Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 432

Search results for: camel’s milk

432 Analysis of Commercial Cow and Camel Milk by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Authors: Lucia Pappalardo, Sara Abdul Majid Azzam

Abstract:

Camel milk is widely consumed by people living in arid areas of the world, where it is also known for its potential therapeutic and medical properties. Indeed it has been used as a treatment for several diseases such as tuberculosis, dropsy, asthma, jaundice and leishmaniasis in India, Sudan and some parts of Russia. A wealth of references is available in literature for the composition of milk from different diary animals such as cows, goats and sheep. Camel milk instead has not been extensively studied, despite its nutritional value. In this study commercial cow and camel milk samples, bought from the local market, were analyzed by 1D 1H-NMR and multivariate statistics in order to identify the different composition of the low-molecular-weight compounds in the milk mixtures. The samples were analyzed in their native conditions without any pre-treatment. Our preliminary study shows that the two different types of milk samples differ in the content of metabolites such as orotate, fats and more.

Keywords: camel, cow, milk, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

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431 Functional Significance of Qatari Camels Milk: Antioxidant Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Protein Fractions

Authors: Tahra ElObeid, Omnya Ahmed, Reem Al-Sharshani, Doaa Dalloul, Jannat Alnattei

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Background: Camelus dormedarius camels are also called ‘the Arabian camels’ and are present in the desert area of North Africa and the Middle East. Recently, camel’s milk has a great attention globally because of their proteins and peptides that have been reported to be beneficial for the health and in the management of many diseases. Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial activity and to evaluate the total phenolic content of camel’s milk proteins in Qatar. Methods: Fresh two camel’s milk samples from Omani breed and called Muhajer (camel’s milk A and B) were collected on the 1st of the December. Both samples were from the same location Al- Shahaniyah, Doha, Qatar, but from different local private farms and feeding system. Camel’s milk A and B were defatted by centrifugation and their proteins were extracted by acid and thermal precipitation. The antioxidant activity was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Total phenolic compound (TPC) was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR). On the other hand, the antimicrobial activity against eight different type of pathogenic bacteria was evaluated by disc diffusion method and the zone of inhibition was measured. Results: The of the total phenolic content of whole milk in both camel’s milk A and B were significantly the highest among the protein extracts. The % of the DPPH radical inhibition of casein protein in both camel’s milk A and B were significantly the highest among the protein extracts. In this study, there were marked changes in the antibacterial activity in the different camel milk protein extracts. All extracts showed bacterial overgrowth. Conclusion: The antioxidant activity of the camel milk protein extracts correlated to their unique phenolic compounds and bioactive protein peptides. The antimicrobial activity was not detected perhaps due to the technique, the quality, or the extraction method. Overall, camel's milk exhibits a high antioxidant activity, which is responsible for many health benefits besides the nutritional values.

Keywords: camels milk, antioxidant content, antimicrobial activity, proteins, Qatar

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430 Microbial Quality of Raw Camel Milk Produced in South of Morocco

Authors: Maha Alaoui Ismaili, Bouchta Saidi, Mohamed Zahar, Abed Hamama

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Thirty one samples of raw camel milk obtained from the region of Laâyoune (South of Morocco) were examined for their microbial quality and presence of some pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella sp.). pH of the samples ranged from 6.31 to 6.64 and their titratable acidity had a mean value of 18.56 °Dornic. Data obtained showed a strong microbial contamination with an average total aerobic flora of 1.76 108 ufc ml-1 and a very high fecal counts: 1.82 107 ; 3.25 106 and 3.75 106 ufc.ml-1 in average for total coliforms, fecal coliforms and enterococci respectively. Yeasts and moulds were also found at average respective levels of 3.13 106 and 1.60 105 ufc.ml-1. Salmonella sp. and S. aureus was detected respectively in 13% and 30% of the milk samples. These results indicate clearly the lack of hygienic conditions of camel milk production and storage in this region. Lactic acid bacteria were found at the following average numbers: 4.25 107 ; 4.45 107 and 3.55 107 ufc.ml-1 for Lactococci, Leuconostocs and Lactobacilli respectively.

Keywords: camel milk, microbial quality, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus

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429 Antibacterial and Anti-Biofilm Activity of Papain Hydrolysed Camel Milk Whey and Its Fractions

Authors: M. Abdel-Hamid, P. Saporito, R. V. Mateiu, A. Osman, E. Romeih, H. Jenssen

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Camel milk whey (CMW) was hydrolyzed with papain from Carica papaya and fractionated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of the CMW, Camel milk whey hydrolysate (CMWH) and the obtained SEC-fractions was assessed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). SEC-F2 (fraction 2) exhibited antibacterial effectiveness against MRSA and P. aeruginosa with the minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.31 and 0.156 mg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, SEC-F2 significantly decreased biofilm biomass by 71% and 83 % for MRSA and P. aeruginosa in a crystal violet microplate assay. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the SEC-F2 caused changes in the treated bacterial cells. Additionally, LC/MS analysis was used to characterize the peptides of SEC-F2. Two major peptides were detected in SEC-F2 having masses of 414.05 Da and 456.06 Da. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that hydrolysis of CMW with papain generates small and extremely potent antibacterial and anti-biofilm peptides against both MRSA and P. aeruginosa.

