Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: clotting

17 Assay of Formulation of Fresh Cheese Using Lemon and Orange Juices as Clotting Agents

Authors: F. Bouchouka, S. Benamara

Abstract:

The present work is an attempt to prepare a fresh cheese using lemon juice and lemon juice / orange juice mixture as acidifying / clotting agents. A reference cheese is obtained by acidification with commercial vinegar. The analysis performed on the final product (fat, cheese yield, sensory analysis, rheological and bacteriological properties) confirmed the technical feasibility of a natural cheese, using a lemon juice and / or lemon juice / orange juice mixture as acidifying / clotting agents. In addition, a general acceptance test allowed to select the cheese sample acidified with lemon juice as the best, compared to the two other samples (lemon juice/orange juice acidification and commercial vinegar acidification).

Keywords: clotting agent, fresh cheese, juice, lemon, orange

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16 Effectiveness of Micania micrantha Extract on Woven Wound Dressing Materials

Authors: Md. Lutfor Rahman, Shaikh Md. Mominul Alam

Abstract:

Sometimes it causes external bleeding when human skin gets seriously injured. Natural source-based blood-clotting bandages are rarely used. The available chemically treated blood clotting materials sometimes show adverse effects and are not effective in quick recovery. Considering these facts, a new blood clotting woven wound dressing product has been developed which is a combination of Micania micrantha extract with woven fabric by absorption process. This product can be represented as an important addition to medical textiles. To develop a dressing material, Micania micrantha leaf juice was applied on bleached woven fabric, followed by sun drying. The effectiveness of this woven sample was tested on volunteers. It was observed that Micania micrantha containing woven sample has a tremendous effect over conventional wound dressing materials. This result is a milestone for the textile and medical sector.

Keywords: blood clotting, Micania micrantha, medical textiles, woven fabric

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15 Antimicrobial and Haemostatic Effect of Chitosan/Polyacrylic Acid Hybrid Membranes

Authors: F. A. Abdel-Mohdy, M. K. El-Bisi, A. Abou-Okeil, A. A. Sleem, S. El-Sabbagh, Kawther El-Shafei, Hoda S. El-Sayed, S. M. ElSawy

Abstract:

Chitosan/ polyacrylic acid membranes containing different amounts of Al2(SO4) and/or TiO2 were prepared. The prepared membranes were characterized by measuring mechanical properties, such as tensile strength and elongation at break, swelling properties, antimicrobial properties against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and blood clotting. The results obtained indicate that the presence of Al2(SO4) and TiO2 in the membrane formulations have an incremental effect on the antimicrobial properties and blood clotting in albino rate.

Keywords: Chitosan, acrylic acid, antibacterial, blood clotting, membrane

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14 Potentialities of Onopordum Tauricum (Willd.) as Milk Clotting Agent

Authors: Massimo Mozzon, Nadia Raffaelli

Abstract:

Proteases from herbs, woody plants, and trees are exploited for cheesemaking in several countries, especially in South Europe and West Africa. Particularly, “thistles” belonging to several genera within the Asteraceae family (Cynara, Silybum, Centaurea, Carlina, Cirsium, Onopordum) are traditionally used in Mediterranean countries for clotting raw ewe’s and goat’s milk. For the first time, the clotting performance of an aqueous extract from flowers of Onopordum tauricum Willd. (Taurian thistle, bull cottonthistle) were tested in milk of different origin (cow, goat, ewe). The vegetable material was collected in the Central Apennines range, between the Marche and Umbria regions. A response surface methodology (RSM) approach was used to study the effect of the curdling variables (temperature, pH, amount of enzymatic extract) on the technological performance of the thistle extract. A three-step procedure for the purification of the enzyme (ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography) was also carried out. The milk clotting activity (MCA) of O. tauricum crude extracts was strongly affected by temperature, pH and by the interaction between these two variables, according to a second-order response surface model, while the milk/coagulant ratio did not affect in a significant way the clotting properties. Experimental data showed that the addition of 10 mM CaCl2 reduced the clotting time of ewe’s, goat’s, and cow’s milk by about 3-fold, 8-fold, and 14-fold, respectively, at 35°C and pH 6.7-6.8. After purification, an enzymatic preparation very close to homogeneity was obtained, which showed a major band at about 30 kDa when analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The identity of the enzyme as an aspartic protease was confirmed by inhibition studies. Cheese-making trials were carried out to check the scale-up (1 to 5 L of milk; 37 °C; 10 mM CaCl2 fortification) and set the recipe: 35-45% of curd yields were recorded, according to curd cutting and pressing.

