Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2857

Search results for: severe plastic deformation

2857 Continuous Manufacturing of Ultra Fine Grained Materials by Severe Plastic Deformation Methods

Authors: Aslı Günay Bulutsuz, Mehmet Emin Yurci

Abstract:

Severe plastic deformation techniques are top-down deformation methods which enable superior mechanical properties by decreasing grain size. Different kind severe plastic deformation methods have been widely being used at various process temperature and geometries. Besides manufacturing advantages of severe plastic deformation technique, most of the types are being used only at the laboratory level. They cannot be adapted to industrial usage due to their continuous manufacturability and manufacturing costs. In order to enhance these manufacturing difficulties and enable widespread usage, different kinds of methods have been developed. In this review, a comprehensive literature research was fulfilled in order to highlight continuous severe plastic deformation methods.

Keywords: continuous manufacturing, severe plastic deformation, ultrafine grains, grain size refinement

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
2856 Complex Rigid-Plastic Deformation Model of Tow Degree of Freedom Mechanical System under Impulsive Force

Authors: Abdelouaheb Rouabhi

Abstract:

In order to study the plastic resource of structures, the elastic-plastic single degree of freedom model described by Prandtl diagram is widely used. The generalization of this model to tow degree of freedom beyond the scope of a simple rigid-plastic system allows investigating the plastic resource of structures under complex disproportionate by individual components of deformation (earthquake). This macro-model greatly increases the accuracy of the calculations carried out. At the same time, the implementation of the proposed macro-model calculations easier than the detailed dynamic elastic-plastic calculations existing software systems such as ANSYS.

Keywords: elastic-plastic, single degree of freedom model, rigid-plastic system, plastic resource, complex plastic deformation, macro-model

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
2855 Low Plastic Deformation Energy to Induce High Superficial Strain on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheet

Authors: Emigdio Mendoza, Patricia Fernandez, Cristian Gomez

Abstract:

Magnesium alloys have generated great interest for several industrial applications because their high specific strength and low density make them a very attractive alternative for the manufacture of various components; however, these alloys present a limitation with their hexagonal crystal structure that limits the deformation mechanisms at room temperature likewise the molding components alternatives, it is for this reason that severe plastic deformation processes have taken a huge relevance recently because these, allow high deformation rates to be applied that induce microstructural changes where the deficiency in the sliding systems is compensated with crystallographic grains reorientations or crystal twinning. The present study reports a statistical analysis of process temperature, number of passes and shear angle with respect to the shear stress in severe plastic deformation process denominated 'Equal Channel Angular Sheet Drawing (ECASD)' applied to the magnesium alloy AZ31B through Python Statsmodels libraries, additionally a Post-Hoc range test is performed using the Tukey statistical test. Statistical results show that each variable has a p-value lower than 0.05, which allows comparing the average values of shear stresses obtained, which are in the range of 7.37 MPa to 12.23 MPa, lower values in comparison to others severe plastic deformation processes reported in the literature, considering a value of 157.53 MPa as the average creep stress for AZ31B alloy. However, a higher stress level is required when the sheets are processed using a shear angle of 150°, due to a higher level of adjustment applied for the shear die of 150°. Temperature and shear passes are important variables as well, but there is no significant impact on the level of stress applied during the ECASD process. In the processing of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheets, ECASD technique is evidenced as a viable alternative in the modification of the elasto-plastic properties of this alloy, promoting the weakening of the basal texture, which means, a better response to deformation, whereby, during the manufacture of parts by drawing or stamping processes the formation of cracks on the surface can be reduced, presenting an adequate mechanical performance.

Keywords: plastic deformation, strain, sheet drawing, magnesium

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
2854 Optical and Mechanical Characterization of Severe Plastically Deformed Copper Alloy Processed by Constrained Groove Pressing

Authors: Jaya Prasad Vanam, Vinay Anurag P, Vidya Sravya N S, Kishore Babu Nagamothu

Abstract:

Constrained Groove Pressing (CGP) is one of the severe plastic deformation technique (SPD) by which we can process Ultra Fine Grained (UFG)/plane metallic materials. This paper discusses the effects of CGP on Cu-Zn alloy specimen at room temperature. A comprehensive study is made on the structural and mechanical properties of Brass specimen before and after Constrained grooves Pressing. Entire process is simulated in AFDEX CAE Software. It is found that most of the properties are superior with respect to brass samples such as yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, hardness, strain rate, etc., and they are found to be better for the CGP processed specimen. The results are discussed with respective graphs.

Keywords: constrained groove pressing, AFDEX, ultra fine grained materials, severe plastic deformation technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
2853 A Criterion for Evaluating Plastic Loads: Plastic Work-Tangent Criterion

Authors: Ying Zhang

Abstract:

In ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, the plastic load is defined by applying the twice elastic slope (TES) criterion of plastic collapse to a characteristic load-deformation curve for the vessel. Several other plastic criterion such as tangent intersection (TI) criterion, plastic work (PW) criterion have been proposed in the literature, but all exhibit a practical limitation: difficult to define the load parameter for vessels subject to several combined loads. An alternative criterion: plastic work-tangent (PWT) criterion for evaluating plastic load in pressure vessel design by analysis is presented in this paper. According to the plastic work-load curve, when the tangent variation is less than a given value in the plastic phase, the corresponding load is the plastic load. Application of the proposed criterion is illustrated by considering the elastic-plastic response of the lower head of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and nozzle intersection of (RPV). It is proposed that this is because the PWT criterion more fully represents the constraining effect of material strain hardening on the spread of plastic deformation and more efficiently ton evaluating the plastic load.