Keywords: camel milk, whey proteins, antibacterial peptide, anti-biofilm

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428 Use of High Hydrostatic Pressure as an Alternative Preservation Method in Camels Milk

Authors: Fahad Aljasass, Hamza Abu-Tarboush, Salah Aleid, Siddig Hamad

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The effects of different high hydrostatic pressure treatments on the shelf life of camel’s milk were studied. Treatments at 300 to 350 MPa for 5 minutes at 40°C reduced microbial contamination to levels that prolonged the shelf life of refrigerated (3° C) milk up to 28 days. The treatment resulted in a decrease in the proteolytic activity of the milk. The content of proteolytic enzymes in the untreated milk sample was 4.23 µM/ml. This content decreased significantly to 3.61 µM/ml when the sample was treated at 250 MPa. Treatment at 300 MPa decreased the content to 3.90 which was not significantly different from the content of the untreated sample. The content of the sample treated at 350 MPa dropped to 2.98 µM/ml which was significantly lower than the contents of all other treated and untreated samples. High pressure treatment caused a slight but statistically significant increase in the pH of camel’s milk. The pH of the untreated sample was 6.63, which increased significantly to 6.70, in the samples treated at 250 and 350 MPa, but insignificantly in the sample treated at 300 MPa. High pressure treatment resulted in some degree of milk fat oxidation. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value of the untreated sample was 0.86 mg malonaldehyde/kg milk. This value remained unchanged in the sample treated at 250 MPa, but then it increased significantly to 1.25 and 1.33 mg/kg in the samples treated at 300 and 350 MPa, respectively. High pressure treatment caused a small increase in the greenness (a* value) of camel’s milk. The value of a* was reduced from -1.17 for the untreated sample to -1.26, -1.21 and -1.30 for the samples treated at 250, 300 and 350 MPa, respectively. Δa* at the 250 MPa treatment was -0.09, which then decreased to -0.04 at the 300 MPa treatment to increase again to -0.13 at the 350 MPa treatment. The yellowness (b* value) of camel’s milk increased significantly as a result of high pressure treatment. The b* value of the untreated sample was 1.40, this value increased to 2.73, 2.31 and 2.18 after treatments at 250, 300 and 350 MPa, respectively. The Δb* value was +1.33 at the treatment 250 MPa, decreased to +0.91 at 300 MPa and further to +0.78 at 350 MPa. The pressure treatment caused slight effect on color, slight decrease in protease activity and a slight increase in the oxidation products of lipids.

Keywords: high hydrostatic pressure, camel’s milk, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, clotting, protease

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427 Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Raw Camel Milk Produced in South of Morocco

Authors: Maha Alaoui Ismaili, Bouchta Saidi, Mohamed Zahar, Abed Hamama

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112 lactic isolates were obtained from 15 samples of camel raw milk produced in Laayoune Boujdour Sakia-El Hamra region (South of Morocco). The main objective was the identification of species of lactic flora belonging to Lactococcus, Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc. Data obtained showed predominance of cocci among lactic isolates (86.6%) while lactic rods represented only 13.4%. With regard to genera identified, Enterococcus was the mostly found out (53.57%), followed by Lactococcus (28.57%), Lactobacillus (13.4%) and Leuconostoc (4.4 %). Identification of the lactic isolates according to their morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics led to differentiating 11 species with Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis biovar diacetylactis being the mostly encountered (24.1%) followed by Lactobacillus brevis (3.57%), Lactobacillus plantarum (3.57%), Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp lactis (3.57%) and Lactococcus lactis subsp cremoris (2.67%).

Keywords: raw camel milk, south of morocco, lactic acid bacteria, identification

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426 Ability of Gastric Enzyme Extract of Adult Camel to Clot Bovine Milk

Authors: Boudjenah-Haroun Saliha, Isselnane Souad, Nouani Abdelwahab, Baaissa Babelhadj, Mati Abderrahmane

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Algeria is experiencing significant development of the dairy sector, where consumption of milk and milk products increased by 2.7 million tons in 2008 to 4,400,000 tons in 2013, and cheese production has reached 1640 tons in the year 2014 with average consumption of 0.7 kg/person/year. Although rennet is still the most used coagulating enzyme in cheese, its production has been growing worldwide shortage. This shortage is primarily due to a growing increase in the production and consumption of cheese, and the inability to increase in parallel the production of rennet. This shortage has caused very large fluctuations in its price). To overcome these obstacles, much research has been undertaken to find effective and competitive substitutes used industrially. For this, the selection of a local production of rennet substitute is desirable. It would allow a permanent supply with limited dependence on imports and price fluctuations. Investigations conducted by our research team showed that extracts coagulants from the stomachs of older camels are characterized by a coagulating power than those from younger camels. The objective of this work is to study the possibility of substituting commercial rennet coagulant by gastric enzymes from adult camels for coagulation bovine milk. Excerpts from the raw camel coagulants obtained are characterized through their teneures proteins and clotting and proteolytic activities. Milk clotting conditions by the action of these extracts were optimized. Milk clotting time all treated with enzyme preparations and under different conditions was calculated. Bovine rennet has been used for comparison. The results show that crude extracts from gastric adult camel can be good substituting bovine rennet.

