Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4096

Search results for: compressible flow

4096 An Axisymmetric Finite Element Method for Compressible Swirling Flow

Authors: Raphael Zanella, Todd A. Oliver, Karl W. Schulz

Abstract:

This work deals with the finite element approximation of axisymmetric compressible flows with swirl velocity. We are interested in problems where the flow, while weakly dependent on the azimuthal coordinate, may have a strong azimuthal velocity component. We describe the approximation of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with H^1-conformal spaces of axisymmetric functions. The weak formulation is implemented in a C++ solver with explicit march-in-time. The code is first verified with a convergence test on a manufactured solution. The verification is completed by comparing the numerical and analytical solutions in a Poiseuille flow case and a Taylor-Couette flow case. The code is finally applied to the problem of a swirling subsonic air flow in a plasma torch.

Keywords: axisymmetric problem, compressible Navier-Stokes equations, continuous finite elements, swirling flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
4095 Energy Separation Mechanism in Uni-Flow Vortex Tube Using Compressible Vortex Flow

Authors: Hiroshi Katanoda, Mohd Hazwan bin Yusof

Abstract:

A theoretical investigation from the viewpoint of gas-dynamics and thermodynamics was carried out, in order to clarify the energy separation mechanism in a viscous compressible vortex, as a primary flow element in a uni-flow vortex tube. The mathematical solutions of tangential velocity, density and temperature in a viscous compressible vortical flow were used in this study. It is clear that a total temperature in the vortex core falls well below that distant from the vortex core in the radial direction, causing a region with higher total temperature, compared to the distant region, peripheral to the vortex core.

Keywords: energy separation mechanism, theoretical analysis, vortex tube, vortical flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
4094 Compressible Lattice Boltzmann Method for Turbulent Jet Flow Simulations

Authors: K. Noah, F.-S. Lien

Abstract:

In Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), there are a variety of numerical methods, of which some depend on macroscopic model representatives. These models can be solved by finite-volume, finite-element or finite-difference methods on a microscopic description. However, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is considered to be a mesoscopic particle method, with its scale lying between the macroscopic and microscopic scales. The LBM works well for solving incompressible flow problems, but certain limitations arise from solving compressible flows, particularly at high Mach numbers. An improved lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flow problems is presented in this research study. A higher-order Taylor series expansion of the Maxwell equilibrium distribution function is used to overcome limitations in LBM when solving high-Mach-number flows. Large eddy simulation (LES) is implemented in LBM to simulate turbulent jet flows. The results have been validated with available experimental data for turbulent compressible free jet flow at subsonic speeds.

Keywords: compressible lattice Boltzmann method, multiple relaxation times, large eddy simulation, turbulent jet flows

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
4093 Compressible Flow Modeling in Pipes and Porous Media during Blowdown Experiment

Authors: Thomas Paris, Vincent Bruyere, Patrick Namy

Abstract:

A numerical model is developed to simulate gas blowdowns through a thin tube and a filter (porous media), separating a high pressure gas filled reservoir to low pressure ones. Based on a previous work, a one-dimensional approach is developed by using the finite element method to solve the transient compressible flow and to predict the pressure and temperature evolution in space and time. Mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations are solved in a fully coupled way in the reservoirs, the pipes and the porous media. Numerical results, such as pressure and temperature evolutions, are firstly compared with experimental data to validate the model for different configurations. Couplings between porous media and pipe flow are then validated by checking mass balance. The influence of the porous media and the nature of the gas is then studied for different initial high pressure values.

Keywords: compressible flow, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, porous media

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
4092 A Parallel Computation Based on GPU Programming for a 3D Compressible Fluid Flow Simulation

Authors: Sugeng Rianto, P.W. Arinto Yudi, Soemarno Muhammad Nurhuda

Abstract:

A computation of a 3D compressible fluid flow for virtual environment with haptic interaction can be a non-trivial issue. This is especially how to reach good performances and balancing between visualization, tactile feedback interaction, and computations. In this paper, we describe our approach of computation methods based on parallel programming on a GPU. The 3D fluid flow solvers have been developed for smoke dispersion simulation by using combinations of the cubic interpolated propagation (CIP) based fluid flow solvers and the advantages of the parallelism and programmability of the GPU. The fluid flow solver is generated in the GPU-CPU message passing scheme to get rapid development of haptic feedback modes for fluid dynamic data. A rapid solution in fluid flow solvers is developed by applying cubic interpolated propagation (CIP) fluid flow solvers. From this scheme, multiphase fluid flow equations can be solved simultaneously. To get more acceleration in the computation, the Navier-Stoke Equations (NSEs) is packed into channels of texel, where computation models are performed on pixels that can be considered to be a grid of cells. Therefore, despite of the complexity of the obstacle geometry, processing on multiple vertices and pixels can be done simultaneously in parallel. The data are also shared in global memory for CPU to control the haptic in providing kinaesthetic interaction and felling. The results show that GPU based parallel computation approaches provide effective simulation of compressible fluid flow model for real-time interaction in 3D computer graphic for PC platform. This report has shown the feasibility of a new approach of solving the compressible fluid flow equations on the GPU. The experimental tests proved that the compressible fluid flowing on various obstacles with haptic interactions on the few model obstacles can be effectively and efficiently simulated on the reasonable frame rate with a realistic visualization. These results confirm that good performances and balancing between visualization, tactile feedback interaction, and computations can be applied successfully.