Keywords: plastic load, plastic work, strain hardening, plastic work-tangent criterion

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
2852 Equal Channel Angular Pressing of Al1050 Sheets: Experimental and Finite Element Survey

Authors: P. M. Keshtiban, M. Zdshakoyan, G. Faragi

Abstract:

Different severe plastic deformation (SPD) methods are the most successful ways to build nano-structural materials from coarse grain samples without changing the cross-sectional area. One of the most widely used methods in the SPD process is equal channel angler pressing (ECAP). In this paper, ECAP process on Al1050 sheets was evaluated at room temperature by both experiments and finite element method. Since, one of the main objectives of SPD processes is to achieve high equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ) in one cycle, the values of PEEQ obtained by finite element simulation. Also, force-displacement curve achieved by FEM. To study the changes of mechanical properties, micro-hardness tests were conducted on samples and improvement in the mechanical properties were investigated. Results show that there is the good proportion between FEM, theory and experimental results.

Keywords: AL1050, experiments, finite element method, severe plastic deformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
2851 Experimental Study on Mechanical Properties of Commercially Pure Copper Processed by Severe Plastic Deformation Technique-Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

Authors: Krishnaiah Arkanti, Ramulu Malothu

Abstract:

The experiments have been conducted to study the mechanical properties of commercially pure copper processing at room temperature by severe plastic deformation using equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) through a die of 90oangle up to 3 passes by route BC i.e. rotating the sample in the same direction by 90o after each pass. ECAE is used to produce from existing coarse grains to ultra-fine, equiaxed grains structure with high angle grain boundaries in submicron level by introducing a large amount of shear strain in the presence of hydrostatic pressure into the material without changing billet shape or dimension. Mechanical testing plays an important role in evaluating fundamental properties of engineering materials as well as in developing new materials and in controlling the quality of materials for use in design and construction. Yield stress, ultimate tensile stress and ductility are structure sensitive properties and vary with the structure of the material. Microhardness and tensile tests were carried out to evaluate the hardness, strength and ductility of the ECAE processed materials. The results reveal that the strength and hardness of commercially pure copper samples improved significantly without losing much ductility after each pass.

Keywords: equal channel angular extrusion, severe plastic deformation, copper, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
2850 Effect of Hot Extrusion on the Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of Mg-Zn-Ca and Mg-Zn-Ca-Mn Alloys for Medical Application

Authors: V. E. Bazhenov, A. V. Li, A. A. Komissarov, A. V. Koltygin, S. A. Tavolzhanskii, O. O. Voropaeva, A. M. Mukhametshina, A. A. Tokar, V. A. Bautin

Abstract:

Magnesium-based alloys are considered as effective materials in the development of biodegradable implants. The magnesium alloys containing Mg, Zn, Ca as an alloying element are the subject of the particular interest. These elements are the nutrients for the human body, which provide their high biocompatibility. In this work, we investigated the effect of severe plastic deformation (SPD) on the mechanical and corrosion properties of Mg-Zn-Ca and Mg-Zn-Ca-Mn alloys containing from 2 to 4 wt.% Zn; 0.7 wt.% Ca and up to 1 wt.% Mn. Hot extrusion was used as a method of intensive plastic deformation. The temperature of hot extrusion was set to 220 °C and 300 °C. Metallographic analysis after hot extrusion shows that the grain size in the studied alloys depends on the deformation temperature. The grain size for all of investigated alloys is in the range from 3 to 7 microns, and 3 μm corresponds to the extrusion temperature of 220 °C. Analysis of mechanical properties after extrusion shows that extrusion at a temperature of 220 °C and alloying with Mn increase the strength characteristics and decrease the ductility of studied alloys. A slight anisotropy of properties in the longitudinal and transverse directions was also observed. Measurements of corrosion properties revealed that the addition of Mn to Mg-Zn-Ca alloys reduces the corrosion rate. On the other hand, increasing the Zn content in alloys increases the corrosion rate. The extrusion temperature practically does not affect the corrosion rate. Acknowledgement: The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation in the framework of Increase Competitiveness Program of NUST «MISiS» (No K2-2019-008), implemented by a governmental decree dated 16th of March 2013, N 211.

Keywords: biocompatibility, hot extrusion, magnesium alloys, severe plastic deformation, properties

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2849 Experimental Study of Upsetting and Die Forging with Controlled Impact

Authors: T. Penchev, D. Karastoyanov

Abstract:

The results from experimental research of deformation by upsetting and die forging of lead specimens wit controlled impact are presented. Laboratory setup for conducting the investigations, which uses cold rocket engine operated with compressed air, is described. The results show that when using controlled impact is achieving greater plastic deformation and consumes less impact energy than at ordinary impact deformation process.

Keywords: rocket engine, forging hammer, sticking impact, plastic deformation

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2848 Influence of Different Asymmetric Rolling Processes on Shear Strain

Authors: Alexander Pesin, Denis Pustovoytov, Mikhail Sverdlik

Abstract:

Materials with ultrafine-grained structure and unique physical and mechanical properties can be obtained by methods of severe plastic deformation, which include processes of asymmetric rolling (AR). Asymmetric rolling is a very effective way to create ultrafine-grained structures of metals and alloys. Since the asymmetric rolling is a continuous process, it has great potential for industrial production of ultrafine-grained structure sheets. Basic principles of asymmetric rolling are described in detail in scientific literature. In this work finite element modeling of asymmetric rolling and metal forming processes in multiroll gauge was performed. Parameters of the processes which allow achieving significant values of shear strain were defined. The results of the study will be useful for the research of the evolution of ultra-fine metal structure in asymmetric rolling.