Keywords: Algeria, camel, cheese, coagulation, gastric extracts, milk

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425 Exploration of Probiotics and Anti-Microbial Agents in Fermented Milk from Pakistani Camel spp. Breeds

Authors: Deeba N. Baig, Ateeqa Ijaz, Saloome Rafiq

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Camel is a religious and culturally significant animal in Asian and African regions. In Pakistan Dromedary and Bactrian are common camel breeds. Other than the transportation use, it is a pivotal source of milk and meat. The quality of its milk and meat is predominantly dependent on the geographical location and variety of vegetation available for the diet. Camel milk (CM) is highly nutritious because of its reduced cholesterol and sugar contents along with enhanced minerals and vitamins level. The absence of beta-lactoglobulin (like human milk), makes CM a safer alternative for infants and children having Cow Milk Allergy (CMA). In addition to this, it has a unique probiotic profile both in raw and fermented form. Number of Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) including lactococcus, lactobacillus, enterococcus, streptococcus, weissella, pediococcus and many other bacteria have been detected. From these LAB Lactobacilli, Bifidobacterium and Enterococcus are widely used commercially for fermentation purpose. CM has high therapeutic value as its effectiveness is known against various ailments like fever, arthritis, asthma, gastritis, hepatitis, Jaundice, constipation, postpartum care of women, anti-venom, dropsy etc. It also has anti-diabetic, anti-microbial, antitumor potential along with its robust efficacy in the treatment of auto-immune disorders. Recently, the role of CM has been explored in brain-gut axis for the therapeutics of neurodevelopmental disorders. In this connection, a lot of grey area was available to explore the probiotics and therapeutics latent in the CM available in Pakistan. Thus, current study was designed to explore the predominant probiotic flora and antimicrobial potential of CM from different local breeds of Pakistan. The probiotics have been identified through biochemical, physiological and ribo-typing methods. In addition to this, bacteriocins (antimicrobial-agents) were screened through PCR-based approach. Results of this study revealed that CM from different breeds of camel depicted a number of similar probiotic candidates along with the range of limited variability. However, the nucleotide sequence analysis of selected anti-listerial bacteriocins exposed least variability. As a conclusion, the CM has sufficient probiotic availability and significant anti-microbial potential.

Keywords: bacteriocins, camel milk, probiotics potential, therapeutics

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424 Milk Yield and Fingerprinting of Beta-Casein Precursor (CSN2) Gene in Some Saudi Camel Breeds

Authors: Amr A. El Hanafy, Yasser M. Saad, Saleh A. Alkarim, Hussein A. Almehdar, Elrashdy M. Redwan

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Camels are substantial providers of transport, milk, sport, meat, shelter, fuel, security and capital in many countries, particularly Saudi Arabia. Identification of animal breeds has progressed rapidly during the last decade. Advanced molecular techniques are playing a significant role in breeding or strain protection laws. On the other hand, fingerprinting of some molecular markers related to some productive traits in farm animals represents most important studies to our knowledge, which aim to conserve these local genetic resources, and to the genetic improvement of such local breeds by selective programs depending on gene markers. Milk records were taken two days in each week from female camels of Majahem, Safara, Wathaha, and Hamara breeds, respectively from different private farms in northern Jeddah, Riyadh and Alwagh governorates and average weekly yields were calculated. DNA sequencing for CSN2 gene was used for evaluating the genetic variations and calculating the genetic distance values among four Saudi camel populations which are Hamra(R), Safra(Y), Wadha(W) and Majaheim(M). In addition, this marker was analyzed for reconstructing the Neighbor joining tree among evaluating camel breeds. In respect to milk yield during winter season, result indicated that average weekly milk yield of Safara camel breed (30.05 Kg/week) is significantly (p < 0.05) lower than the other 3 breeds which ranged from 39.68 for Hamara to 42.42 Kg/week for Majahem, while there are not significant differences between these three breeds. The Neighbor Joining analysis that re-constructed based on DNA variations showed that samples are clustered into two unique clades. The first clade includes Y (from Y4 to Y18) and M (from M1, to M9). On the other hand, the second cluster is including all R (from R1 to R6) and W (from W1 to W6). The genetic distance values were equal 0.0068 (between the groups M&Y and R&W) and equal 0 (within each group).

Keywords: milk yield, beta-casein precursor (CSN2), Saudi camel, molecular markers

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423 Genetic Variations of Two Casein Genes among Maghrabi Camels Reared in Egypt

Authors: Othman E. Othman, Amira M. Nowier, Medhat El-Denary

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Camels play an important socio-economic role within the pastoral and agricultural system in the dry and semidry zones of Asia and Africa. Camels are economically important animals in Egypt where they are dual purpose animals (meat and milk). The analysis of chemical composition of camel milk showed that the total protein contents ranged from 2.4% to 5.3% and it is divided into casein and whey proteins. The casein fraction constitutes 52% to 89% of total camel milk protein and it divided into 4 fractions namely αs1, αs2, β and κ-caseins which are encoded by four tightly genes. In spite of the important role of casein genes and the effects of their genetic polymorphisms on quantitative traits and technological properties of milk, the studies for the detection of genetic polymorphism of camel milk genes are still limited. Due to this fact, this work focused - using PCR-RFP and sequencing analysis - on the identification of genetic polymorphisms and SNPs of two casein genes in Maghrabi camel breed which is a dual purpose camel breed in Egypt. The amplified fragments at 488-bp of the camel κ-CN gene were digested with AluI endonuclease. The results showed the appearance of three different genotypes in the tested animals; CC with three digested fragments at 203-, 127- and 120-bp, TT with three digested fragments at 203-, 158- and 127-bp and CT with four digested fragments at 203-, 158-, 127- and 120-bp. The frequencies of three detected genotypes were 11.0% for CC, 48.0% for TT and 41.0% for CT genotypes. The sequencing analysis of the two different alleles declared the presence of a single nucleotide polymorphism (C→T) at position 121 in the amplified fragments which is responsible for the destruction of a restriction site (AG/CT) in allele T and resulted in the presence of two different alleles C and T in tested animals. The nucleotide sequences of κ-CN alleles C and T were submitted to GenBank with the accession numbers; KU055605 and KU055606, respectively. The primers used in this study amplified 942-bp fragments spanning from exon 4 to exon 6 of camel αS1-Casein gene. The amplified fragments were digested with two different restriction enzymes; SmlI and AluI. The results of SmlI digestion did not show any restriction site whereas the digestion with AluI endonuclease revealed the presence of two restriction sites AG^CT at positions 68^69 and 631^632 yielding the presence of three digested fragments with sizes 68-, 563- and 293-bp.The nucleotide sequences of this fragment from camel αS1-Casein gene were submitted to GenBank with the accession number KU145820. In conclusion, the genetic characterization of quantitative traits genes which are associated with the production traits like milk yield and composition is considered an important step towards the genetic improvement of livestock species through the selection of superior animals depending on the favorable alleles and genotypes; marker assisted selection (MAS).