Keywords: CIP, compressible fluid, GPU programming, parallel computation, real-time visualisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
4091 A Computational Analysis of Gas Jet Flow Effects on Liquid Aspiration in the Collison Nebulizer

Authors: James Q. Feng

Abstract:

Pneumatic nebulizers (as variations based on the Collison nebulizer) have been widely used for producing fine aerosol droplets from a liquid material. As qualitatively described by many authors, the basic working principle of those nebulizers involves utilization of the negative pressure associated with an expanding gas jet to syphon liquid into the jet stream, then to blow and shear into liquid sheets, filaments, and eventually droplets. But detailed quantitative analysis based on fluid mechanics theory has been lacking in the literature. The purpose of present work is to investigate the nature of negative pressure distribution associated with compressible gas jet flow in the Collison nebulizer by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, using an OpenFOAM® compressible flow solver. The value of the negative pressure associated with a gas jet flow is examined by varying geometric parameters of the jet expansion channel adjacent to the jet orifice outlet. Such an analysis can provide valuable insights into fundamental mechanisms in liquid aspiration process, helpful for effective design of the pneumatic atomizer in the Aerosol Jet® direct-write system for micro-feature, high-aspect-ratio material deposition in additive manufacturing.

Keywords: collison nebulizer, compressible gas jet flow, liquid aspiration, pneumatic atomization

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
4090 Data-Driven Analysis of Velocity Gradient Dynamics Using Neural Network

Authors: Nishant Parashar, Sawan S. Sinha, Balaji Srinivasan

Abstract:

We perform an investigation of the unclosed terms in the evolution equation of the velocity gradient tensor (VGT) in compressible decaying turbulent flow. Velocity gradients in a compressible turbulent flow field influence several important nonlinear turbulent processes like cascading and intermittency. In an attempt to understand the dynamics of the velocity gradients various researchers have tried to model the unclosed terms in the evolution equation of the VGT. The existing models proposed for these unclosed terms have limited applicability. This is mainly attributable to the complex structure of the higher order gradient terms appearing in the evolution equation of VGT. We investigate these higher order gradients using the data from direct numerical simulation (DNS) of compressible decaying isotropic turbulent flow. The gas kinetic method aided with weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme (WENO) based flow- reconstruction is employed to generate DNS data. By applying neural-network to the DNS data, we map the structure of the unclosed higher order gradient terms in the evolution of the equation of the VGT with VGT itself. We validate our findings by performing alignment based study of the unclosed higher order gradient terms obtained using the neural network with the strain rate eigenvectors.

Keywords: compressible turbulence, neural network, velocity gradient tensor, direct numerical simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
4089 Efficient Monolithic FEM for Compressible Flow and Conjugate Heat Transfer

Authors: Santhosh A. K.

Abstract:

This work presents an efficient monolithic finite element strategy for solving thermo-fluid-structure interaction problems involving compressible fluids and linear-elastic structure. This formulation uses displacement variables for structure and velocity variables for the fluid, with no additional variables required to ensure traction, velocity, temperature, and heat flux continuity at the fluid-structure interface. Rate of convergence in each time step is quadratic, which is achieved in this formulation by deriving an exact tangent stiffness matrix. The robustness and good performance of the method is ascertained by applying the proposed strategy on a wide spectrum of problems taken from the literature pertaining to steady, transient, two dimensional, axisymmetric, and three dimensional fluid flow and conjugate heat transfer. It is shown that the current formulation gives excellent results on all the case studies conducted, which includes problems involving compressibility effects as well as problems where fluid can be treated as incompressible.

Keywords: linear thermoelasticity, compressible flow, conjugate heat transfer, monolithic FEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
4088 A Runge Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Lagrangian Compressible Euler Equations in Two-Dimensions

Authors: Xijun Yu, Zhenzhen Li, Zupeng Jia

Abstract:

This paper presents a new cell-centered Lagrangian scheme for two-dimensional compressible flow. The new scheme uses a semi-Lagrangian form of the Euler equations. The system of equations is discretized by Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method using the Taylor basis in Eulerian space. The vertex velocities and the numerical fluxes through the cell interfaces are computed consistently by a nodal solver. The mesh moves with the fluid flow. The time marching is implemented by a class of the Runge-Kutta (RK) methods. A WENO reconstruction is used as a limiter for the RKDG method. The scheme is conservative for the mass, momentum and total energy. The scheme maintains second-order accuracy and has free parameters. Results of some numerical tests are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and the robustness of the scheme.