Keywords: asymmetric rolling, equivalent strain, FEM, multiroll gauge, profile, severe plastic deformation, shear strain, sheet

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
2847 Jump-Like Deformation of Ultrafinegrained AZ31 at Temperature 4,2 - 0,5 K

Authors: Pavel Zabrodin

Abstract:

The drawback of magnesium alloys is poor plasticity, which complicates the forming. Effective way of improving the properties of the cast magnesium alloy AZ31 (3 wt. % Al, 0.8 wt. % Zn, 0.2 wt. % Mn)) is to combine hot extrusion at 350°C and equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 180°C. Because of reduced grain sizes, changes in the nature of the grain boundaries, and enhancement of a texture that favors basal dislocation glide, after this kind of processing, increase yield stress and ductility. For study of the effect of microstructure on the mechanisms for plastic deformation, there is some interest in investigating the mechanical properties of the ultrafinegrained (UFG) Mg alloy at low temperatures, before and after annealing. It found that the amplitude and statistics at the low-temperature jump-like deformation the Mg alloy of dependent on microstructure. Reduction of the average density of dislocations and grain growth during annealing causing a reduction in the amplitude of the jump-like deformation and changes in the distribution of surges in amplitude. It found that the amplitude and statistics at the low-temperature jump-like deformation UFG alloy dependent on temperature of deformation. Plastic deformation of UFG alloy at a temperature of 10 K occurs uniformly - peculiarities is not observed. Increasing of the temperature of deformation from 4,2 to 0,5 K is causing a reduction in the amplitude and increasing the frequency of the jump-like deformation.

Keywords: jump-like deformation, low temperature, plasticity, magnesium alloy

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2846 Elastic and Plastic Collision Comparison Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Gustavo Rodrigues, Hans Weber, Larissa Driemeier

Abstract:

The prevision of post-impact conditions and the behavior of the bodies during the impact have been object of several collision models. The formulation from Hertz’s theory is generally used dated from the 19th century. These models consider the repulsive force as proportional to the deformation of the bodies under contact and may consider it proportional to the rate of deformation. The objective of the present work is to analyze the behavior of the bodies during impact using the Finite Element Method (FEM) with elastic and plastic material models. The main parameters to evaluate are, the contact force, the time of contact and the deformation of the bodies. An advantage of using the FEM approach is the possibility to apply a plastic deformation to the model according to the material definition: there will be used Johnson–Cook plasticity model whose parameters are obtained through empirical tests of real materials. This model allows analyzing the permanent deformation caused by impact, phenomenon observed in real world depending on the forces applied to the body. These results are compared between them and with the model-based Hertz theory.

Keywords: collision, impact models, finite element method, Hertz Theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
2845 Alpha-To-Omega Phase Transition in Bulk Nanostructured Ti and (α+β) Ti Alloys

Authors: Askar Kilmametov, Julia Ivanisenko, Boris Straumal, Horst Hahn

Abstract:

The high-pressure α- to ω-phase transition was discovered in elemental Ti and Zr fifty years ago using static high pressure and then observed to appear between 2 and 12 GPa at room temperature, depending on the experimental technique, the pressure environment, and the sample purity. The fact that ω-phase is retained in a metastable state in ambient condition after the removal of the pressure has been used to check the changes in magnetic and superconductive behavior, electron band structure and mechanical properties. However, the fundamental knowledge on a combination of both mechanical treatment and high applied pressure treatments for ω-phase formation in Ti alloys is currently lacking and has to be studied in relation to improved mechanical properties of bulk nanostructured states. In the present study, nanostructured (α+β) Ti alloys containing β-stabilizing elements such as Co, Fe, Cr, Nb were performed by severe plastic deformation, namely high pressure torsion (HPT) technique. HPT-induced α- to ω-phase transformation was revealed in dependence on applied pressure and shear strains by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The transformation kinetics was compared with the kinetics of pressure-induced transition. Orientation relationship between α-, β- and ω-phases was taken into consideration and analyzed according to theoretical calculation proposed earlier. The influence of initial state before HPT appeared to be considerable for subsequent α- to ω-phase transition. Thermal stability of the HPT-induced ω-phase was discussed as well in the frame of mechanical behavior of Ti and Ti-based alloys produced by shear deformation under high applied pressure.

Keywords: bulk nanostructured materials, high pressure phase transitions, severe plastic deformation, titanium alloys

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2844 Simulation of the Visco-Elasto-Plastic Deformation Behaviour of Short Glass Fibre Reinforced Polyphthalamides

Authors: V. Keim, J. Spachtholz, J. Hammer

Abstract:

The importance of fibre reinforced plastics continually increases due to the excellent mechanical properties, low material and manufacturing costs combined with significant weight reduction. Today, components are usually designed and calculated numerically by using finite element methods (FEM) to avoid expensive laboratory tests. These programs are based on material models including material specific deformation characteristics. In this research project, material models for short glass fibre reinforced plastics are presented to simulate the visco-elasto-plastic deformation behaviour. Prior to modelling specimens of the material EMS Grivory HTV-5H1, consisting of a Polyphthalamide matrix reinforced by 50wt.-% of short glass fibres, are characterized experimentally in terms of the highly time dependent deformation behaviour of the matrix material. To minimize the experimental effort, the cyclic deformation behaviour under tensile and compressive loading (R = −1) is characterized by isothermal complex low cycle fatigue (CLCF) tests. Combining cycles under two strain amplitudes and strain rates within three orders of magnitude and relaxation intervals into one experiment the visco-elastic deformation is characterized. To identify visco-plastic deformation monotonous tensile tests either displacement controlled or strain controlled (CERT) are compared. All relevant modelling parameters for this complex superposition of simultaneously varying mechanical loadings are quantified by these experiments. Subsequently, two different material models are compared with respect to their accuracy describing the visco-elasto-plastic deformation behaviour. First, based on Chaboche an extended 12 parameter model (EVP-KV2) is used to model cyclic visco-elasto-plasticity at two time scales. The parameters of the model including a total separation of elastic and plastic deformation are obtained by computational optimization using an evolutionary algorithm based on a fitness function called genetic algorithm. Second, the 12 parameter visco-elasto-plastic material model by Launay is used. In detail, the model contains a different type of a flow function based on the definition of the visco-plastic deformation as a part of the overall deformation. The accuracy of the models is verified by corresponding experimental LCF testing.

Keywords: complex low cycle fatigue, material modelling, short glass fibre reinforced polyphthalamides, visco-elasto-plastic deformation

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2843 Modeling of Large Elasto-Plastic Deformations by the Coupled FE-EFGM

Authors: Azher Jameel, Ghulam Ashraf Harmain

Abstract:

In the recent years, the enriched techniques like the extended finite element method, the element free Galerkin method, and the Coupled finite element-element free Galerkin method have found wide application in modeling different types of discontinuities produced by cracks, contact surfaces, and bi-material interfaces. The extended finite element method faces severe mesh distortion issues while modeling large deformation problems. The element free Galerkin method does not have mesh distortion issues, but it is computationally more demanding than the finite element method. The coupled FE-EFGM proves to be an efficient numerical tool for modeling large deformation problems as it exploits the advantages of both FEM and EFGM. The present paper employs the coupled FE-EFGM to model large elastoplastic deformations in bi-material engineering components. The large deformation occurring in the domain has been modeled by using the total Lagrangian approach. The non-linear elastoplastic behavior of the material has been represented by the Ramberg-Osgood model. The elastic predictor-plastic corrector algorithms are used for the evaluation stresses during large deformation. Finally, several numerical problems are solved by the coupled FE-EFGM to illustrate its applicability, efficiency and accuracy in modeling large elastoplastic deformations in bi-material samples. The results obtained by the proposed technique are compared with the results obtained by XFEM and EFGM. A remarkable agreement was observed between the results obtained by the three techniques.

Keywords: XFEM, EFGM, coupled FE-EFGM, level sets, large deformation

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2842 Computation and Validation of the Stress Distribution around a Circular Hole in a Slab Undergoing Plastic Deformation

Authors: Sherif D. El Wakil, John Rice

Abstract:

The aim of the current work was to employ the finite element method to model a slab, with a small hole across its width, undergoing plastic plane strain deformation. The computational model had, however, to be validated by comparing its results with those obtained experimentally. Since they were in good agreement, the finite element method can therefore be considered a reliable tool that can help gain better understanding of the mechanism of ductile failure in structural members having stress raisers. The finite element software used was ANSYS, and the PLANE183 element was utilized. It is a higher order 2-D, 8-node or 6-node element with quadratic displacement behavior. A bilinear stress-strain relationship was used to define the material properties, with constants similar to those of the material used in the experimental study. The model was run for several tensile loads in order to observe the progression of the plastic deformation region, and the stress concentration factor was determined in each case. The experimental study involved employing the visioplasticity technique, where a circular mesh (each circle was 0.5 mm in diameter, with 0.05 mm line thickness) was initially printed on the side of an aluminum slab having a small hole across its width. Tensile loading was then applied to produce a small increment of plastic deformation. Circles in the plastic region became ellipses, where the directions of the principal strains and stresses coincided with the major and minor axes of the ellipses. Next, we were able to determine the directions of the maximum and minimum shear stresses at the center of each ellipse, and the slip-line field was then constructed. We were then able to determine the stress at any point in the plastic deformation zone, and hence the stress concentration factor. The experimental results were found to be in good agreement with the analytical ones.

Keywords: finite element method to model a slab, slab undergoing plastic deformation, stress distribution around a circular hole, visioplasticity

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2841 High Pressure Torsion Deformation Behavior of a Low-SFE FCC Ternary Medium Entropy Alloy

Authors: Saumya R. Jha, Krishanu Biswas, Nilesh P. Gurao

Abstract:

Several recent investigations have revealed medium entropy alloys exhibiting better mechanical properties than their high entropy counterparts. This clearly establishes that although a higher entropy plays a vital role in stabilization of particular phase over complex intermetallic phases, configurational entropy is not the primary factor responsible for the high inherent strengthening in these systems. Above and beyond a high contribution from friction stresses and solid solution strengthening, strain hardening is an important contributor to the strengthening in these systems. In this regard, researchers have developed severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques like High Pressure Torsion (HPT) to incorporate very high shear strain in the material, thereby leading to ultrafine grained (UFG) microstructures, which cause manifold increase in the strength. The presented work demonstrates a meticulous study of the variation in mechanical properties at different radial displacements from the center of HPT tested equiatomic ternary FeMnNi synthesized by casting route, which is a low stacking fault energy FCC alloy that shows significantly higher toughness than its high entropy counterparts like Cantor alloy. The gradient in grain sizes along the radial direction of these specimens has been modeled using microstructure entropy for predicting the mechanical properties, which has also been validated by indentation tests. The dislocation density is computed by FEM simulations for varying strains and validated by analyzing synchrotron diffraction data. Thus, the proposed model can be utilized to predict the strengthening behavior of similar systems deformed by HPT subjected to varying loading conditions.