Keywords: genetic polymorphism, SNP polymorphism, Maghrabi camels, κ-Casein gene, αS1-Casein gene

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422 Analysis of Genetic Variations in Camel Breeds (Camelus dromedarius)

Authors: Yasser M. Saad, Amr A. El Hanafy, Saleh A. Alkarim, Hussein A. Almehdar, Elrashdy M. Redwan

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Camels are substantial providers of transport, milk, sport, meat, shelter, security and capital in many countries, particularly in Saudi Arabia. Inter simple sequence repeat technique was used to detect the genetic variations among some camel breeds (Majaheim, Safra, Wadah, and Hamara). Actual number of alleles, effective number of alleles, gene diversity, Shannon’s information index and polymorphic bands were calculated for each evaluated camel breed. Neighbor-joining tree that re-constructed for evaluated these camel breeds showed that, Hamara breed is distantly related from the other evaluated camels. In addition, the polymorphic sites, haplotypes and nucleotide diversity were identified for some camelidae cox1 gene sequences (obtained from NCBI). The distance value between C. bactrianus and C. dromedarius (0.072) was relatively low. Analysis of genetic diversity is an important way for conserving Camelus dromedarius genetic resources.

Keywords: camel, genetics, ISSR, neighbor-joining

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421 Relationship of Trace Minerals Nutritional Status of Camel (Camelus dromedarius) to Their Contents in Egyptian Feedstuff

Authors: Maha Mohamed Hady Ali, M. A. El-Sayed

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Camel (Camelus dromedarius) is very important animal in many arid and semi-arid zones of tropical and subtropical regions as it serves as dual purpose providing meat and milk for human and as draft animal. Camel, like other animal must receive all essential nutrients despite the hostile environment. A study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional status of some micro-minerals of camel under Egyptian environmental condition. Forty five blood samples were collected from apparently healthy male camels with an average age between 2-6 years at the slaughter house in Cairo province, Egypt. The animals were fed mainly on berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) or concentrate with straw before slaughtering. The collected serum and feedstuff samples were subjected to copper, iron, selenium and zinc analysis using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data showed variation in the level of copper, iron, selenium and zinc in the serum of the dromedary camel as well as in the feedstuffs. Furthermore, the results indicated that the micro- minerals status of feeds may not always reflected as such in camel blood suggesting some role of bioavailability. The main reason for the lack of such reflection seems to be the wide diversity exists in the surrounding environment (forages and plants) as well as the bioavailability of such minerals. Since the requirement of micro-minerals have not been established for camel, more researches must be focused on this topic.

Keywords: camel, copper, egypt, feed stuff, iron, selenium, zinc

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420 Aptitude of a Lactococcus Strain to Grow on Whey Medium

Authors: Souid Wafa, Boudjenah-Haroun Saliha, Khacef Linda

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In this work, we focused on the valuation of discharges from the dairy industry. Whey is by-product of dairy industry, which is a formidable pollution factor and contains components (lactose, minerals and proteins) with high nutritional value. Whey is an excellent culture medium for microorganisms. The objective of our work is to investigate the ability of a lactic strain (of the genus Lactococcus) to grow in culture media based on whey of cattle and camels and comparing it with that recorded on M17 as indicator medium. In this study we isolated from a local sample of camel milk a lactic strain (S1).the strain had positive Gram shaped, cocci form and catalase (-). The strain has been purified by the method of streaks on M17 medium. Phenotypic identification allows us to classify this strain in the species: Lactococcus lactis subsp. Cremoris. We subsequently tested the ability of this strain to grow in cattle whey medium and camel whey, both media were deproteinized and unsupplemented. The obtained results revealed that: The cattle and camel whey are appropriate media for the growth of the strain Lactococcus lactis subsp cremoris but is more adapted to grow on a medium rich in lactose as the camel whey. In fact, after 48h and at initial pH 6.8 this strain acidified more camel whey (pH 3.99) than cattle whey (pH 4.8). And biomass produced in the camel whey is 1.50g /1 by contributing to the cattle whey which is 1g / l.