Keywords: milk clotting activity, Onopordum tauricum, plant proteases, vegetable rennet

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13 In vivo Determination of Anticoagulant Property of the Tentacle Extract of Aurelia aurita (Moon Jellyfish) Using Sprague-Dawley Rats

Authors: Bea Carmel H. Casiding, Charmaine A. Guy, Funny Jovis P. Malasan, Katrina Chelsea B. Manlutac, Danielle Ann N. Novilla, Marianne R. Oliveros, Magnolia C. Sibulo

Abstract:

Moon jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, has become a popular research organism for diverse studies. Recent studies have verified the prevention of blood clotting properties of the moon jellyfish tentacle extract through in vitro methods. The purpose of this study was to validate the blood clotting ability of A. aurita tentacle extract using in vivo method of experimentation. The tentacles of A. aurita jellyfish were excised and filtered then centrifuged at 3000xg for 10 minutes. The crude nematocyst extract was suspended in 1:6 ratios with phosphate buffer solution and sonicated for three periods of 20 seconds each at 50 Hz. Protein concentration of the extract was determined using Bradford Assay. Bovine serum albumin was the standard solution used with the following concentrations: 35.0, 70.0, 105.0, 140.0, 175.0, 210.0, 245.0, and 280.0 µg/mL. The absorbance was read at 595 nm. Toxicity testing from OECD guidelines was adapted. The extract suspended in phosphate-buffered saline solution was arbitrarily set into three doses (0.1mg/kg, 0.3mg/kg, 0.5mg/kg) and were administered daily for five days to the experimental groups of five male Sprague-Dawley rats (one dose per group). Before and after the administration period, bleeding time and clotting time tests were performed. The One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the difference of before and after bleeding time and clotting time from the three treatment groups, time, positive and negative control groups. The average protein concentration of the sonicated crude tentacle extract was 206.5 µg/mL. The highest dose administered (0.5mg/kg) produced significant increase in the time for both bleeding and clotting tests. However, the preceding lower dose (0.3mg/kg) only was significantly effective for clotting time test. The protein contained in the tentacle extract with a concentration of 206.5 mcg/mL and dose of 0.3 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg of A. aurita elicited anticoagulating activity.

Keywords: anticoagulant, bleeding time test, clotting time test, moon jellyfish

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12 Ability of Gastric Enzyme Extract of Adult Camel to Clot Bovine Milk

Authors: Boudjenah-Haroun Saliha, Isselnane Souad, Nouani Abdelwahab, Baaissa Babelhadj, Mati Abderrahmane

Abstract:

Algeria is experiencing significant development of the dairy sector, where consumption of milk and milk products increased by 2.7 million tons in 2008 to 4,400,000 tons in 2013, and cheese production has reached 1640 tons in the year 2014 with average consumption of 0.7 kg/person/year. Although rennet is still the most used coagulating enzyme in cheese, its production has been growing worldwide shortage. This shortage is primarily due to a growing increase in the production and consumption of cheese, and the inability to increase in parallel the production of rennet. This shortage has caused very large fluctuations in its price). To overcome these obstacles, much research has been undertaken to find effective and competitive substitutes used industrially. For this, the selection of a local production of rennet substitute is desirable. It would allow a permanent supply with limited dependence on imports and price fluctuations. Investigations conducted by our research team showed that extracts coagulants from the stomachs of older camels are characterized by a coagulating power than those from younger camels. The objective of this work is to study the possibility of substituting commercial rennet coagulant by gastric enzymes from adult camels for coagulation bovine milk. Excerpts from the raw camel coagulants obtained are characterized through their teneures proteins and clotting and proteolytic activities. Milk clotting conditions by the action of these extracts were optimized. Milk clotting time all treated with enzyme preparations and under different conditions was calculated. Bovine rennet has been used for comparison. The results show that crude extracts from gastric adult camel can be good substituting bovine rennet.