Keywords: high pressure torsion, severe plastic deformation, configurational entropy, dislocation density, FEM simulation

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2840 Research on Structural Changes in Plastic Deformation during Rolling and Crimping of Tubes

Authors: Hein Win Zaw

Abstract:

Today, the advanced strategies for aircraft production technology potentially need the higher performance, and on the other hand, those strategies and engineering technologies should meet considerable process and reduce of production costs. Thus, professionals who are working in these scopes are attempting to develop new materials to improve the manufacturability of designs, the creation of new technological processes, tools and equipment. This paper discusses about the research on structural changes in plastic deformation during rotary expansion and crimp of pipes. Pipelines are experiencing high pressure and pulsating load. That is why, it is high demands on the mechanical properties of the material, the quality of the external and internal surfaces, preserve cross-sectional shape and the minimum thickness of the pipe wall are taking into counts. In the manufacture of pipes, various operations: distribution, crimping, bending, etc. are used. The most widely used at various semi-products, connecting elements found the process of rotary expansion and crimp of pipes. In connection with the use of high strength materials and less-plastic, these conventional techniques do not allow obtaining high-quality parts, and also have a low economic efficiency. Therefore, research in this field is relevantly considerable to develop in advanced. Rotary expansion and crimp of pipes are accompanied by inhomogeneous plastic deformation, which leads to structural changes in the material, causes its deformation hardening, by this result changes the operational reliability of the product. Parts of the tube obtained by rotary expansion and crimp differ by multiplicity of form and characterized by various diameter in the various section, which formed in the result of inhomogeneous plastic deformation. The reliability of the coupling, obtained by rotary expansion and crimp, is determined by the structural arrangement of material formed by the formation process; there is maximum value of deformation, the excess of which is unacceptable. The structural state of material in this condition is determined by technological mode of formation in the rotary expansion and crimp. Considering the above, objective of the present study is to investigate the structural changes at different levels of plastic deformation, accompanying rotary expansion and crimp, and the analysis of stress concentrators of different scale levels, responsible for the formation of the primary zone of destruction.

Keywords: plastic deformation, rolling of tubes, crimping of tubes, structural changes

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2839 Experimental Characterization of the AA7075 Aluminum Alloy Using Hot Shear Tensile Test

Authors: Trunal Bhujangrao, Catherine Froustey, Fernando Veiga, Philippe Darnis, Franck Girot Mata

Abstract:

The understanding of the material behavior under shear loading has great importance for a researcher in manufacturing processes like cutting, machining, milling, turning, friction stir welding, etc. where the material experiences large deformation at high temperature. For such material behavior analysis, hot shear tests provide a useful means to investigate the evolution of the microstructure at a wide range of temperature and to improve the material behavior model. Shear tests can be performed by direct shear loading (e.g. torsion of thin-walled tubular samples), or appropriate specimen design to convert a tensile or compressive load into shear (e.g. simple shear tests). The simple shear tests are straightforward and designed to obtained very large deformation. However, many of these shear tests are concerned only with the elastic response of the material. It is becoming increasingly important to capture a plastic response of the material. Plastic deformation is significantly more complex and is known to depend more heavily on the strain rate, temperature, deformation, etc. Besides, there is not enough work is done on high-temperature shear loading, because of geometrical instability occurred during the plastic deformation. The aim of this study is to design a new shear tensile specimen geometry to convert the tensile load into dominant shear loading under plastic deformation. Design of the specimen geometry is based on FEM. The material used in this paper is AA7075 alloy, tested quasi statically under elevated temperature. Finally, the microstructural changes taking place during

Keywords: AA7075 alloy, dynamic recrystallization, edge effect, large strain, shear tensile test

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2838 On Cold Roll Bonding of Polymeric Films

Authors: Nikhil Padhye

Abstract:

Recently a new phenomenon for bonding of polymeric films in solid-state, at ambient temperatures well below the glass transition temperature of the polymer, has been reported. This is achieved by bulk plastic compression of polymeric films held in contact. Here we analyze the process of cold-rolling of polymeric films via finite element simulations and illustrate a flexible and modular experimental rolling-apparatus that can achieve bonding of polymeric films through cold-rolling. Firstly, the classical theory of rolling a rigid-plastic thin-strip is utilized to estimate various deformation fields such as strain-rates, velocities, loads etc. in rolling the polymeric films at the specified feed-rates and desired levels of thickness-reduction(s). Predicted magnitudes of slow strain-rates, particularly at ambient temperatures during rolling, and moderate levels of plastic deformation (at which Bauschinger effect can be neglected for the particular class of polymeric materials studied here), greatly simplifies the task of material modeling and allows us to deploy a computationally efficient, yet accurate, finite deformation rate-independent elastic-plastic material behavior model (with inclusion of isotropic-hardening) for analyzing the rolling of these polymeric films. The interfacial behavior between the roller and polymer surfaces is modeled using Coulombic friction; consistent with the rate-independent behavior. The finite deformation elastic-plastic material behavior based on (i) the additive decomposition of stretching tensor (D = De + Dp, i.e. a hypoelastic formulation) with incrementally objective time integration and, (ii) multiplicative decomposition of deformation gradient (F = FeFp) into elastic and plastic parts, are programmed and carried out for cold-rolling within ABAQUS Explicit. Predictions from both the formulations, i.e., hypoelastic and multiplicative decomposition, exhibit a close match. We find that no specialized hyperlastic/visco-plastic model is required to describe the behavior of the blend of polymeric films, under the conditions described here, thereby speeding up the computation process .