Keywords: cremoris, dairy industry, Lactococcus lactis subsp, medium, whey

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419 The Arabian Camel (Camelus dromedarius) as a Major Reservoir of Q Fever in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mansour F. Hussein, Mohammed A. Alshaikh, Riyadh S. Al-Jumaah, A. GarelNabi, I. Al-Khalifa, Osama B. Mohammed

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Serum samples from 489 male and female camels were tested for antibodies against C. burnetii using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antibodies to C. burnetii were recorded in sera of 252 (51.64%) camels. Significant differences in prevalence were found between male and female camels, juvenile and adult camels, different ecotypes and different sampling locations. 307 camels were simultaneously tested for C. burnetii antibodies by ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA). Close agreement was found between the results of the two tests. A high prevalence of C. burnetii antibodies was also recorded in milk samples tested by ELISA. Clinical samples from serologically positive camels were subjected to PCR analysis using primers which amplify the repetitive transposon-like and transposase gene regions of C. burnetii. Positive DNA amplification was obtained from both regions, with highest shedding of C. burnetii in faecal samples (27.59%) followed, in descending order, by urine (23.81%), blood (15.85%) and milk (6.5%). The present results indicate that camels are a major reservoir of C. burnetii in Saudi Arabia. The high prevalence of infection in camels, the poor sanitary standards under which the animals are kept and the consumption of raw camel milk indicate that camels could also be a major source of transmission of Q fever to humans in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Arabian camel, Camelus dromedarius, Coxiella brunetii, ELISA, immunofluoresence, PCR

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418 Effects of Camel Casein Hydrolysate Addition on Rheological Properties of Yoghurt

Authors: A. A. Al-Saleh, E. A. Ismail, A. A. Metwalli

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Effects of camel and cow casein hydrolysates by trypsin enzyme on rheological and sensory properties and growth of starter culture of the yoghurts made from cow milk have been investigated. The hydrolysates strongly decreased the fermentation and coagulation time of the yoghurts. The rate of pH decrease was higher with camel casein hydrolysate in comparison with cow casein hydrolysate at all concentrations used (0.5; 1.0 and 1.5%). Viscosities of the yoghurt made with hydrolysates significantly (p<0.05) decreased compared to control samples. The addition of the hydrolysates significantly (p <0.05) increased the hardness and adhesiveness of the yoghurts. No significant differences in water holding capacity of control and treated samples were obsereved at 0.5 and 1.0% casein hydrolysate addition. However, increasing casein hydrolysate addition to 1.5% decreased water holding capacity of yoghurt samples. The sensory evaluation scores of the yoghurts were significantly (p<0.05) improved with the addition of casein hydrolysates.

Keywords: yoghurt, camel casein hydrolysates, cow casein hydrolysate, sensory evaluation

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417 Effect of Chromium Yeast on Hematological Parameters in Camel Calves (Camelus dromedaries) Reared under Hot Summer Conditions

Authors: Khalid Ahmed Abdoun, Mohamed Abdulwahid Alsoufi, Ibrahim Abdullah Alhidary

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The intention of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary Cr supplementation on haematological parameters in camel calves reared under hot summer conditions. Fifteen male camel calves (5 – 6 months old) were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments (n = 5) for a period of 84 days. Camel calves were fed ad libitum on basal diet without Cr supplementation (control), basal diet supplemented with 0.5 mg Cr/kg DM (Cr 0.5) or basal diet supplemented with 1.0 mg Cr/kg DM (Cr 1.0). During this, blood samples were collected every four weeks for hematological examination. The obtained results revealed that dietary Cr supplementation to camel calves reared under hot summer did not show significant effects (P> 0.05) on hematological variables. However, the neutrophil to lymphocytes ratio (N: L ratio) was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in camel calves fed on diets supplemented with chromium. In conclusion, Chromium supplementation to the diet of camel calves did not show any significant effects on hematological variables. Whereas, the neutrophil to lymphocytes ratio (N: L ratio) was reduced in camel calves fed diets supplemented with chromium.

Keywords: camel calves, chromium, haematological, immune response

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416 Potential Probiotic Bacteria Isolated from Dairy Products of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Rashad Al-Hindi

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The aims of the study were to isolate and identify potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria due to their therapeutic and food preservation importance. Sixty-three suspected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated from thirteen different raw milk and fermented milk product samples of various animal origins manufactured indigenously in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia using de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar medium and various incubation conditions. The identification of forty-six selected LAB strains was performed using molecular methods (16S rDNA gene sequencing). The LAB counts in certain samples were higher under microaerobic incubation conditions than under anaerobic conditions. The identified LAB belonged to the following genera: Enterococcus (16 strains), Lactobacillus (9 strains), Weissella (10 strains), Streptococcus (8 strains) and Lactococcus (3 strains), constituting 34.78%, 19.57%, 21.74%, 17.39% and 6.52% of the suspected isolates, respectively. This study noted that the raw milk and traditional fermented milk products of Saudi Arabia, especially stirred yogurt (Laban) made from camel milk, could be rich in LAB. The obtained LAB strains in this study will be tested for their probiotic potentials in another ongoing study.

Keywords: dairy, LAB, probiotic, Saudi Arabia

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415 The First Step to Standardization of Iranian Buffalo Milk: Physicochemical Characterization

Authors: Farnoosh Attar

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Nowadays, buffalo’s milk due to has highly nutritional properties, has a special place among consumers and its application for the production of dairy products due to the high technological properties is increasing day by day. In the present study, the physicochemical characteristics of Iranian buffalo’s milk were compared with cow's milk. According to chemical analysis, the amount of fat, protein, and total solid was higher in buffalo milk than cow's milk (respectively, 8.2%, 4.73%, and 15.92% compared with 3.5%, 3.25%, and 12.5%). Also, the percentage of cholesterol buffalo’s milk was less than in cow's milk. In contrast, no significant difference between the pH, acidity, and specific gravity was observed. The size of buffalo milk fat globules was larger than cow's milk. In addition, the profile of buffalo free fatty acids milk showed the relatively high distribution of long chain saturated fatty acids. The presence of four major bands related to αs casein, β casein, β-lactoglobulin, and α-lactalbumin with quite higher intensity than cow’s milk was also observed. The results obtained will provide a reference investigation to improve the developing of buffalo milk standard.