Keywords: cell-centered Lagrangian scheme, compressible Euler equations, RKDG method

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
4087 An Inviscid Compressible Flow Solver Based on Unstructured OpenFOAM Mesh Format

Authors: Utkan Caliskan

Abstract:

Two types of numerical codes based on finite volume method are developed in order to solve compressible Euler equations to simulate the flow through forward facing step channel. Both algorithms have AUSM+- up (Advection Upstream Splitting Method) scheme for flux splitting and two-stage Runge-Kutta scheme for time stepping. In this study, the flux calculations differentiate between the algorithm based on OpenFOAM mesh format which is called 'face-based' algorithm and the basic algorithm which is called 'element-based' algorithm. The face-based algorithm avoids redundant flux computations and also is more flexible with hybrid grids. Moreover, some of OpenFOAM’s preprocessing utilities can be used on the mesh. Parallelization of the face based algorithm for which atomic operations are needed due to the shared memory model, is also presented. For several mesh sizes, 2.13x speed up is obtained with face-based approach over the element-based approach.

Keywords: cell centered finite volume method, compressible Euler equations, OpenFOAM mesh format, OpenMP

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
4086 Experimental Study on Friction Factor of Oscillating Flow Through a Regenerator

Authors: Mohamed Saïd Kahaleras, François Lanzetta, Mohamed Khan, Guillaume Layes, Philippe Nika

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental work to characterize the dynamic operation of a metal regenerator crossed by dry compressible air alternating flow. Unsteady dynamic measurements concern the pressure, velocity and temperature of the gas at the ends and inside the channels of the regenerator. The regenerators are tested under isothermal conditions and thermal axial temperature gradient.

Keywords: friction factor, oscillating flow, regenerator, stirling machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
4085 Unsteadiness Effects on Variable Thrust Nozzle Performance

Authors: A. M. Tahsini, S. Tadayon Mousavi

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the flow unsteady behavior for moving plug in convergent-divergent variable thrust nozzle. Compressible axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations are used to study this physical phenomenon. Different velocities are set for plug to investigate the effect of plug movement on flow unsteadiness. Variation of mass flow rate and thrust are compared under two conditions: First, the plug is placed at different positions and flow is simulated to reach the steady state (quasi steady simulation) and second, the plug is moved with assigned velocity and flow simulation is coupled with plug movement (unsteady simulation). If plug speed is high enough and its movement time scale is at the same order of the flow time scale, variation of the mass flow rate and thrust level versus plug position demonstrate a vital discrepancy under the quasi steady and unsteady conditions. This phenomenon should be considered especially from response time viewpoints in thrusters design.

Keywords: nozzle, numerical study, unsteady, variable thrust

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
4084 Three-Dimensional Jet Refraction Simulation Using a Gradient Term Suppression and Filtering Method

Authors: Lican Wang, Rongqian Chen, Yancheng You, Ruofan Qiu

Abstract:

In the applications of jet engine, open-jet wind tunnel and airframe, there wildly exists a shear layer formed by the velocity and temperature gradients between jet flow and surrounded medium. The presence of shear layer will refract and reflect the sound path that consequently influences the measurement results in far-field. To investigate and evaluate the shear layer effect, a gradient term suppression and filtering method is adopted to simulate sound propagation through a steady sheared flow in three dimensions. Two typical configurations are considered: one is an incompressible and cold jet flow in wind tunnel and the other is a compressible and hot jet flow in turbofan engine. A numerically linear microphone array is used to localize the position of given sound source. The localization error is presented and linearly fitted.

Keywords: aeroacoustic, linearized Euler equation, acoustic propagation, source localization

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
4083 Solution of the Blast Wave Problem in Dusty Gas

Authors: Triloki Nath, R. K. Gupta, L. P. Singh

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to find the new exact solution of the blast wave problem in one-dimensional unsteady adiabatic flow for generalized geometry in a compressible, inviscid ideal gas with dust particles. The density of the undisturbed region is assumed to vary according to a power law of the distance from the point of explosion. The exact solution of the problem in form of a power in the distance and the time is obtained. Further, the behaviour of the total energy carried out by the blast wave for planar, cylindrically symmetric and spherically symmetric flow corresponding to different Mach number of the fluid flow in dusty gas is presented. It is observed that the presence of dust particles in the gas yields more complex expression as compared to the ordinary Gasdynamics.

