Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 714

Search results for: titanium alloys

714 Biological Evaluation of Some Modern Titanium Alloys for Dental Implants

Authors: Roxana Maria Angelescu, Raluca Ion, Anişoara Cîmpean, Doina Răducanu, Mariana Lucia Angelescu


In an attempt to find titanium alloys that fulfill the requirements for mechanical and biological compatibility, laboratory and material related tests were performed during the years, as well as preclinical and clinical trials. The multidisciplinary scientific research facilitates the global evaluation of biocompatibility and osseointegration regarding the dental implant alloys. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro biocompatibility of three modern titanium alloys: Ti-31.7Nb-6.21Zr-1.4Fe-0.16O (wt%), Ti-36.5Nb-4.5Zr-3Ta-0.16O (wt%) and Ti-20Nb-5Ta (wt%), in order to establish whether the use of these titanium alloys can have any toxic or injurious effects on biological systems. The commonly used Ti-6Al-4V alloy was investigated as a reference material. The behavior of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts on all these four metallic surfaces was evaluated. The tests of immunofluorescence, cytotoxicity and cellular proliferation lead to the conclusion that the newly-developed titanium alloys elicit a good cellular response in terms of cellular survival, adhesion, morphology and proliferative potential as well.

Keywords: biocompatibility tests, dental implants, titanium alloys, biomedical engineering

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713 Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of New Developed Titanium Alloys in Ringer’s Solution

Authors: Yasser M. Abd-elrhman, Mohamed A. Gepreel, Kiochi Nakamura, Ahmed Abd El-Moneim, Sengo Kobayashi, Mervat M. Ibrahim


Titanium alloys are known as highly bio compatible metallic materials due to their high strength, low elastic modulus, and high corrosion resistance in biological media. Besides other important material features, the corrosion parameters and corrosion products are responsible for limiting the biological and chemical bio compatibility of metallic materials that produce undesirable reactions in implant-adjacent and/or more distant tissues. Electrochemical corrosion behaviors of novel beta titanium alloys, Ti-4.7Mo-4.5Fe, Ti-3Mo-0.5Fe, and Ti-2Mo-0.5Fe were characterized in naturally aerated Ringer’s solution at room temperature compared with common used biomedical titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V. The corrosion resistance of titanium alloys were investigated through open circuit potential (OCP), potentiodynamic polarization measurements and optical microscope (OM). A high corrosion resistance was obtained for all alloys due to the stable passive film formed on their surfaces. The new present alloys are promising metallic biomaterials for the future, owing to their very low elastic modulus and good corrosion resistance capabilities.

Keywords: titanium alloys, corrosion resistance, Ringer’s solution, electrochemical corrosion

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712 Effect of Machining Induced Microstructure Changes on the Edge Formability of Titanium Alloys at Room Temperature

Authors: James S. Kwame, E. Yakushina, P. Blackwell


The challenges in forming titanium alloys at room temperature are well researched and are linked both to the limitations imposed by the basic crystal structure and their ability to form texture during plastic deformation. One major issue of concern for the sheet forming of titanium alloys is their high sensitivity to surface inhomogeneity. Various machining processes are utilised in preparing sheet hole edges for edge flanging applications. However, the response of edge forming tendencies of titanium to different edge surface finishes is not well investigated. The hole expansion test is used in this project to elucidate the impact of abrasive water jet (AWJ) and electro-discharge machining (EDM) cutting techniques on the edge formability of CP-Ti (Grade 2) and Ti-3Al-2.5V alloys at room temperature. The results show that the quality of the edge surface finish has a major effect on the edge formability of the materials. The work also found that the variations in the edge forming performance are mainly the result of the influence of machining induced edge surface defects.

Keywords: titanium alloys, hole expansion test, edge formability, non-conventional machining

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
711 Beta Titanium Alloys: The Lowest Elastic Modulus for Biomedical Applications: A Review

Authors: Mohsin Talib Mohammed, Zahid A. Khan, Arshad N. Siddiquee


Biometallic materials are the most important materials for use in biomedical applications especially in manufacturing a variety of biological artificial replacements in a modern worlds, e.g. hip, knee or shoulder joints, due to their advanced characteristics. Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are used extensively in biomedical applications based on their high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance. Beta-Ti alloys containing completely biocompatible elements are exceptionally prospective materials for manufacturing of bioimplants. They have superior mechanical, chemical and electrochemical properties for use as biomaterials. These biomaterials have the ability to introduce the most important property of biochemical compatibility which is low elastic modulus. This review examines current information on the recent developments in alloying elements leading to improvements of beta Ti alloys for use as biomaterials. Moreover, this paper focuses mainly on the evolution, evaluation and development of the modulus of elasticity as an effective factor on the performance of beta alloys.