Keywords: buffalo milk, physicochemical characterization, standardization, dairy products

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414 Quality Characteristics of Cured Dried Camel Meat Formulated with Different Medicinal Plants as Natural Preservatives

Authors: H. S. Aljabeili, E. A. Abd El-Hady, M. M. Abd El-Razik, M. Abd Elgadir

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The aim of the study is determining the quality characteristics of produced curing and dried camel meat contained some medicinal plants of thyme, rosemary, clove and ginger as natural preservatives. Camel meat samples were sliced and divided into five batches, one batch recorded as control sample was treated by the curing mixture (2.5%) contained the following ingredients: black pepper 1 gm, cumin 0.4 gm, spices mixture 0.5 gm, dried onion 3 gm, dried garlic 0.5 gm and salt 2 gm. To evaluate the effect of different natural preservatives sources of thyme, rosemary, clove and ginger, 3.0% of the aforementioned natural preservatives was mixed with the aforementioned curing mixture and used for curing the four batches of sliced camel meat. After curing process, cured sliced camel meat (control and treated with the natural preservatives) were conducting to drying process at 35 ± 3 °C for 36 h in a drying cabinet. The quality characteristics of prepared dried camel meat were evaluated such as chemical composition, microbiological characteristics and sensory characteristics. Based on the microbiological and sensory characteristics, it could be suggested that the selected medicinal plants specially thyme and rosemary could be used as natural preservatives for preparing semi dry camel meat without negative effects.

Keywords: curing, dried camel meat, medicinal plants, natural preservatives, quality characteristics

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413 Pathological Observations of Intestinal Coccidiosis in Camel (Camelus dromedarius)

Authors: Abhilasha Dadhich, Manisha Mathur, Sanjay Kumar, Hemant Dadhich

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The camel (Camelus dromedarius) is an important animal component of the fragile desert eco-system of India. Apart from others, impaired milk and meat production decrease in performance and even death are some of the major consequences of parasitic disease like coccidiosis in camel. Coccidiosis which is an acute invasion and destruction of intestinal mucosa by protozoa of the genera Eimeria or isospora spp. Post-Mortem examinations of 5 carcasses of dromedary of different age groups aged from 2 to 5 years were conducted. The history indicated that the camels were suffering from diarrhoea, dysentery, pyrexia, inappetence, weight loss, and emaciation. Post mortem examinations showed macroscopic and microscopic alterations in the small intestine, particularly in jejunum and ileum regions. The mucosae were congested, and haemorrhagic on which there were numerous whitish-grey nodular foci were observed. The affected intestinal tissue specimens were preserved in 10% formal saline and processed mechanically for paraffin embedding by acetone and benzene technique. The sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin method of staining for histopathological examinations. Histologically, typical lesions such as congestion and haemorrhages were present. The intestinal villi were oedematous; mucosa degenerated and desquamated, along with infiltration of eosinophils and macrophages. Crypts of lieberkuhn were obliterated due to presence of schizonts in lamina propria. Older camels served as the source of spread of coccidial infection and were also predisposed to secondary infections.

Keywords: camel, coccidiosis, Eimeria, histopathology

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412 Camel Thorn Has Hepatoprotective Activity Against Carbon Tetrachloride or Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity but Enhances the Cardiac Toxicity of Adriamycin in Rodents

Authors: Awad G. Abdellatif, Huda M. Gargoum, Abdelkader A. Debani, Mudafara Bengleil, Salmin Alshalmani, N. El Zuki, Omran El Fitouri

Abstract:

In this study, the administration of 660 mg/kg of the ethanolic extract of the Alhgigraecorum (camel thorn) to mice, showed a significant decrease in the level of transaminases in animals treated with a combination of CTE plus carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or acetaminophen as compared to animals receiving CCl4 or acetaminophen alone. The histopathological investigation also confirmed that camel thorn extract protects the liver against damage-induced either by carbon tetrachloride or acetaminophen. On the other hand, the cardiac toxicity produced by adriamycin was significantly increased in the presence of the ethanolic extract of camel thorn. Our study suggested that camel thorn can protect the liver against the injury produced by carbon tetrachloride or acetaminophen, with an unexpected increase in the cardiac toxicity–induced by adriamycin in rodents.

Keywords: ethanolic, alhgigraecorum, tetrachloride, acetaminophen

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
411 Optimization of Moisture Content for Highest Tensile Strength of Instant Soluble Milk Tablet and Flowability of Milk Powder

Authors: Siddharth Vishwakarma, Danie Shajie A., Mishra H. N.

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Milk powder becomes very useful in the low milk supply area but the exact amount to add for one glass of milk and the handling is difficult. So, the idea of instant soluble milk tablet comes into existence for its high solubility and easy handling. The moisture content of milk tablets is increased by the direct addition of water with no additives for binding. The variation of the tensile strength of instant soluble milk tablets and the flowability of milk powder with the moisture content is analyzed and optimized for the highest tensile strength of instant soluble milk tablets and flowability, above a particular value of milk powder using response surface methodology. The flowability value is necessary for ease in quantifying the milk powder, as a feed, in the designed tablet making machine. The instant soluble nature of milk tablets purely depends upon the disintegration characteristic of tablets in water whose study is under progress. Conclusions: The optimization results are very useful in the commercialization of milk tablets.

