Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: Enayat Enayati

12 Recovery of Hydrogen Converter Efficiency Affected by Poisoning of Catalyst with Increasing of Temperature

Authors: Enayat Enayati, Reza Behtash


The purpose of the H2 removal system is to reduce a content of hydrogen and other combustibles in the CO2 feed owing to avoid developing a possible explosive condition in the synthesis. In order to reduce the possibility of forming an explosive gas mixture in the synthesis as much as possible, the hydrogen percent in the fresh CO2, will be removed in hydrogen converter. Therefore the partly compressed CO2/Air mixture is led through Hydrogen converter (Reactor) where the H2, present in the CO2, is reduced by catalytic combustion to values less than 50 ppm (vol). According the following exothermic chemical reaction: 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O + Heat. The catalyst in hydrogen converter consist of platinum on a aluminum oxide carrier. Low catalyst activity maybe due to catalyst poisoning. This will result in an increase of the hydrogen content in the CO2 to the synthesis. It is advised to shut down the plant when the outlet of hydrogen converter increased above 100 ppm, to prevent undesirable gas composition in the plant. Replacement of catalyst will be time exhausting and costly so as to prevent this, we increase the inlet temperature of hydrogen converter according to following Arrhenius' equation: K=K0e (-E_a/RT) K is rate constant of a chemical reaction where K0 is the pre-exponential factor, E_a is the activation energy, and R is the universal gas constant. Increment of inlet temperature of hydrogen converter caused to increase the rate constant of chemical reaction and so declining the amount of hydrogen from 125 ppm to 70 ppm.

Keywords: catalyst, converter, poisoning, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
11 The Mainspring of Controlling of Low Pressure Steam Drum at Lower Pressure than Its Design for Adjusting the Urea Synthesis Pressure

Authors: Reza Behtash, Enayat Enayati


The pool condenser is in principal a horizontal reactor, containing a bundle of U-tubes for heat exchange, coupling to low pressure steam drum. Condensation of gas takes place in a condensed pool around the tubes of the condenser. The heat of condensation is removed by the generation of low pressure steam on the inner tube side of the bundle. A circulation pump transfers ample boiler feed water to these tubes. The pressure of the steam generated influenced the heat flux. Changing the steam pressure means changing the steam condensate temperature and therefore the temperature difference between the tube side and the shell side. 2NH3 + CO2 ↔ NH2COONH4 + Heat. This reaction is exothermic and according to Le Chatelier's Principle if the heat is not removed enough, it will come back to left side and generate of the gas and so the Urea synthesis pressure will rise. The most principal reasons for high Urea synthesis pressure are non proportional of Ammonia/Dioxide Carbon ratio and too high a pressure in low pressure steam drum. Proportional of Ammonia/Dioxide Carbon ratio is 3.0 and normal pressure for low pressure steam drum is 4.5 bar. As regards these conditions were proportional but we could not control the synthesis pressure the plant endangered, therefore we had to control the steam drum pressure at about 3.5 bar. While we opened the pool condenser, we found the partition plate used to divide inlet and outlet boiler feed water to tubes, was broken partially and so amount of boiler feed water bypass the tubes and the heat was not removed totally and it resulted in the generation of gases and high pressure in synthesis.

Keywords: boiler, pressure, pool condenser, partition plate

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
10 Study on Media Literacy and Its Role in Iranian Society (Case Study: Students of Mahmoudabad City)

Authors: Enayat Davoudi


This paper is about the study of media literacy and its role in Iranian society. Determine the research hypothesis by the use of James Patter theory and us stratification and also culture theory. By the use of traversal method and by the aim of the survey on 375 students in Mahmoudabad which was selected randomly, the data was gathered and analyzed by SPSS software. Coefficient alpha for Crohn Bach is used in order to reach to the justifiability of indexes. The research findings show that the variable like duration, rate and type of media use, the realization of media content, audience goal and motivation, economical and social base and the rate of education has a meaningful relation with media literacy.

