving water bodies, which threatens aquatic organisms. Hence it is vital that they are removed before the water is discharged. This phenomenon increases the cost related to wastewater treatment. This raises the need for the development of processes that are cheaper. Activated biocarbon was used in batch and filtration system to remove nitrates and phosphates. The batch system has higher nutrients removal capabilities than the filtration system. For phosphate removal, 93 % removal is achieved at the adsorbent of 300 g while for nitrates, 84 % removal is achieved when 200 g of activated carbon is loaded.

Keywords: waste water treatment, phosphates, nitrates, activated carbon, agricultural waste

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207 Functionalized PU Foam for Water Filtration

Authors: Nidal H. Abu-Zahra, Subhashini Gunashekar

Abstract:

Polyurethane foam is functionalized with Sulfonic acid groups to remove lead ions (Pb2+) from drinking water through a action exchange process. The synthesis is based on addition polymerization of the -NCO groups of an isocyanine with the –OH groups of a polio to form the urethane. Toluene-diisocyanateis reacted with Polypropylene glycol to form a linear pre-polymer, which is further polymerized using a chain extender, N, N-bis(2-hydorxyethyl)-2-aminoethane-sulfonic acid (BES). BES acts as a functional group site to exchange Pb2+ ions. A set of experiments was designed to study the effect of various processing parameters on the performance of the synthesized foam. The maximum Pb2+ ion exchange capacity of the foam was found to be 47ppb/g from a 100ppb Pb2+ solution over a period of 60 minutes. A multistage batch filtration process increased the lead removal to 50-54ppb/3g of foam over a period of 90 minutes.

Keywords: adsorption, functionalized, ion exchange, polyurethane, sulfonic

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206 A Combined Activated Sludge-Filtration-Ozonation Process for Abattoir Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Pello Alfonso-Muniozguren, Madeleine Bussemaker, Ralph Chadeesingh, Caryn Jones, David Oakley, Judy Lee, Devendra Saroj

Abstract:

Current industrialized livestock agriculture is growing every year leading to an increase in the generation of wastewater that varies considerably in terms of organic content and microbial population. Therefore, suitable wastewater treatment methods are required to ensure the wastewater quality meet regulations before discharge. In the present study, a combined lab scale activated sludge-filtration-ozonation system was used to treat a pre-treated abattoir wastewater. A hydraulic retention time of 24 hours and a solid retention time of 13 days were used for the activated sludge process, followed by a filtration step (4-7 µm) and using ozone as tertiary treatment. An average reduction of 93% and 98% was achieved for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), respectively, obtaining final values of 128 mg/L COD and 12 mg/L BOD. For the Total Suspended Solids (TSS), the average reduction increased to 99% in the same system, reducing the final value down to 3 mg/L. Additionally, 98% reduction in Phosphorus (P) and a complete inactivation of Total Coliforms (TC) was obtained after 17 min ozonation time. For Total Viable Counts (TVC), a drastic reduction was observed with 30 min ozonation time (6 log inactivation) at an ozone dose of 71 mg O3/L. Overall, the combined process was sufficient to meet discharge requirements without further treatment for the measured parameters (COD, BOD, TSS, P, TC, and TVC).

Keywords: abattoir waste water, activated sludge, ozone, waste water treatment

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205 Optimization of Tangential Flow Filtration Process for Purifying DNA Vaccine

Authors: Piyakajornkul T., Noppiboon S., Hochareon L., Kitsubun P.

Abstract:

Nowadays, DNA vaccines become an interesting subject in the third vaccine generation. The platform of DNA vaccines production has been developed and its downstream process becomes challenging due to the quality of the products in terms of purity and percentage of supercoiled DNA. To overcome these challenges, tangential flow filtration (TFF), which is involved in the purification process, could be used since it provides effective separation of impurity prior to performing further purification steps. However, operating conditions of TFF is varied based on several factors such as sizes of target particle and impurities, a concentration of solution as well as a concentration polarization on the membrane surface. In this study, pVAX1/lacZ was used as a model of TFF optimization in order to prevent a concentration polarization that can lead to the membrane fouling and also minimize a diafiltration volume while maintaining the maximum permeate flux resulting in proper operating times and buffer volume. By using trans membrane pressure (TMP) excursion method, feed flow rates and TMP were varied. The results showed a correlation of permeate flux with TMP where the maximum volume concentration factor reached 2.5 times of the initial volume when feed flow rate and TMP were 7 liters/m²/min and 1 bar, respectively. It was optimal operating conditions before TFF system undergone pressure independent regime. In addition, the diafiltration volume was 14 times of the concentrated volume prior to performing a further anion chromatography process.

Keywords: concentration polarization, DNA vaccines, optimization, permeate flux, pressure dependent, tangential flow filtration (TFF), trans membrane pressure (TMP)

Procedia PDF Downloads 43