Keywords: shock wave, blast wave, dusty gas, strong shock

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
4082 Direct Compression Formulation of Poorly Compressible Drugs to Minimize the Tablet Defects

Authors: Abhishek Pandey

Abstract:

Capping and lamination are the most common tablet defects with poorly compressible drugs the common example of that Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen. Generally both these drugs are compressed by wet granulation method which is very time consuming process Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen is widely used as prescription & non-prescription medicine. Ibuprofen mainly used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain related to headache, migraine, postoperative condition and in the management of spondylitis, osteoarthritis Acetaminophen used as an analgesic and antipyretic drug. Ibuprofen having high tendency of sticking to punches of tablet punching machine while Acetaminophen is not ordinarily compressible to tablet formulation because Acetaminophen crystals are very hard and brittle in nature and fracture very easily when compressed producing capping and laminating tablet defects therefore wet granulation method is used to make them compressible. The aim of study was to prepare Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen tablets by direct compression technique and their evaluation. In this Investigation tablets were prepared by using directly compressible grade excipients. Dibasic calcium phosphate, lactose anhydrous (DCL21), microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 101). In order to obtain best or optimize formulation nine different formulations were generated among them batch F5, F6, F7 shows good results and within the acceptable limit. Formulation (F7) selected as optimize product on the basis of evaluation parameters.

Keywords: capping, lamination, tablet defects, direct compression

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
4081 Numerical Analysis of Gas-Particle Mixtures through Pipelines

Authors: G. Judakova, M. Bause

Abstract:

The ability to model and simulate numerically natural gas flow in pipelines has become of high importance for the design of pipeline systems. The understanding of the formation of hydrate particles and their dynamical behavior is of particular interest, since these processes govern the operation properties of the systems and are responsible for system failures by clogging of the pipelines under certain conditions. Mathematically, natural gas flow can be described by multiphase flow models. Using the two-fluid modeling approach, the gas phase is modeled by the compressible Euler equations and the particle phase is modeled by the pressureless Euler equations. The numerical simulation of compressible multiphase flows is an important research topic. It is well known that for nonlinear fluxes, even for smooth initial data, discontinuities in the solution are likely to occur in finite time. They are called shock waves or contact discontinuities. For hyperbolic and singularly perturbed parabolic equations the standard application of the Galerkin finite element method (FEM) leads to spurious oscillations (e.g. Gibb's phenomenon). In our approach, we use stabilized FEM, the streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) method, where artificial diffusion acting only in the direction of the streamlines and using a special treatment of the boundary conditions in inviscid convective terms, is added. Numerical experiments show that the numerical solution obtained and stabilized by SUPG captures discontinuities or steep gradients of the exact solution in layers. However, within this layer the approximate solution may still exhibit overshoots or undershoots. To suitably reduce these artifacts we add a discontinuity capturing or shock capturing term. The performance properties of our numerical scheme are illustrated for two-phase flow problem.

Keywords: two-phase flow, gas-particle mixture, inviscid two-fluid model, euler equation, finite element method, streamline upwind petrov-galerkin, shock capturing

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4080 Study on the Effect of Coupling Fluid Compressible-Deformable Wall on the Flow of Molten Polymers

Authors: Mohamed Driouich, Kamal Gueraoui, Mohamed Sammouda

Abstract:

The main objective of this work is to establish a numerical code for studying the flow of molten polymers in deformable pipes. Using an iterative numerical method based on finite differences, we determine the profiles of the fluid velocity, the temperature and the apparent viscosity of the fluid. The numerical code presented can also be applied to other industrial applications.

Keywords: numerical code, molten polymers, deformable pipes, finite differences

Procedia PDF Downloads 450
4079 Investigation on Unsteady Flow of a Turbine Stage with Negative Bowed Stator

Authors: Keke Gao, Tao Lin, Yonghui Xie, Di Zhang

Abstract:

Complicated unsteady flow in axial turbines produces high-frequency unsteady aerodynamic exciting force, which threatens the safe operation of turbines. This paper illustrates how negative-bowed stator reduces the rotor unsteady aerodynamic exciting force by unsteady flow field. With the support of three-dimensional viscous compressible Navier-Stokes equation, the single axial turbines with 0, -10 and -20 degree bowed stator are comparably investigated, aiming to identify the flow field structure difference caused by various negative-bowed degrees. The results show that negative-bowed stator strengthens the turbulence kinetic energy, which is further strengthened with the increase of negative-bowed degree. Meanwhile, the flow phenomenon including stator wakes and passage vortex is shown. In addition, the interaction of upstream negative-bowed wakes contributes to the reduction of unsteady blade load fluctuation. Furthermore, the aerodynamic exciting force decreases with the increasing negative bowed degree, while the efficiency is correspondingly reduced. This paper provides the reference for the alleviation of the harmful impact caused by unsteady interaction with the method of wake control.