Keywords: media, media literacy, Iranian society, Mahmoudabad students

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
9 Production and Quality Control of a Novel 153Sm-Complex for Radiotherapy of Bone-Metastases

Authors: H. Yousefnia, R. Enayati, M. Hosntalab, S. Zolghadri, A. Bahrami-Samani


Bone metastases occur in many cases at an early stage of the tumour disease, however their symptoms are recognized rather late. The aim of this study was the preparation of 153Sm-(4-{[bis-(phosphonomethyl))carbamoyl]methyl}-7,10-bis(carboxymethyl) 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododec-1-yl) acetic acid (BPAMD) for bone pain palliation therapy. 153Sm was produced at Tehran research reactor via 152Sm(n,γ)153Sm reaction. 200 µl of 1mg/ml BPAMD solution was added to the vial containing 1 mCi 153Sm and the mixture was heated up to 90 0C for 1 h. The radiochemical purity of the complex was measured by ITLC method. The final solution with radiochemical purity of more than 95% was injected to BALB mice and bio distribution was determined up to 48 h. SPECT images were acquired after 2 and 24 h post injection. While high bone uptake was confirmed by both the bio distribution studies and SPECT imaging, accumulation in other organs was approximately negligible. The results show that 153Sm-BPAMD can be used as an excellent tracer for bone pain palliation therapy.

Keywords: bone metastases, BPAMD, 153Sm, radiotherapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 524
8 Production, Quality Control, and Biodistribution Assessment of 111In-BPAMD as a New Bone Imaging Agent

Authors: H. Yousefnia, A. Aghanejad, A. Mirzaei, R. Enayati, A. R. Jalilian, S. Zolghadri


Bone metastases occur in many cases at an early stage of the tumour disease; however, their symptoms are recognized rather late. The aim of this study was the preparation and quality control of 111In-BPAMD for diagnostic purposes. 111In was produced at the Agricultural, Medical, and Industrial Research School (AMIRS) by means of 30 MeV cyclotron via natCd(p,x)111In reaction. Complexion of In‐111 with BPAMD was carried out by using acidic solution of 111InCl3 and BPAMD in absolute water. The effect of various parameters such as temperature, ligand concentration, pH, and time on the radiolabeled yield was studied. 111In-BPAMD was prepared successfully with the radiochemical purity of 95% at the optimized condition (100 µg of BPAMD, pH=5, and at 90°C for 1 h) which was measured by ITLC method. The final solution was injected to wild-type mice and biodistribution was determined up to 72 h. SPECT images were acquired after 2 and 24 h post injection. Both the biodistribution studies and SPECT imaging indicated high bone uptake while accumulation in other organs was approximately negligible. The results show that 111In-BPAMD can be used as an excellent tracer for diagnosis of bone metastases by SPECT imaging.

Keywords: biodistribution, BPAMD, 111In, SPECT

Procedia PDF Downloads 479
7 International Student Recruitment in Higher Education: A Comparative Study of the Countries in the Middle East

Authors: Ali Arabkheradmand, Enayat A. Shabani, Shabnam Ranjbar Nikkhoo


Historical and ancestral bonds of the countries in the Middle East have led to similarities in culture and context of their societies. In addition, economic resources, such as the oil industry, have generally been an integrative point in the region. Higher education of a country is influenced by different national and international factors and regarding the mentioned bonds, it is inviting to study the development of the countries of the Middle East in higher education and draw some practical implications which can be used in the educational policy-making of the region. This review includes a data analysis on the population of international students in the countries of the Middle East. As its second objective, a review study on the successful countries, that is those which host the highest number of international students and the strategies they have developed to reach this state among the countries of the region has been conducted. Suggestions are made as to the strategies in higher education systems of these countries which could prove useful and practical in the development of internationalization of higher education in the region, specifically with regard to the recruitment of international students.

Keywords: internationalization of higher education, international student recruitment, Middle East countries, educational policy making

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
6 Synthesizing CuFe2O4 Spinel Powders by a Combustion-Like Process for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnects Coating

Authors: Seyedeh Narjes Hosseini, Mohammad Hossein Enayati, Fathallah Karimzadeh, Nigel Mark Sammes


The synthesis of CuFe2O4 spinel powders by an optimized combustion-like process followed by calcinations is described herein. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dilatometry and 4-probe DC methods. Different glycine to nitrate (G/N) ratios of 1 (fuel-deficient), 1.48 (stoichiometric) and 2 (fuel-rich) were employed. Calcining the as-prepared powders at 800 and 1000°C for 5 hours showed that the 2 ratio results in the formation of desired copper spinel single phase at both calcinations temperatures. For G/N=1, formation of CuFe2O4 takes place in three steps. First, iron and copper nitrates decomposes to iron oxide and pure copper. Then, copper transforms to copper oxide and finally, copper and iron oxides react to each other to form copper ferrite spinel phase. The electrical conductivity and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sintered pelletized samples were obtained 2 (800°C) and 11×10-6 °C-1 (25-800°C), respectively.