Keywords: Polymer Plasticity, Bonding, Deformation Induced Mobility, Rolling

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2837 The Effects of the Waste Plastic Modification of the Asphalt Mixture on the Permanent Deformation

Authors: Soheil Heydari, Ailar Hajimohammadi, Nasser Khalili

Abstract:

The application of plastic waste for asphalt modification is a sustainable strategy to deal with the enormous plastic waste generated each year and enhance the properties of asphalt. The modification is either practiced by the dry process or the wet process. In the dry process, plastics are added straight into the asphalt mixture, and in the wet process, they are mixed and digested into bitumen. In this article, the effects of plastic inclusion in asphalt mixture, through the dry process, on the permanent deformation of the asphalt are investigated. The main waste plastics that are usually used in asphalt modification are taken into account, which is linear, low-density polyethylene, low-density polyethylene, high-density polyethylene, and polypropylene. Also, to simulate a plastic waste stream, different grades of each virgin plastic are mixed and used. For instance, four different grades of polypropylene are mixed and used as representative of polypropylene. A precisely designed mixing condition is considered to dry-mix the plastics into the mixture such that the polymer was melted and modified by the later introduced binder. In this mixing process, plastics are first added to the hot aggregates and mixed three times in different time intervals, then bitumen is introduced, and the whole mixture is mixed three times in fifteen minutes intervals. Marshall specimens were manufactured, and dynamic creep tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of modification on the permanent deformation of the asphalt mixture. Dynamic creep is a common repeated loading test conducted at different stress levels and temperatures. Loading cycles are applied to the AC specimen until failure occurs; with the amount of deformation constantly recorded, the cumulative, permanent strain is determined and reported as a function of the number of cycles. The results of this study showed that the dry inclusion of the waste plastics is very effective in enhancing the resistance against permanent deformation of the mixture. However, the mixing process must be precisely engineered to melt the plastics, and a homogenous mixture is achieved.

Keywords: permanent deformation, waste plastics, low-density polyethene, high-density polyethene, polypropylene, linear low-density polyethene, dry process

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2836 Numerical Investigation of Material Behavior During Non-Equal Channel Multi Angular Extrusion

Authors: Mohamed S. El-Asfoury, Ahmed Abdel-Moneim, Mohamed N. A. Nasr

Abstract:

The current study uses finite element modeling to investigate and analyze a modified form of the from the conventional equal channel multi-angular pressing (ECMAP), using non-equal channels, on the workpiece material plastic deformation. The modified process non-equal channel multi-angular extrusion (NECMAE) is modeled using two-dimensional plane strain finite element model built using the commercial software ABAQUS. The workpiece material used is pure aluminum. The model was first validated by comparing its results to analytical solutions for single-pass equal channel angular extrusion (ECAP), as well as previously published data. After that, the model was used to examine the effects of different % of reductions of the area (for the second stage) on material plastic deformation, corner gap, and required the load. Three levels of reduction in the area were modeled; 10%, 30%, and 50%, and compared to single-pass and double-pass ECAP. Cases with a higher reduction in the area were found to have smaller corner gaps, higher and much uniform plastic deformation, as well as higher required loads. The current results are mainly attributed to the back pressure effects exerted by the second stage, as well as strain hardening effects experienced during the first stage.

Keywords: non-equal channel angular extrusion, multi-pass, sever plastic deformation, back pressure, Finite Element Modelling (FEM)

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2835 Stabilization of Fly Ash Slope Using Plastic Recycled Polymer and Finite Element Analysis Using Plaxis 3D

Authors: Tushar Vasant Salunkhe, Sariput M. Nawghare, Maheboobsab B. Nadaf, Sushovan Dutta, J. N. Mandal

Abstract:

The model tests were conducted in the laboratory without and with plastic recycled polymer in fly ash steep slopes overlaying soft foundation soils like fly ash and power soil in order to check the stability of steep slope. In this experiment, fly ash is used as a filling material, and Plastic Recycled Polymers of diameter = 3mm and length = 4mm were made from the waste plastic product (lower grade plastic product). The properties of fly ash and plastic recycled polymers are determined. From the experiments, load and settlement have measured. From these data, load–settlement curves have been reported. It has been observed from test results that the load carrying capacity of mixture fly ash with Plastic Recycled Polymers slope is more than that of fly ash slope. The deformation of Plastic Recycled Polymers slope is slightly more than that of fly ash slope. A Finite Element Method (F.E.M.) was also evaluated using PLAXIS 3D version. The failure pattern, deformations and factor of safety are reported based on analytical programme. The results from experimental data and analytical programme are compared and reported.