Keywords: Algeria, camel, cheese, coagulation, gastric extracts, milk

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11 Evaluation of Lactobacillus helveticus as an Adjunct Culture for Removal of Bitterness in Iranian White-Brined Cheese

Authors: F. Nejati, Sh. Dokhani

Abstract:

Bitterness is a flavor defect encountered in some cheeses, such as Iranian white brined cheese and is responsible for reducing acceptability of the cheeses. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of an adjunct culture on removal of bitterness fro, Iranian white-brined cheese. The chemical and proteolysis characteristics of the cheese were also monitored. Bitter cheeses were made using overdose of clotting enzyme with and without L. helveticus CH-1 as an adjunct culture. Cheese made with normal doses of clotting enzyme was used as the control. Adjunct culture was applied in two different forms: attenuated and non-attenuated. Proteolysis was assessed by measuring the amount of water soluble nitrogen, 12% trichloroacetic acid soluble nitrogen and total free amino acids during ripening. A taste panel group also evaluated the cheeses at the end of ripening period. Results of the statistical analysis showed that the adjunct caused considerable proteolysis and the level of water soluble nitrogen and 12% soluble nitrogen fractions were found to be significantly higher in the treatment involving L. helveticus (respectively P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). Regarding to organoleptic evaluations, the non-shocked adjunct culture caused reduction in bitterness and enhancement of flavor in cheese.

Keywords: bitterness, Iranian white brined cheese, Lactobacillus helveticus, ripening

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10 Lactobacillus Helveticus as an Adjunct Culture for Removal of Bitterness in White-Brined Cheese

Authors: Fatemeh Nejati, Shahram Dokhani

Abstract:

Bitterness is a flavor defect encountered in some cheeses, such as Iranian white brined cheese and is responsible for reducing acceptability of the cheeses. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of an adjunct culture on removal of bitterness fro, Iranian white-brined cheese. The chemical and proteolysis characteristics of the cheese were also monitored. Bitter cheeses were made using overdose of clotting enzyme with and without L. helveticus CH-1 as an adjunct culture. Cheese made with normal doses of clotting enzyme was used as the control. Adjunct culture was applied in two different forms: attenuated and non-attenuated. Proteolysis was assessed by measuring the amount of water soluble nitrogen, 12% trichloroacetic acid soluble nitrogen and total free amino acids during ripening. A taste panel group also evaluated the cheeses at the end of ripening period. Results of the statistical analysis showed that the adjunct caused considerable proteolysis and the level of water soluble nitrogen and 12% soluble nitrogen fractions were found to be significantly higher in the treatment involving L. helveticus (respectively P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). Regarding to organoleptic evaluations, the non-shocked adjunct culture caused reduction in bitterness and enhancement of flavor in cheese.

Keywords: Bitterness, Iranian white brined Cheese, Lactobacillus helveticus, Ripening

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9 Keratin Fiber Fabrication from Biowaste for Biomedical Application

Authors: Ashmita Mukherjee, Yogesh Harishchandra Kabutare, Suritra Bandyopadhyay, Paulomi Ghosh

Abstract:

Uncontrolled bleeding in the battlefield and the operation rooms can lead to serious injuries, trauma and even be lethal. Keratin was reported to be a haemostatic material which rapidly activates thrombin followed by activation of fibrinogen leading to the formation of insoluble fibrin. Also platelets, the main initiator of haemostasis are reported to adhere to keratin. However, the major limitation of pure keratin as a biomaterial is its poor physical property and corresponding low mechanical strength. To overcome this problem, keratin was cross-linked with alginate to increase its mechanical stability. In our study, Keratin extracted from feather waste showed yield of 80.5% and protein content of 8.05 ± 0.43 mg/mL (n=3). FTIR and CD spectroscopy confirmed the presence of the essential functional groups and preservation of the secondary structures of keratin. The keratin was then cross-linked with alginate to make a dope. The dope was used to draw fibers of desired diameters in a suitable coagulation bath using a customized wet spinning setup. The resultant morphology of keratin fibers was observed under a brightfield microscope. The FT-IR analysis implied that there was a presence of both keratin and alginate peaks in the fibers. The cross-linking was confirmed in the keratin alginate fibers by a shift of the amide A and amide B peaks towards the right and disappearance of the peak for N-H stretching (1534.68 cm-1). Blood was drawn in citrate vacutainers for whole blood clotting test and blood clotting kinetics, which showed that the keratin fibers could accelerate blood coagulation compared to that of alginate fibers and tissue culture plate. Additionally, cross-linked keratin-alginate fiber was found to have lower haemolytic potential compared to alginate fiber. Thus, keratin cross-linked fibers can have potential applications to combat unrestrained bleeding.