Keywords: SOFC interconnect coatings, Copper ferrite, Spinels, electrical conductivity, Glycine–nitrate process

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
5 Reducing Total Harmonic Content of 9-Level Inverter by Use of Cuckoo Algorithm

Authors: Mahmoud Enayati, Sirous Mohammadi


In this paper, a novel procedure to find the firing angles of the multilevel inverters of supply voltage and, consequently, to decline the total harmonic distortion (THD), has been presented. In order to eliminate more harmonics in the multilevel inverters, its number of levels can be lessened or pulse width modulation waveform, in which more than one switching occur in each level, be used. Both cases complicate the non-algebraic equations and their solution cannot be performed by the conventional methods for the numerical solution of nonlinear equations such as Newton-Raphson method. In this paper, Cuckoo algorithm is used to compute the optimal firing angle of the pulse width modulation voltage waveform in the multilevel inverter. These angles should be calculated in such a way that the voltage amplitude of the fundamental frequency be generated while the total harmonic distortion of the output voltage be small. The simulation and theoretical results for the 9-levels inverter offer the high applicability of the proposed algorithm to identify the suitable firing angles for declining the low order harmonics and generate a waveform whose total harmonic distortion is very small and it is almost a sinusoidal waveform.

Keywords: evolutionary algorithms, multilevel inverters, total harmonic content, Cuckoo Algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 436
4 A Study on Explicitation Strategies Employed in Persian Subtitling of English Crime Movies

Authors: Hossein Heidari Tabrizi, Azizeh Chalak, Hossein Enayat


The present study seeks to investigate the application of expansion strategy in Persian subtitles of English crime movies. More precisely, this study aims at classifying the different types of expansion used in subtitles as well as investigating the appropriateness or inappropriateness of the application of each type. To achieve this end, three English movies; namely, The Net (1995), Contact (1997) and Mission Impossible 2 (2000), available with Persian subtitles, were selected for the study. To collect the data, the above mentioned movies were watched and those parts of the Persian subtitles in which expansion had been used were identified and extracted along with their English dialogs. Then, the extracted Persian subtitles were classified based on the reason that led to expansion in each case. Next, the appropriateness or inappropriateness of using expansion in the extracted Persian subtitles was descriptively investigated. Finally, an equivalent not containing any expansion was proposed for those cases in which the meaning could be fully transferred without this strategy. The findings of the study indicated that the reasons range from explicitation (explicitation of visual, co-textual and contextual information), mistranslation and paraphrasing to the preferences of subtitlers. Furthermore, it was found that the employment of expansion strategy was inappropriate in all cases except for those caused by explicitation of contextual information since correct and shorter equivalents which were equally capable of conveying the intended meaning could be posited for the original dialogs.

Keywords: audiovisual translation, English crime movies, expansion strategies, Persian subtitles

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
3 Resistance of Field Populations of Rhipicephalus bursa (Acari:Ixodidae) to Lambda-Cyhalothrin Acaricide in Mazandaran Province, North of Iran

Authors: Seyyed Payman Ziapour, Ahmadali Enayati, Sadegh Kheiri, Farzaneh Sahraei-Rostami, Reza Ali Mohammadpour, Mahmoud Fazeli-Dinan, Mohsen Aarabi, Fatemeh Asgarian, Seyed Hassan Nikookar, Mohammad Sarafrazi


Rhipicephalus bursa (R. bursa) is a two-host ixodid tick with wide distribution in north of Iran especially in domestic animals of Mazandaran Province. The prolonged or incorrect use of chemical insecticides has led to build up of resistance in hard ticks in many areas of the world. Lack of basic information on resistance status of R. bursa was the reason behind this study to determine the susceptibility status of the species to lambda-cyhalothrin insecticide in Mazandaran Province. From May 2013 to March 2014, R. bursa ticks were collected on sheep, goat and cattle in different districts of Mazandaran Province. The engorged female ticks were reared in a controlled insectary for producing 12-18 days old larvae for larval packet test (LPT) bioassay against discriminant doses of lambda-cyhalothrin 5% EC (MAC SILAT®). 80% of ten pooled tick populations were susceptible to lambda-cyhalothrin as resistance ratios (RR50s) varied from 1 to 2.94 when compared with the most susceptible population NH-16. Only GK-12 and BF-6 populations (from plain areas of Galugah and Fereydunkenar Counties, respectively) were classified as resistant level I at LC50 level. Population NK-2 (from woodland areas of Kojour district in Nowshahr County) showed the highest resistance ratio of RR99 = 4.32 and 30% of tick populations were resistant at LC99 level. Our research showed initiation of lambda-cyhalothrin resistance in Rhipicephalus bursa populations in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran. This is considered a warning to policy makers for disease control in the study area. This research is a part of the PhD thesis of SP. Ziapour by grant No. 92-89 in Student Research Committee, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Keywords: Rhipicephalus bursa, hard tick, lambda-cyhalothrin resistance, Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
2 Correlation between the Larvae Density (Diptera: Culicidae) and Physicochemical Characteristics of Habitats in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