Keywords: flowability, milk powder, response surface methodology, tablet making machine, tensile strength

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410 Detection of MspI Polymorphism and SNP of GH Gene in Some Camel Breeds Reared in Egypt

Authors: Sekena H. Abd El-Aziem, Heba A. M. Abd El-Kader, Sally S. Alam, Othman E. Othman

Abstract:

Growth hormone (GH) is an anabolic hormone synthesized and secreted by the somatotroph cells of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland in a circadian and pulsatile manner, the pattern of which plays an important role in postnatal longitudinal growth and development, tissue growth, lactation, reproduction as well as protein, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. The aim of this study was to detect the genetic polymorphism of GH gene in five camel breeds reared in Egypt; Sudany, Somali, Mowaled, Maghrabi and Falahy, using PCR-RFLP technique. Also this work aimed to identify the single nucleotide polymorphism between different genotypes detected in these camel breeds. The amplified fragment of camel GH at 613-bp was digested with the restriction enzyme MspI and the result revealed the presence of three different genotypes; CC, CT and TT in tested breeds and significant differences were recorded in the genotype frequencies between these camel breeds. The result showed that the Maghrabi breed that is classified as a dual purpose camels had higher frequency for allele C (0.75) than those in the other tested four breeds. The sequence analysis declared the presence of a SNP (C→T) at position 264 in the amplified fragment which is responsible for the destruction of the restriction site C^CGG and consequently the appearance of two different alleles C and T. The nucleotide sequences of camel GH alleles T and C were submitted to nucleotide sequences database NCBI/Bankit/GenBank and have accession numbers: KP143517 and KP143518, respectively. It is concluded that only one SNP C→T was detected in GH gene among the five tested camel breeds reared in Egypt and this nucleotide substitution can be used as a marker for the genetic biodiversity between camel breeds reared in Egypt. Also, due to the possible association between allele C and higher growth rate, we can used it in MAS for camels and enter the camels possess this allele in breeding program as a way for enhancement of growth trait in camel breeds reared in Egypt.

Keywords: camel breeds in Egypt, GH, PCR-RFLP, SNPs

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409 Antioxidant Activity of the Algerian Traditional Kefir Supernatant

Authors: H. Amellal-Chibane, N. Dehdouh, S. Ait-Kaki, F. Halladj

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Kefir is fermented milk that is produced by adding Kefir grains, consisting of bacteria and yeasts, to milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of the kefir supernatant and the raw milk. The Antioxidant activity assays of kefir supernatant and raw milk were evaluated by assessing the DPPH radical-scavenging activity. Kefir supernatant demonstrated high antioxidant activity (87.75%) compared to the raw milk (70.59 %). These results suggest that the Algerian kefir has interesting antioxidant activity.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, kefir, kefir supernatant, raw milk

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408 The Lamination and Arterial Blood Supply of the Masseter Muscle of Camel (Camelus dromedarius)

Authors: Elsyed Fath Khalifa, Samer Mohamed Daghash

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The present study was carried out to investigate the structure of the masseter muscle of camel and its attachments to the skull as well as the relationships with its arterial blood supply. Fourteen heads of clinically healthy camels of different ages and sexes were used in the present investigation. The both common carotid arteries of six specimens were cannulated and flushed with warm normal saline solution (0.9%) then injected with red colored neoprine (60%) latex in order to study the pattern of the blood supply to the masseter muscle. Two heads were injected with an eventually mixture of 75gm red lead oxide in 150cc latex and preserved in a cold room for 3-4 days then divided sagittaly along the median plane to avoid super imposition of the arteries. The arteries of the masseter muscle of each half were radiographed. Four heads were used in manual dissection to describe the laminar arrangement of the masseter muscle. The masseter muscle of the camel was very tendinous and was situated far caudally, which enable the camel to open its jaw very wide. In the camel, the masseter muscle was recognized into proper and improper masseter groups. The proper group included the first, second superficial, intermediate and deep masseter layers. The improper group consisted of maxillo-mandibularis and zygomatico-mandibularis. The remaining two heads were used for clearance.

Keywords: anatomy, camel, masseter, lamination, blood supply

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407 Static Light Scattering Method for the Analysis of Raw Cow's Milk

Authors: V. Villa-Cruz, H. Pérez-Ladron de Guevara, J. E. Diaz-Díaz

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Static Light Scattering (SLS) was used as a method to analyse cow's milk raw, coming from the town of Lagos de Moreno, Jalisco, Mexico. This method is based on the analysis of the dispersion of light laser produced by a set of particles in solution. Based on the above, raw milk, which contains particles of fat globules, with a diameter of 2000 nm and particles of micelles of protein with 300 nm in diameter were analyzed. For this, dilutions of commercial milk were made (1.0%, 2.0% and 3.3%) to obtain a pattern of laser light scattering and also made measurements of raw cow's milk. Readings were taken in a sweep initial angle 10° to 170°, results were analyzed with the program OriginPro 7. The SLS method gives us an estimate of the percentage of fat content in milk samples. It can be concluded that the SLS method, is a quick method of analysis to detect adulteration in raw cow's milk.