Keywords: biomaterial, biowaste, fiber, keratin

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8 Properties Soft Cheese as Diversification of Dangke: A Natural Cheese of South Sulawesi Indonesia

Authors: Ratmawati Malaka, Effendi Abustam, Kusumandari Indah Prahesti, Sudirman Baco

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Dangke is natural cheese from Enrekang South Sulawesi, Indonesia produced through aglutination buffalo milk, cow, goat or sheep using the sap of papaya (Carica papaya). Dangke has been widely known in South Sulawesi but this soft cheese product diversification by using passion fruit juice as milk clotting agents has not been used. Passion fruit juice has a high acidity with a pH of around 4 - 4.5 and has a proteolytic enzyme, so that it can be used to agglutinate milk. The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature Dangke using passion fruit juice as coagulate milk. Dangke made by 10 lt of raw milk by heating at a temperature of 73oC with coagulant passion fruit juice (7.5% and 10%), and added 1% salt. Curd clot and then be formed using a coconut shell, is then pressed until the cheese is compact. The cheese is then observed for 28 days ripening at a temperature of about 5 ° C. Dangke then studied to violence, pH, fat levels and microstructure. Hardness is determined using CD-shear Force, pH is measured using a pH meter Hanna, and fat concentrations were analyzed with methods of proximate. Microstructure viewed using a light microscope with magnification 1000 x. The results showed that the levels of clotting material very significant influence on hardness, pH, and lipid levels. Maturation increase the hardness but lower the pH, the level of fat soft cheese with an average Dangke respectively 21.4% and 30.5% on 7.5% addition of passion fruit juice and 10%. Dangke violence is increasing with the increasing maturation time (1.38 to 3.73 kg / cm), but Dangke pH was decreased by the increase in storage maturation (5.34 to 4.1). Microktrukture cheeses coagulated with 10% of the passion fruit are very firmer and compact with a full globular fat of 7.5%. But the sensory properties of the soft cheese similar in both treatment. The manufacturing process with the addition of coagulant passion fruit juice on making Dangke affect hardness, pH, fat content and microstructure during storage at 5 ° C for 1 d - 28 d.

Keywords: dangke, passion fruits, microstructure, cheese

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7 HPTLC Fingerprint Profiling of Protorhus longifolia Methanolic Leaf Extract and Qualitative Analysis of Common Biomarkers

Authors: P. S. Seboletswe, Z. Mkhize, L. M. Katata-Seru

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Protorhus longifolia is known as a medicinal plant that has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as hemiplegic paralysis, blood clotting related diseases, diarrhoea, heartburn, etc. The study reports a High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint profile of Protorhus longifolia methanolic extract and its qualitative analysis of gallic acid, rutin, and quercetin. HPTLC analysis was achieved using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with CAMAG automatic TLC sampler 4, CAMAG Automatic Developing Chamber 2 (ADC2), CAMAG visualizer 2, CAMAG Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) scanner and visionCATS CAMAG HPTLC software. Mobile phase comprising toluene, ethyl acetate, formic acid (21:15:3) was used for qualitative analysis of gallic acid and revealed eight peaks while the mobile phase containing ethyl acetate, water, glacial acetic acid, formic acid (100:26:11:11) for qualitative analysis of rutin and quercetin revealed six peaks. HPTLC sillica gel 60 F254 glass plates (10 × 10) were used as the stationary phase. Gallic acid was detected at the Rf = 0.35; while rutin and quercetin were not evident in the extract. Further studies will be performed to quantify gallic acid in Protorhus longifolia leaves and also identify other biomarkers.