Keywords: unsteady flow, axial turbine, wake, aerodynamic force, loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
4078 Desktop High-Speed Aerodynamics by Shallow Water Analogy in a Tin Box for Engineering Students

Authors: Etsuo Morishita

Abstract:

In this paper, we show shallow water in a tin box as an analogous simulation tool for high-speed aerodynamics education and research. It is customary that we use a water tank to create shallow water flow. While a flow in a water tank is not necessarily uniform and is sometimes wavy, we can visualize a clear supercritical flow even when we move a body manually in stationary water in a simple shallow tin box. We can visualize a blunt shock wave around a moving circular cylinder together with a shock pattern around a diamond airfoil. Another interesting analogous experiment is a hydrodynamic shock tube with water and tea. We observe the contact surface clearly due to color difference of the two liquids those are invisible in the real gas dynamics experiment. We first revisit the similarities between high-speed aerodynamics and shallow water hydraulics. Several educational and research experiments are then introduced for engineering students. Shallow water experiments in a tin box simulate properly the high-speed flows.

Keywords: aerodynamics compressible flow, gas dynamics, hydraulics, shock wave

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
4077 3D Numerical Studies on External Aerodynamics of a Flying Car

Authors: Sasitharan Ambicapathy, J. Vignesh, P. Sivaraj, Godfrey Derek Sams, K. Sabarinath, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

The external flow simulation of a flying car at take off phase is a daunting task owing to the fact that the prediction of the transient unsteady flow features during its deployment phase is very complex. In this paper 3D numerical simulations of external flow of Ferrari F430 proposed flying car with different NACA 9618 rectangular wings have been carried. Additionally, the aerodynamics characteristics have been generated for optimizing its geometry for achieving the minimum take off velocity with better overall performance in both road and air. The three-dimensional standard k-omega turbulence model has been used for capturing the intrinsic flow physics during the take off phase. In the numerical study, a fully implicit finite volume scheme of the compressible, Reynolds-Averaged, Navier-Stokes equations is employed. Through the detailed parametric analytical studies we have conjectured that Ferrari F430 flying car facilitated with high wings having three different deployment histories during the take off phase is the best choice for accomplishing its better performance for the commercial applications.

Keywords: aerodynamics of flying car, air taxi, negative lift, roadable airplane

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
4076 Surface Pressure Distributions for a Forebody Using Pressure Sensitive Paint

Authors: Yi-Xuan Huang, Kung-Ming Chung, Ping-Han Chung

Abstract:

Pressure sensitive paint (PSP), which relies on the oxygen quenching of a luminescent molecule, is an optical technique used in wind-tunnel models. A full-field pressure pattern with low aerodynamic interference can be obtained, and it is becoming an alternative to pressure measurements using pressure taps. In this study, a polymer-ceramic PSP was used, using toluene as a solvent. The porous particle and polymer were silica gel (SiO₂) and RTV-118 (3g:7g), respectively. The compound was sprayed onto the model surface using a spray gun. The absorption and emission spectra for Ru(dpp) as a luminophore were respectively 441-467 nm and 597 nm. A Revox SLG-55 light source with a short-pass filter (550 nm) and a 14-bit CCD camera with a long-pass (600 nm) filter were used to illuminate PSP and to capture images. This study determines surface pressure patterns for a forebody of an AGARD B model in a compressible flow. Since there is no experimental data for surface pressure distributions available, numerical simulation is conducted using ANSYS Fluent. The lift and drag coefficients are calculated and in comparison with the data in the open literature. The experiments were conducted using a transonic wind tunnel at the Aerospace Science and Research Center, National Cheng Kung University. The freestream Mach numbers were 0.83, and the angle of attack ranged from -4 to 8 degree. Deviation between PSP and numerical simulation is within 5%. However, the effect of the setup of the light source should be taken into account to address the relative error.

Keywords: pressure sensitive paint, forebody, surface pressure, compressible flow

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4075 The Modification of the Mixed Flow Pump with Respect to Stability of the Head Curve

Authors: Roman Klas, František Pochylý, Pavel Rudolf

Abstract:

This paper is focused on the CFD simulation of the radiaxial pump (i.e. mixed flow pump) with the aim to detect the reasons of Y-Q characteristic instability. The main reasons of pressure pulsations were detected by means of the analysis of velocity and pressure fields within the pump combined with the theoretical approach. Consequently, the modifications of spiral case and pump suction area were made based on the knowledge of flow conditions and the shape of dissipation function. The primary design of pump geometry was created as the base model serving for the comparison of individual modification influences. The basic experimental data are available for this geometry. This approach replaced the more complicated and with respect to convergence of all computational tasks more difficult calculation for the compressible liquid flow. The modification of primary pump consisted in inserting the three fins types. Subsequently, the evaluation of pressure pulsations, specific energy curves and visualization of velocity fields were chosen as the criterion for successful design.