Keywords: light scattering, milk analysis, adulteration in milk, micelles, OriginPro

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
406 Effect of Phenolic Compounds on Off-Odor Development and Oxidative Stability of Camel Meat during Refrigerated Storage

Authors: Sajid Maqsood, Aysha Al Rashedi, Aisha Abushelaibi, Kusaimah Manheem

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Impact of different natural antioxidants on lipid oxidation, microbial load and sensorial quality in ground camel meat (leg region) during 9 days of refrigerated storage were investigated. Control camel meat showed higher lipid oxidation products (Peroxide value and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) during the storage period. Upon addition of different natural antioxidants PV and TBARS were retarded, especially in samples added with tannic acid (TA), catechin (CT) and gallic acid (GA) (p<0.05). Haem iron content decreased with increasing storage period and was found to be lower in samples added with caffeic acid (CA) and gallic acid (GA) at the end of storage period (p<0.05). Furthermore, lower mesophilic bacterial count (MBC) and psychrophilic bacterial counts (PBC) were observed in TA and CT treated samples compared to control and other samples (p<0.05). Camel meat treated with TA and CT also received higher likeness scores for colour, odor and overall appearance compared to control samples (p<0.05). Therefore, adding different natural antioxidants especially TA and CT showed retarding effect on lipid oxidation and microbial growth and were also effective in maintaining sensory attributes (color and odor) of ground camel meat during storage at 4°C. Hence, TA and CT could be considered as the potential natural antioxidant for preserving the quality of the camel meat displayed at refrigerated shelves.

Keywords: natural antioxidants, lipid oxidation, quality, camel meat

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405 Probiotics’ Antibacterial Activity on Beef and Camel Minced Meat at Altered Ranges of Temperature

Authors: Rania Samir Zaki

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Because of their inhibitory effects, selected probiotic Lactobacilli may be used as antimicrobial against some hazardous microorganisms responsible for spoilage of fresh minced beef (cattle) minced meat and camel minced meat. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from camel meat. These included 10 isolates; 1 Lactobacillus fermenti, 4 Lactobacillus plantarum, 4 Lactobacillus pulgaricus, 3 Lactobacillus acidophilus and 1 Lactobacillus brevis. The most efficient inhibitory organism was Lactobacillus plantarum which can be used as a propiotic with antibacterial activity. All microbiological analyses were made at the time 0, first day and the second day at altered ranges of temperature [4±2 ⁰C (chilling temperature), 25±2 ⁰C, and 38±2 ⁰C]. Results showed a significant decrease of pH 6.2 to 5.1 within variant types of meat, in addition to reduction of Total Bacterial Count, Enterococci, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli together with the stability of Coliforms and absence of Staphylococcus aureus.

Keywords: antibacterial, camel meat, inhibition, probiotics

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
404 Assessment of Procurement-Demand of Milk Plant Using Quality Control Tools: A Case Study

Authors: Jagdeep Singh, Prem Singh

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Milk is considered as an essential and complete food. The present study was conducted at Milk Plant Mohali especially in reference to the procurement section where the cash inflow was maximum, with the objective to achieve higher productivity and reduce wastage of milk. In milk plant it was observed that during the month of Jan-2014 to March-2014 the average procurement of milk was Rs. 4, 19, 361 liter per month and cost of procurement of milk is Rs 35/- per liter. The total cost of procurement thereby equal to Rs. 1crore 46 lakh per month, but there was mismatch in procurement-production of milk, which leads to an average loss of Rs. 12, 94, 405 per month. To solve the procurement-production problem Quality Control Tools like brainstorming, Flow Chart, Cause effect diagram and Pareto analysis are applied wherever applicable. With the successful implementation of Quality Control tools an average saving of Rs. 4, 59, 445 per month is done.

Keywords: milk, procurement-demand, quality control tools,

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403 Effect of Goat Milk Kefir and Soy Milk Kefir on IL-6 in Diabetes Mellitus Wistar Mice Models Induced by Streptozotocin and Nicotinamide

Authors: Agatha Swasti Ayuning Tyas

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Hyperglycemia in Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is an important factor in cellular and vascular damage, which is caused by activation of C Protein Kinase, polyol and hexosamine track, and production of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGE). Those mentioned before causes the accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Oxidative stress increases the expression of proinflammatory factors IL-6 as one of many signs of endothelial disfunction. Genistein in soy milk has a high immunomodulator potential. Goat milk contains amino acids which have antioxidative potential. Fermented kefir has an anti-inflammatory activity which believed will also contribute in potentiating goat milk and soy milk. This study is a quasi-experimental posttest-only research to 30 Wistar mice. This study compared the levels of IL-6 between healthy Wistar mice group (G1) and 4 DM Wistar mice with intervention and grouped as follows: mice without treatment (G2), mice treated with 100% goat milk kefir (G3), mice treated with combination of 50% goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir (G4), and mice treated with 100% soy milk kefir (G5). DM animal models were induced with Streptozotocin & Nicotinamide to achieve hyperglycemic condition. Goat milk kefir and soy milk kefir are given at a dose of 2 mL/kg body weight/day for four weeks to intervention groups. Blood glucose was analyzed by the GOD-POD principle. IL-6 was analyzed by enzyme-linked sandwich ELISA. The level of IL-6 in DM untreated control group (G2) showed a significant difference from the group treated with the combination of 50% goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir (G3) (p=0,006) and the group treated with 100% soy milk kefir (G5) (p=0,009). Whereas the difference of IL-6 in group treated with 100% goat milk kefir (G3) was not significant (p=0,131). There is also synergism between glucose level and IL-6 in intervention groups treated with combination of 50% goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir (G3) and the group treated with 100% soy milk kefir (G5). Combination of 50 % goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir and administration of 100% soy milk kefir alone can control the level of IL-6 remained low in DM Wistar mice induced with streptozocin and nicotinamide.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, goat milk kefir, soy milk kefir, interleukin 6

Procedia PDF Downloads 193