Authors: Seyed Hassan Nikookar, Mahmoud Fazeli-Dinan, Seyyed Payman Ziapour, Ahmad-Ali Enayati


Background: Mosquitoes look for all kinds of aquatic habitats for laying eggs. Characteristics of water habitats are important factors in determining whether a mosquito can survive and successfully completed their developmental stages. Physicochemical factors can display an important role in vector control programs. This investigate determined whether physicochemical factors differ between habitats can be effective in the larvae density in Mazandaran province. Methods: Larvae were collected by the standard dipper up to 350 ml for 15-20 minutes from fixed habitats in 16 villages of 30 townships, the specimens identified by morphological key. Water samples were collected during larval collection and were evaluated for temperature (°C), acidity (pH), turbidity (NTU), electrical conductivity (μS/cm), alkalinity (mg/l), total hardness (mg/l), nitrate (mg/l), chloride (mg/l), phosphate (mg/l), sulfate (mg/l) in selected habitats using standard methods. Spearman Correlation coefficient was used for analyze data. Results: Totally 7566 mosquito larvae of three genera and 15 species were collected of fixed habitats. Cx. pipiens was the dominant species except in villages of Tileno, Zavat, Asad Abad, Shah Mansur Mahale which An. maculipennis, Cx. torrentium were as the predominant species. Turbidity in Karat Koti, Chloride in Al Tappeh, nitrate, phosphate and sulfate in Chalmardi, electrical conductivity, alkalinity, total hardness in Komishan villages were significantly higher than other villages (P < 0.05). There were a significant positive correlation between Cx. pipiens and Electrical conductivity, Alkalinity, Total hardness, Chloride, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Chloride, whereas a significant negative correlation observed between Sulfate and Cx. perexiguss. Conclusion: The correlations observed between physicochemical factor and larval density, possibly can confirm the effect of these parameters on the breeding activities of mosquitoes, and could probability facilitate larval control programs by the handwork of such factors.

Keywords: anopheles, culex, culiseta, physicochemical, habitats, larvae density, correlation

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
1 Therapeutic Effect of Cichorium Intybus Aerial Parts Extract against Oxidative Stress and Nephropathy Induced by Streptozotocin in Rats

Authors: Josline Salib, Sayed El-Toumy, Abeer Salama, Enayat Omara, Emad Hassan


Diabetic nephropathy is an important cause of morbidity and mortality and is now among the most common causes of end-stage renal failure (ESRF) in developed countries. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the phenolic compounds content of Cichorium intybus aerial parts extracts as well as the therapeutic effects on diabetic nephropathy, oxidative stress, and anti-inflammatory by characterizing biochemical, histopathological changes and immunohistochemistry in an experimental diabetic rat model as compared with Amaryl. Ten known compounds of flavonoids, coumarins and phenolic acid derivatives were isolated from the C. intybus aqueous methanolic extract. Structures of the isolated compounds were established by chromatography, UV and 1D⁄2D 1H⁄ 13C spectroscopy. The aqueous methanol extract of C. intybus aerial parts was administered to Streptozotocin diabetes rats at doses (100 and 200 mg/kg) for 21 days. After treatment, blood glucose, serum insulin, urea, creatinine, and TNF-α were evaluated. Enzymatic scavengers including catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) were determined to evaluate the oxidative status in the renal tissue. Diabetic rats treated with C. intybus extract showed a dose-dependent reduction of fasting blood glucose and kidney antioxidant status in comparison to the diabetic control group. The extract was able to enhance the antioxidant defenses of the kidney by increasing the reduced GSH and CAT content and decreasing MDA content in addition to significantly decreasing kidney nitric oxide content compared to diabetic control rats. Furthermore, the histopathological findings in C. intybus extract administered rats were observed at markedly lesser extent than the diabetic control group. Also, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels were decreased significantly after the administration of high-dose C. intybus extract in diabetic rats. Showing significant antihyperglycemic and antioxidant properties of C. intybus aerial parts extract, which is attributed to its polyphenolic content, may offer a potential source for the treatment of diabetes.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, anti-diabetic nephropathy, cichorium intybus aerial parts, phenolic compounds

Procedia PDF Downloads 52