Keywords: CFD, radiaxial pump, spiral case, stability

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4074 Investigation of the Effect of Grid Size on External Store Separation Trajectory Using CFD

Authors: Alaa A. Osman, Amgad M. Bayoumy Aly, Ismail El baialy, Osama E. Abdellatif, Essam E. Khallil

Abstract:

In this paper, a numerical simulation of a finned store separating from a wing-pylon configuration has been studied and validated. A dynamic unstructured tetrahedral mesh approach is accomplished by using three grid sizes to numerically solving the discretized three dimensional, inviscid and compressible Navier-stokes equations. The method used for computations of separation of an external store assuming quasi-steady flow condition. Computations of quasi-steady flow have been directly coupled to a six degree-of-freedom (6DOF) rigid-body motion code to generate store trajectories. The pressure coefficients at four different angular cuts and time histories of various trajectory parameters during the store separation are compared for every grid size with published experimental data.

Keywords: CFD modelling, transonic store separation, quasi-steady flow, moving-body trajectories

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
4073 Inviscid Steady Flow Simulation Around a Wing Configuration Using MB_CNS

Authors: Muhammad Umar Kiani, Muhammad Shahbaz, Hassan Akbar

Abstract:

Simulation of a high speed inviscid steady ideal air flow around a 2D/axial-symmetry body was carried out by the use of mb_cns code. mb_cns is a program for the time-integration of the Navier-Stokes equations for two-dimensional compressible flows on a multiple-block structured mesh. The flow geometry may be either planar or axisymmetric and multiply-connected domains can be modeled by patching together several blocks. The main simulation code is accompanied by a set of pre and post-processing programs. The pre-processing programs scriptit and mb_prep start with a short script describing the geometry, initial flow state and boundary conditions and produce a discretized version of the initial flow state. The main flow simulation program (or solver as it is sometimes called) is mb_cns. It takes the files prepared by scriptit and mb_prep, integrates the discrete form of the gas flow equations in time and writes the evolved flow data to a set of output files. This output data may consist of the flow state (over the whole domain) at a number of instants in time. After integration in time, the post-processing programs mb_post and mb_cont can be used to reformat the flow state data and produce GIF or postscript plots of flow quantities such as pressure, temperature and Mach number. The current problem is an example of supersonic inviscid flow. The flow domain for the current problem (strake configuration wing) is discretized by a structured grid and a finite-volume approach is used to discretize the conservation equations. The flow field is recorded as cell-average values at cell centers and explicit time stepping is used to update conserved quantities. MUSCL-type interpolation and one of three flux calculation methods (Riemann solver, AUSMDV flux splitting and the Equilibrium Flux Method, EFM) are used to calculate inviscid fluxes across cell faces.

Keywords: steady flow simulation, processing programs, simulation code, inviscid flux

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
4072 Prediction of Finned Projectile Aerodynamics Using a Lattice-Boltzmann Method CFD Solution

Authors: Zaki Abiza, Miguel Chavez, David M. Holman, Ruddy Brionnaud

Abstract:

In this paper, the prediction of the aerodynamic behavior of the flow around a Finned Projectile will be validated using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solution, XFlow, based on the Lattice-Boltzmann Method (LBM). XFlow is an innovative CFD software developed by Next Limit Dynamics. It is based on a state-of-the-art Lattice-Boltzmann Method which uses a proprietary particle-based kinetic solver and a LES turbulent model coupled with the generalized law of the wall (WMLES). The Lattice-Boltzmann method discretizes the continuous Boltzmann equation, a transport equation for the particle probability distribution function. From the Boltzmann transport equation, and by means of the Chapman-Enskog expansion, the compressible Navier-Stokes equations can be recovered. However to simulate compressible flows, this method has a Mach number limitation because of the lattice discretization. Thanks to this flexible particle-based approach the traditional meshing process is avoided, the discretization stage is strongly accelerated reducing engineering costs, and computations on complex geometries are affordable in a straightforward way. The projectile that will be used in this work is the Army-Navy Basic Finned Missile (ANF) with a caliber of 0.03 m. The analysis will consist in varying the Mach number from M=0.5 comparing the axial force coefficient, normal force slope coefficient and the pitch moment slope coefficient of the Finned Projectile obtained by XFlow with the experimental data. The slope coefficients will be obtained using finite difference techniques in the linear range of the polar curve. The aim of such an analysis is to find out the limiting Mach number value starting from which the effects of high fluid compressibility (related to transonic flow regime) lead the XFlow simulations to differ from the experimental results. This will allow identifying the critical Mach number which limits the validity of the isothermal formulation of XFlow and beyond which a fully compressible solver implementing a coupled momentum-energy equations would be required.