Keywords: biomarkers, fingerprint profiling, gallic acid, HPTLC, Protorhus longifolia

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6 Use of High Hydrostatic Pressure as an Alternative Preservation Method in Camels Milk

Authors: Fahad Aljasass, Hamza Abu-Tarboush, Salah Aleid, Siddig Hamad

Abstract:

The effects of different high hydrostatic pressure treatments on the shelf life of camel’s milk were studied. Treatments at 300 to 350 MPa for 5 minutes at 40°C reduced microbial contamination to levels that prolonged the shelf life of refrigerated (3° C) milk up to 28 days. The treatment resulted in a decrease in the proteolytic activity of the milk. The content of proteolytic enzymes in the untreated milk sample was 4.23 µM/ml. This content decreased significantly to 3.61 µM/ml when the sample was treated at 250 MPa. Treatment at 300 MPa decreased the content to 3.90 which was not significantly different from the content of the untreated sample. The content of the sample treated at 350 MPa dropped to 2.98 µM/ml which was significantly lower than the contents of all other treated and untreated samples. High pressure treatment caused a slight but statistically significant increase in the pH of camel’s milk. The pH of the untreated sample was 6.63, which increased significantly to 6.70, in the samples treated at 250 and 350 MPa, but insignificantly in the sample treated at 300 MPa. High pressure treatment resulted in some degree of milk fat oxidation. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value of the untreated sample was 0.86 mg malonaldehyde/kg milk. This value remained unchanged in the sample treated at 250 MPa, but then it increased significantly to 1.25 and 1.33 mg/kg in the samples treated at 300 and 350 MPa, respectively. High pressure treatment caused a small increase in the greenness (a* value) of camel’s milk. The value of a* was reduced from -1.17 for the untreated sample to -1.26, -1.21 and -1.30 for the samples treated at 250, 300 and 350 MPa, respectively. Δa* at the 250 MPa treatment was -0.09, which then decreased to -0.04 at the 300 MPa treatment to increase again to -0.13 at the 350 MPa treatment. The yellowness (b* value) of camel’s milk increased significantly as a result of high pressure treatment. The b* value of the untreated sample was 1.40, this value increased to 2.73, 2.31 and 2.18 after treatments at 250, 300 and 350 MPa, respectively. The Δb* value was +1.33 at the treatment 250 MPa, decreased to +0.91 at 300 MPa and further to +0.78 at 350 MPa. The pressure treatment caused slight effect on color, slight decrease in protease activity and a slight increase in the oxidation products of lipids.

Keywords: high hydrostatic pressure, camel’s milk, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, clotting, protease

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5 Phyto-Therapeutic, Functional and Nutritional Acclaims of Turnip (Brassica rapus L.): An Overview

Authors: Tabussam Tufail

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Purpose: The core purpose of the current review article is to elaborate the phytochemicals present in turnip (brassica rapus l.) and also allied health claims. Plant-based foods contain a significant amount of bioactive compounds which provide desirable health benefits beyond the basic nutrition. Epidemiological evidence suggests that consumption of a diet rich in vegetables and fruits has positive implications for human health. Design: Potential of turnip peroxidase (TP) for the treatment of phenolic-contaminated solutions has been reviewed. However, issues of taste along with behavioral nutrition ought to be considered. So in the last decades, special attention has been paid towards edible plants, especially those that are rich in secondary metabolites (frequently called phytochemicals) and nowadays, there is an increasing interest in the antioxidant activity of such phytochemicals present in the diet. These chemicals favor nutritional and phytotherapy that is emerging as new concepts of health aid in recent years. Turnip is rich in these valuable ingredients though it can be employed as having health promoting and healing properties. Findings: Numerous bioactive components i.e. organic acids, phenolic compounds, turnip peroxidase, kaempeferol, vitamin-K, etc. are present in turnip. The review focused on the significance of plant derived (especially turnip) phenolic compounds as a source of certain beneficial compounds for human health. Owing to the presence of bioactive moieties, the turnip has high antioxidant activity, positive role in blood clotting, effectual in phenobarbital-induced sleeping time, effective against hepatic injury in diabetics and also have a good hepatoprotective role. Strong recommendations for consumption of nutraceuticals from turnip have become progressively popular to improve health, and to prevent from diseases.