Keywords: factor of safety, finite element method (FEM), fly ash, plastic recycled polymer

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2834 Impacts of Low-Density Polyethylene (Plastic Shopping Bags) on Structural Strength and Permeability of Hot-Mix-Asphalt Pavements

Authors: Chayanon Boonyuid

Abstract:

This paper experiments the effects of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) on the structural strength and permeability of hot-mix-asphalt (HMA) pavements. Different proportions of bitumen (4%, 4.5%, 5%, 5.5% and 6% of total aggregates) and plastic (5%, 10% and 15% of bitumen) contents in HMA mixtures were investigated to estimate the optimum mixture of bitumen and plastic in HMA pavement with long-term performance. Marshall Tests and Falling Head Tests were performed to experiment the structure strength and permeability of HMA mixtures with different percentages of plastic materials and bitumen. The laboratory results show that the optimum binder content was 5.5% by weight of aggregates with higher contents of plastic materials, increase structural stability, reduce permanent deformation, increase ductility, and improve fatigue life of HMA pavements. The use of recycled plastic shopping bags can reduce the use of bitumen content by 0.5% - 1% in HMA mixtures resulting in cheaper material costs with better long-term performance. The plastic materials increase the impermeability of HMA pavements. This study has two-fold contributions: optimum contents of both bitumen and plastic materials in HMA mixtures and the impacts of plastic materials on the permeability of HMA pavements.

Keywords: plastic bags, bitumen, structural strength, permeability

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2833 Residual Plastic Deformation Capacity in Reinforced Concrete Beams Subjected to Drop Weight Impact Test

Authors: Morgan Johansson, Joosef Leppanen, Mathias Flansbjer, Fabio Lozano, Josef Makdesi

Abstract:

Concrete is commonly used for protective structures and how impact loading affects different types of concrete structures is an important issue. Often the knowledge gained from static loading is also used in the design of impulse loaded structures. A large plastic deformation capacity is essential to obtain a large energy absorption in an impulse loaded structure. However, the structural response of an impact loaded concrete beam may be very different compared to a statically loaded beam. Consequently, the plastic deformation capacity and failure modes of the concrete structure can be different when subjected to dynamic loads; and hence it is not sure that the observations obtained from static loading are also valid for dynamic loading. The aim of this paper is to investigate the residual plastic deformation capacity in reinforced concrete beams subjected to drop weight impact tests. A test-series consisting of 18 simply supported beams (0.1 x 0.1 x 1.18 m, ρs = 0.7%) with a span length of 1.0 m and subjected to a point load in the beam mid-point, was carried out. 2x6 beams were first subjected to drop weight impact tests, and thereafter statically tested until failure. The drop in weight had a mass of 10 kg and was dropped from 2.5 m or 5.0 m. During the impact tests, a high-speed camera was used with 5 000 fps and for the static tests, a camera was used with 0.5 fps. Digital image correlation (DIC) analyses were conducted and from these the velocities of the beam and the drop weight, as well as the deformations and crack propagation of the beam, were effectively measured. Additionally, for the static tests, the applied load and midspan deformation were measured. The load-deformation relations for the beams subjected to an impact load were compared with 6 reference beams that were subjected to static loading only. The crack pattern obtained were compared using DIC, and it was concluded that the resulting crack formation depended much on the test method used. For the static tests, only bending cracks occurred. For the impact loaded beams, though, distinctive diagonal shear cracks also formed below the zone of impact and less wide shear cracks were observed in the region half-way to the support. Furthermore, due to wave propagation effects, bending cracks developed in the upper part of the beam during initial loading. The results showed that the plastic deformation capacity increased for beams subjected to drop weight impact tests from a high drop height of 5.0 m. For beams subjected to an impact from a low drop height of 2.5 m, though, the plastic deformation capacity was in the same order of magnitude as for the statically loaded reference beams. The beams tested were designed to fail due to bending when subjected to a static load. However, for the impact tested beams, one beam exhibited a shear failure at a significantly reduced load level when it was tested statically; indicating that there might be a risk of reduced residual load capacity for impact loaded structures.

Keywords: digital image correlation (DIC), drop weight impact, experiments, plastic deformation capacity, reinforced concrete

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2832 Effect of Plastic Deformation on the Carbide-Free Bainite Transformation in Medium C-Si Steel

Authors: Mufath Zorgani, Carlos Garcia-Mateo, Mohammad Jahazi

Abstract:

In this study, the influence of pre-strained austenite on the extent of isothermal bainite transformation in medium-carbon, high-silicon steel was investigated. Different amounts of deformations were applied at 600°C on the austenite right before quenching to the region, where isothermal bainitic transformation is activated. Four different temperatures of 325, 350, 375, and 400°C considering similar holding time 1800s at each temperature, were selected to investigate the extent of isothermal bainitic transformation. The results showed that the deformation-free austenite transforms to the higher volume fraction of CFB bainite when the isothermal transformation temperature reduced from 400 to 325°C, the introduction of plastic deformation in austenite prior to the formation of bainite invariably involves a delay of the same or identical isothermal treatment. On the other side, when the isothermal transformation temperature and deformation increases, the volume fraction and the plate thickness of bainite decreases and the amount of retained austenite increases. The shape of retained austenite is mostly representing blocky-shape one due to the less amount of transformed bainite. Moreover, the plate-like shape bainite cannot be resolved when the deformation amount reached 30%, and the isothermal transformation temperatures are of 375 and 400°C. The amount of retained austenite and the percentage of its transformation to martensite during the final cooling stage play a significant role in the variation of hardness level for different thermomechanical regimes.