Keywords: CFD, computational fluid dynamics, drag, finned projectile, lattice-boltzmann method, LBM, lift, mach, pitch

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
4071 Analysis of Flow Dynamics of Heated and Cooled Pylon Upstream to the Cavity past Supersonic Flow with Wall Heating and Cooling

Authors: Vishnu Asokan, Zaid M. Paloba

Abstract:

Flow over cavities is an important area of research due to the significant change in flow physics caused by cavity aspect ratio, free stream Mach number and the nature of upstream boundary layer approaching the cavity leading edge. Cavity flow finds application in aircraft wheel well, weapons bay, combustion chamber of scramjet engines, etc. These flows are highly unsteady, compressible and turbulent and it involves mass entrainment coupled with acoustics phenomenon. Variation of flow dynamics in an angled cavity with a heated and cooled pylon upstream to the cavity with spatial combinations of heat flux addition and removal to the wall studied numerically. The goal of study is to investigate the effect of energy addition, removal to the cavity walls and pylon cavity flow dynamics. Preliminary steady state numerical simulations on inclined cavities with heat addition have shown that wall pressure profiles, as well as the recirculation, are influenced by heat transfer to the compressible fluid medium. Such a hybrid control of cavity flow dynamics in the form of heat transfer and pylon geometry can open out greater opportunities in enhancement of mixing and flame holding requirements of supersonic combustors. Addition of pylon upstream to the cavity reduces the acoustic oscillations emanating from the geometry. A numerical unsteady analysis of supersonic flow past cavities exposed to cavity wall heating and cooling with heated and cooled pylon helps to get a clear idea about the oscillation suppression in the cavity. A Cavity of L/D 4 and aft wall angle 22 degree with an upstream pylon of h/D=1.5 mm with a wall angle 29 degree exposed to supersonic flow of Mach number 2 and heat flux of 40 W/cm² and -40 W/cm² modeled for the above study. In the preliminary study, the domain is modeled and validated numerically with a turbulence model of SST k-ω using an HLLC implicit scheme. Both qualitative and quantitative flow data extracted and analyzed using advanced CFD tools. Flow visualization is done using numerical Schlieren method as the fluid medium gives the density variation. The heat flux addition to the wall increases the secondary vortex size of the cavity and removal of energy leads to the reduction in vortex size. The flow field turbulence seems to be increasing at higher heat flux. The shear layer thickness increases as heat flux increases. The steady state analysis of wall pressure shows that there is variation on wall pressure as heat flux increases. Shift in frequency of unsteady wall pressure analysis is an interesting observation for the above study. The time averaged skin friction seems to be reducing at higher heat flux due to the variation in viscosity of fluid inside the cavity.

Keywords: energy addition, frequency shift, Numerical Schlieren, shear layer, vortex evolution

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4070 Supersonic Flow around a Dihedral Airfoil: Modeling and Experimentation Investigation

Authors: A. Naamane, M. Hasnaoui

Abstract:

Numerical modeling of fluid flows, whether compressible or incompressible, laminar or turbulent presents a considerable contribution in the scientific and industrial fields. However, the development of an approximate model of a supersonic flow requires the introduction of specific and more precise techniques and methods. For this purpose, the object of this paper is modeling a supersonic flow of inviscid fluid around a dihedral airfoil. Based on the thin airfoils theory and the non-dimensional stationary Steichen equation of a two-dimensional supersonic flow in isentropic evolution, we obtained a solution for the downstream velocity potential of the oblique shock at the second order of relative thickness that characterizes a perturbation parameter. This result has been dealt with by the asymptotic analysis and characteristics method. In order to validate our model, the results are discussed in comparison with theoretical and experimental results. Indeed, firstly, the comparison of the results of our model has shown that they are quantitatively acceptable compared to the existing theoretical results. Finally, an experimental study was conducted using the AF300 supersonic wind tunnel. In this experiment, we have considered the incident upstream Mach number over a symmetrical dihedral airfoil wing. The comparison of the different Mach number downstream results of our model with those of the existing theoretical data (relative margin between 0.07% and 4%) and with experimental results (concordance for a deflection angle between 1° and 11°) support the validation of our model with accuracy.