Keywords: phytochemicals, turnip, antioxidants, health benefits

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4 Safety Assessment of Tuberous Roots of Boerhaavia diffusa Root Extract: Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity Studies

Authors: Surender Singh, Yogendra Kumar Gupta

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Boerhaavia diffusa (BD) Linn. belonging to family Nyctaginaceae is a herbaceous plant and known as ‘punarnava’ in Hindi, used as herbal medicine for pain relief and various ailments. It is widely used as a green leafy vegetable in many Asian and African countries. The objective of present study was to investigate potential adverse effects, if any, of standardized root extract of Boerhaavia diffusa in rats following subchronic administration. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was found at a dose of 2000mg/kg which indicates that oral LD50 of Boerhaavia diffusa root extract is more than 2000mg/kg. The chronic administration of Boerhaavia diffusa for 28 days at a dose of 1000mg/kg body weight did not produce any significant changes in hematological (RBC, WBC, platelets, hemoglobin, bleeding time, clotting time) and biochemical (triglycerides, blood glucose, high density lipoprotein, serum creatinine, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase) parameters of male and female rats as compared to normal control group. All the animals survived until the scheduled necropsy, and their physical and behavioral examinations did not reveal any treatment-related adverse effects. No pathological changes were observed in histological section of heart, kidney, liver, testis, ovaries and brain of Boerhaavia diffusa treated male and female rats as compared to normal control animals.These observations from oral acute toxicitystudy suggest that the extract is practically non-toxic. Thus, it can be inferred that the Boerhaavia diffusa root extract at levels up to 1000 mg/kg/day was found to be safe and does not cause adverse effects in rats. So, the no-observed effect level (NOAEL) of the extract was found to be 1000mg/kg/day.

Keywords: Boerhaavia diffusa, histology, toxicity, sub-acute

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3 Evaluation of Natural Gums: Gum Tragacanth, Xanthan Gum, Guar Gum and Gum Acacia as Potential Hemostatic Agents

Authors: Himanshu Kushwah, Nidhi Sandal, Meenakshi K. Chauhan, Gaurav Mittal

Abstract:

Excessive bleeding is the primary factor of avoidable death in both civilian trauma centers as well as the military battlefield. Hundreds of Indian troops die every year due to blood loss caused by combat-related injuries. These deaths are avoidable and can be prevented to a large extent by making available a suitable hemostatic dressing in an emergency medical kit. In this study, natural gums were evaluated as potential hemostatic agents in combination with calcium gluconate. The study compares the hemostatic activity of Gum Tragacanth (GT), Guar Gum (GG), Xanthan Gum (XG) and Gum Acacia (GA) by carrying out different in-vitro and in-vivo studies. In-vitro studies were performed using the Lee-White method and Eustrek method, which includes the visual and microscopic analysis of blood clotting. MTT assay was also performed using human lymphocytes to check the cytotoxicity of the gums. The in-vivo studies were performed in Sprague Dawley rats using tail bleeding assay to evaluate the hemostatic efficacy of the gums and compared with a commercially available hemostatic sponge, Surgispon. Erythrocyte agglutination test was also performed to check the interaction between blood cells and the natural gums. Other parameters like blood loss, adherence strength of the developed hemostatic dressing material incorporating these gums, re-bleeding, and survival of the animals were also studied. The data obtained from the MTT assay showed that Guar gum, Gum Tragacanth, and Gum Acacia were not significantly cytotoxic, but substantial cytotoxicity was observed in Xanthan gum samples at high concentrations. Also, Xanthan gum took the least time with its minimum concentration to achieve hemostasis, (approximately 50 seconds at 3mg concentration). Gum Tragacanth also showed efficient hemostasis at a concentration of 35mg at the same time, but the other two gums tested were not able to clot the blood in significantly less time. A sponge dressing made of Tragacanth gum was found to be more efficient in achieving hemostasis and showed better practical applicability among all the gums studied and also when compared to the commercially available product, Surgispon, thus making it a potentially better alternative.

Keywords: cytotoxicity, hemostasis, natural gums, sponge

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2 Haematological Correlates of Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack: Lessons Learned