Keywords: ausforming, carbide free bainite, dilatometry, microstructure

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2831 Elastoplastic Modified Stillinger Weber-Potential Based Discretized Virtual Internal Bond and Its Application to the Dynamic Fracture Propagation

Authors: Dina Kon Mushid, Kabutakapua Kakanda, Dibu Dave Mbako

Abstract:

The failure of material usually involves elastoplastic deformation and fracturing. Continuum mechanics can effectively deal with plastic deformation by using a yield function and the flow rule. At the same time, it has some limitations in dealing with the fracture problem since it is a theory based on the continuous field hypothesis. The lattice model can simulate the fracture problem very well, but it is inadequate for dealing with plastic deformation. Based on the discretized virtual internal bond model (DVIB), this paper proposes a lattice model that can account for plasticity. DVIB is a lattice method that considers material to comprise bond cells. Each bond cell may have any geometry with a finite number of bonds. The two-body or multi-body potential can characterize the strain energy of a bond cell. The two-body potential leads to the fixed Poisson ratio, while the multi-body potential can overcome the limitation of the fixed Poisson ratio. In the present paper, the modified Stillinger-Weber (SW), a multi-body potential, is employed to characterize the bond cell energy. The SW potential is composed of two parts. One part is the two-body potential that describes the interatomic interactions between particles. Another is the three-body potential that represents the bond angle interactions between particles. Because the SW interaction can represent the bond stretch and bond angle contribution, the SW potential-based DVIB (SW-DVIB) can represent the various Poisson ratios. To embed the plasticity in the SW-DVIB, the plasticity is considered in the two-body part of the SW potential. It is done by reducing the bond stiffness to a lower level once the bond reaches the yielding point. While before the bond reaches the yielding point, the bond is elastic. When the bond deformation exceeds the yielding point, the bond stiffness is softened to a lower value. When unloaded, irreversible deformation occurs. With the bond length increasing to a critical value, termed the failure bond length, the bond fails. The critical failure bond length is related to the cell size and the macro fracture energy. By this means, the fracture energy is conserved so that the cell size sensitivity problem is relieved to a great extent. In addition, the plasticity and the fracture are also unified at the bond level. To make the DVIB able to simulate different Poisson ratios, the three-body part of the SW potential is kept elasto-brittle. The bond angle can bear the moment before the bond angle increment is smaller than a critical value. By this method, the SW-DVIB can simulate the plastic deformation and the fracturing process of material with various Poisson ratios. The elastoplastic SW-DVIB is used to simulate the plastic deformation of a material, the plastic fracturing process, and the tunnel plastic deformation. It has been shown that the current SW-DVIB method is straightforward in simulating both elastoplastic deformation and plastic fracture.

Keywords: lattice model, discretized virtual internal bond, elastoplastic deformation, fracture, modified stillinger-weber potential

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2830 On Definition of Modulus of Deformation of Ground by Laboratory Method

Authors: Olgha Giorgishvili

Abstract:

The work is mainly concerned with the determination of modulus of deformation by laboratory method. It is known that a modulus of deformation is defining by laboratory and field methods. By laboratory method the modulus of deformation is defined in the compressive devices. Our goal is to conduct experiments by both methods and finally make to interpret the obtained results. In this article is considered the definition by new offered laboratory method of deformation modulus that is closer to the real deformation modulus. Finally, the obtained results gives the possibility to us to raise the issue of change the state norms for determining ground by laboratory method.

Keywords: building, soil mechanic, deformation moulus, compression methods

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2829 Algorithms of ABS-Plastic Extrusion

Authors: Dmitrii Starikov, Evgeny Rybakov, Denis Zhuravlev

Abstract:

Plastic for 3D printing is very necessary material part for printers. But plastic production is technological process, which implies application of different control algorithms. Possible algorithms of providing set diameter of plastic fiber are proposed and described in the article. Results of research were proved by existing unit of filament production.

Keywords: ABS-plastic, automation, control system, extruder, filament, PID-algorithm

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2828 Evaluation of Fracture Resistance and Moisture Damage of Hot Mix Asphalt Using Plastic Coated Aggregates

Authors: Malleshappa Japagal, Srinivas Chitragar

Abstract:

The use of waste plastic in pavement is becoming important alternative worldwide for disposal of plastic as well as to improve the stability of pavement and to meet out environmental issues. However, there are still concerns on fatigue and fracture resistance of Hot Mix Asphalt with the addition of plastic waste, (HMA-Plastic mixes) and moisture damage potential. The present study was undertaken to evaluate fracture resistance of HMA-Plastic mixes using semi-circular bending (SCB) test and moisture damage potential by Indirect Tensile strength (ITS) test using retained tensile strength (TSR). In this study, a dense graded asphalt mix with 19 mm nominal maximum aggregate size was designed in the laboratory using Marshall Mix design method. Aggregates were coated with different percentages of waste plastic (0%, 2%, 3% and 4%) by weight of aggregate and performance evaluation of fracture resistance and Moisture damage was carried out. The following parameters were estimated for the mixes: J-Integral or Jc, strain energy at failure, peak load at failure, and deformation at failure. It was found that the strain energy and peak load of all the mixes decrease with an increase in notch depth, indicating that increased percentage of plastic waste gave better fracture resistance. The moisture damage potential was evaluated by Tensile strength ratio (TSR). The experimental results shown increased TRS value up to 3% addition of waste plastic in HMA mix which gives better performance hence the use of waste plastic in road construction is favorable.

Keywords: hot mix asphalt, semi circular bending, marshall mix design, tensile strength ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 239