Keywords: asymptotic modelling, dihedral airfoil, supersonic flow, supersonic wind tunnel

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4069 Numerical Analysis of Supersonic Impinging Jets onto Resonance Tube

Authors: Shinji Sato, M. M. A. Alam, Manabu Takao

Abstract:

In recent, investigation of an unsteady flow inside the resonance tube have become a strongly motivated research field for their potential application as high-frequency actuators. By generating a shock wave inside the resonance tube, a high temperature and pressure can be achieved inside the tube, and this high temperature can also be used to ignite a jet engine. In the present research, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was carried out to investigate the flow inside the resonance tube. The density-based solver of rhoCentralFoam in OpenFOAM was used to numerically simulate the flow. The supersonic jet that was driven by a cylindrical nozzle with a nominal exit diameter of φd = 20.3 mm impinged onto the resonance tube. The jet pressure ratio was varied between 2.6 and 7.8. The gap s between the nozzle exit and tube entrance was changed between 1.5d and 3.0d. The diameter and length of the tube were taken as D = 1.25d and L=3.0D, respectively. As a result, when a supersonic jet has impinged onto the resonance tube, a compression wave was found generating inside the tube and propagating towards the tube end wall. This wave train resulted in a rise in the end wall gas temperature and pressure. While, in an outflow phase, the gas near tube enwall was found cooling back isentropically to its initial temperature. Thus, the compression waves repeated a reciprocating motion in the tube like a piston, and a fluctuation in the end wall pressures and temperatures were observed. A significant change was found in the end wall pressures and temperatures with a change of jet flow conditions. In this study, the highest temperature was confirmed at a jet pressure ratio of 4.2 and a gap of s=2.0d

Keywords: compressible flow, OpenFOAM, oscillations, a resonance tube, shockwave

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4068 Linear Evolution of Compressible Görtler Vortices Subject to Free-Stream Vortical Disturbances

Authors: Samuele Viaro, Pierre Ricco

Abstract:

Görtler instabilities generate in boundary layers from an unbalance between pressure and centrifugal forces caused by concave surfaces. Their spatial streamwise evolution influences transition to turbulence. It is therefore important to understand even the early stages where perturbations, still small, grow linearly and could be controlled more easily. This work presents a rigorous theoretical framework for compressible flows using the linearized unsteady boundary region equations, where only the streamwise pressure gradient and streamwise diffusion terms are neglected from the full governing equations of fluid motion. Boundary and initial conditions are imposed through an asymptotic analysis in order to account for the interaction of the boundary layer with free-stream turbulence. The resulting parabolic system is discretize with a second-order finite difference scheme. Realistic flow parameters are chosen from wind tunnel studies performed at supersonic and subsonic conditions. The Mach number ranges from 0.5 to 8, with two different radii of curvature, 5 m and 10 m, frequencies up to 2000 Hz, and vortex spanwise wavelengths from 5 mm to 20 mm. The evolution of the perturbation flow is shown through velocity, temperature, pressure profiles relatively close to the leading edge, where non-linear effects can still be neglected, and growth rate. Results show that a global stabilizing effect exists with the increase of Mach number, frequency, spanwise wavenumber and radius of curvature. In particular, at high Mach numbers curvature effects are less pronounced and thermal streaks become stronger than velocity streaks. This increase of temperature perturbations saturates at approximately Mach 4 flows, and is limited in the early stage of growth, near the leading edge. In general, Görtler vortices evolve closer to the surface with respect to a flat plate scenario but their location shifts toward the edge of the boundary layer as the Mach number increases. In fact, a jet-like behavior appears for steady vortices having small spanwise wavelengths (less than 10 mm) at Mach 8, creating a region of unperturbed flow close to the wall. A similar response is also found at the highest frequency considered for a Mach 3 flow. Larger vortices are found to have a higher growth rate but are less influenced by the Mach number. An eigenvalue approach is also employed to study the amplification of the perturbations sufficiently downstream from the leading edge. These eigenvalue results are compared with the ones obtained through the initial value approach with inhomogeneous free-stream boundary conditions. All of the parameters here studied have a significant influence on the evolution of the instabilities for the Görtler problem which is indeed highly dependent on initial conditions.

Keywords: compressible boundary layers, Görtler instabilities, receptivity, turbulence transition

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4067 Resolution and Experimental Validation of the Asymptotic Model of a Viscous Laminar Supersonic Flow around a Thin Airfoil

Authors: Eddegdag Nasser, Naamane Azzeddine, Radouani Mohammed, Ensam Meknes

Abstract:

In this study, we are interested in the asymptotic modeling of the two-dimensional stationary supersonic flow of a viscous compressible fluid around wing airfoil. The aim of this article is to solve the partial differential equations of the flow far from the leading edge and near the wall using the triple-deck technique is what brought again in precision according to the principle of least degeneration. In order to validate our theoretical model, these obtained results will be compared with the experimental results. The comparison of the results of our model with experimentation has shown that they are quantitatively acceptable compared to the obtained experimental results. The experimental study was conducted using the AF300 supersonic wind tunnel and a NACA Reduced airfoil model with two pressure Taps on extrados. In this experiment, we have considered the incident upstream supersonic Mach number over a dissymmetric NACA airfoil wing. The validation and the accuracy of the results support our model.

Keywords: supersonic, viscous, triple deck technique, asymptotic methods, AF300 supersonic wind tunnel, reduced airfoil model

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