Authors: Himali Gunasekara, Baddika Jayaratne

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Haematological abnormalities are known to cause Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA). The identification of haematological correlates plays an important role in a management and secondary prevention. The objective of this study was to describe haematological correlates of stroke and their association between stroke profile. The haematological correlates screened were Lupus Anticoagulant, Dysfibroginemia, Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinurea (PNH), Sickle cell disease, Systemic Lupus Erythematosis (SLE) and Myeloploriferative Neoplasms (MPN). A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in a sample of 152 stroke patients referred to haematology department of National Hospital of Sri Lanka for thrombophilia screening. Different tests were performed to assess each hematological correlate. Diluted Russels Viper Venom Test and Kaolin clotting time were done to assess Lupus anticoagulant. Full blood count (FBC), blood picture, Sickling test and High Performance Liquid Chromatography were the tests used for detection of Sickle cell disease. Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinurea was assessed by FBC, blood picture, Ham test and Flowcytometry. FBC, blood picture, Janus Kinase 2 (V617F) mutation analysis, erythropoietin level and bone marrow examination were done to look for the Myeloproliferative neoplasms. Dysfibrinogenaemia was assessed by TT, fibrinogen antigen test, clot observation and clauss test. Anti nuclear antibody test was done to look for systemic lupus erythematosis. Among study sample, 134 patients had strokes and only 18 had TIA. The recurrence of stroke/TIA was observed in 13.2% of patients. The majority of patients (94.7%) have had radiological evidence of thrombotic event. One fourth of patients had past thrombotic events while 12.5% had family history of thrombosis. Out of haematological correlates screened, Lupus anticoagulant was the commonest haematological correlate (n=16 ) and dysfibrigonaemia(n=11 ) had the next high prevalence. One patient was diagnosed with Essential thrombocythaemia and one with SLE. None of the patients were positive for screening tests done for sickle cell disease and PNH. The Haematological correlates were identified in 19% of our study sample. Among stroke profile only presence of past thrombotic history was statistically significantly associated with haematological disorders (P= 0.04). Therefore, hematological disorders appear to be an important factor in etiological work-up of stroke patients particularly in patients with past thrombotic events.

Keywords: stroke, transient ischemic attack, hematological correlates, hematological disorders

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1 Cross-Validation of the Data Obtained for ω-6 Linoleic and ω-3 α-Linolenic Acids Concentration of Hemp Oil Using Jackknife and Bootstrap Resampling

Authors: Vibha Devi, Shabina Khanam

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Hemp (Cannabis sativa) possesses a rich content of ω-6 linoleic and ω-3 linolenic essential fatty acid in the ratio of 3:1, which is a rare and most desired ratio that enhances the quality of hemp oil. These components are beneficial for the development of cell and body growth, strengthen the immune system, possess anti-inflammatory action, lowering the risk of heart problem owing to its anti-clotting property and a remedy for arthritis and various disorders. The present study employs supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) approach on hemp seed at various conditions of parameters; temperature (40 - 80) °C, pressure (200 - 350) bar, flow rate (5 - 15) g/min, particle size (0.430 - 1.015) mm and amount of co-solvent (0 - 10) % of solvent flow rate through central composite design (CCD). CCD suggested 32 sets of experiments, which was carried out. As SFE process includes large number of variables, the present study recommends the application of resampling techniques for cross-validation of the obtained data. Cross-validation refits the model on each data to achieve the information regarding the error, variability, deviation etc. Bootstrap and jackknife are the most popular resampling techniques, which create a large number of data through resampling from the original dataset and analyze these data to check the validity of the obtained data. Jackknife resampling is based on the eliminating one observation from the original sample of size N without replacement. For jackknife resampling, the sample size is 31 (eliminating one observation), which is repeated by 32 times. Bootstrap is the frequently used statistical approach for estimating the sampling distribution of an estimator by resampling with replacement from the original sample. For bootstrap resampling, the sample size is 32, which was repeated by 100 times. Estimands for these resampling techniques are considered as mean, standard deviation, variation coefficient and standard error of the mean. For ω-6 linoleic acid concentration, mean value was approx. 58.5 for both resampling methods, which is the average (central value) of the sample mean of all data points. Similarly, for ω-3 linoleic acid concentration, mean was observed as 22.5 through both resampling. Variance exhibits the spread out of the data from its mean. Greater value of variance exhibits the large range of output data, which is 18 for ω-6 linoleic acid (ranging from 48.85 to 63.66 %) and 6 for ω-3 linoleic acid (ranging from 16.71 to 26.2 %). Further, low value of standard deviation (approx. 1 %), low standard error of the mean (< 0.8) and low variance coefficient (< 0.2) reflect the accuracy of the sample for prediction. All the estimator value of variance coefficients, standard deviation and standard error of the mean are found within the 95 % of confidence interval.

Keywords: resampling, supercritical fluid extraction, hemp oil, cross-validation

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