Keywords: beta alloys, biomedical applications, titanium alloys, Young's modulus

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
710 Elaboration of Titania Nanotubes on Ti₆Al₄V Substrate by Electrochemical Anodization for Dental Application

Authors: Abdelghani Boucheham, Ahcene Karaali, Amar Manseri


Nanostructured Titania layers formed on the surface of titanium and titanium alloys by anodic oxidation play an important role in the enhancement of their biocompatibility and osseointegration in the human body. In the current work, highly ordered titania nanotube array films were elaborated on Ti₆Al₄V medical grade alloys in organic electrolyte containing ethylene glycol, 0.2 wt. % NH₄F and 4 vol. % H₂O at an applied potential of 60 V for different durations. The diameters, lengths and wall thicknesses of the obtained nanotubes were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM).

Keywords: anodization, dental implants, titania nanotubes, titanium alloys, SEM

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709 Deformability of the Rare Earth Metal Modified Metastable-β Alloy Ti-15Mo

Authors: F. Brunke, L. Waalkes, C. Siemers


Due to reduced stiffness, research on second generation titanium alloys for implant applications, like the metastable β-titanium alloy Ti-15Mo, become more and more important in the recent years. The machinability of these alloys is generally poor leading to problems during implant production and comparably large production costs. Therefore, in the present study, Ti 15Mo was alloyed with 0.8 wt.-% of the rare earth metals lanthanum (Ti-15Mo+0.8La) and neodymium (Ti-15Mo+0.8Nd) to improve its machinability. Their microstructure consisted of a titanium matrix and micrometer-size particles of the rare earth metals and two of their oxides. The particles stabilized the micro structure as grain growth was minimized. As especially the ductility might be affected by the precipitates, the behavior of Ti-15Mo+0.8La and Ti-15Mo+0.8Nd was investigated during static and dynamic deformation at elevated temperature to develop a processing route. The resulting mechanical properties (static strength and ductility) were similar in all investigated alloys.

Keywords: Ti 15Mo, titanium alloys, rare earth metals, free machining alloy

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708 Texture and Twinning in Selective Laser Melting Ti-6Al-4V Alloys

Authors: N. Kazantseva, P. Krakhmalev, I. Yadroitsev, A. Fefelov, N. Vinogradova, I. Ezhov, T. Kurennykh


Martensitic texture-phase transition in Selective Laser Melting (SLM) Ti-6Al-4V (ELI) alloys was found. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) analysis showed the initial cubic beta < 100 > (001) BCC texture. Such kind of texture is observed in BCC metals with flat rolling texture when axis is in the direction of rolling and the texture plane coincides with the plane of rolling. It was found that the texture of the parent BCC beta-phase determined the texture of low-temperature HCP alpha-phase limited the choice of its orientation variants. The {10-12} < -1011 > twinning system in titanium alloys after SLM was determined. Analysis of the oxygen contamination in SLM alloys was done. Comparison of the obtained results with the conventional titanium alloys is also provided.

Keywords: additive technology, texture, twins, Ti-6Al-4V, oxygen content

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707 Effect of Incremental Forming Parameters on Titanium Alloys Properties

Authors: P. Homola, L. Novakova, V. Kafka, M. P. Oscoz


Shear spinning is closely related to the asymmetric incremental sheet forming (AISF) that could significantly reduce costs incurred by the fabrication of complex aeronautical components with a minimal environmental impact. The spinning experiments were carried out on commercially pure titanium (Ti-Gr2) and Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-Gr5) alloy. Three forming modes were used to characterize the titanium alloys properties from the point of view of different spinning parameters. The structure and properties of the materials were assessed by means of metallographic analyses and micro-hardness measurements. The highest value wall angle failure limit was achieved using spinning parameters mode for both materials. The feed rate effect was observed only in the samples from the Ti-Gr2 material, when a refinement of the grain microstructure with lower feed rate and higher tangential speed occurred. Ti-Gr5 alloy exhibited a decrease of the micro-hardness at higher straining due to recovery processes.

Keywords: incremental forming, metallography, shear spinning, titanium alloys

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706 Effect of Structure on Properties of Incrementally Formed Titanium Alloy Sheets

Authors: Lucie Novakova, Petr Homola, Vaclav Kafka


Asymmetric incremental sheet forming (AISF) could significantly reduce costs incurred by the fabrication of complex industrial components with a minimal environmental impact. The AISF experiments were carried out on commercially pure titanium (Ti-Gr2), Timetal (15-3-3-3) alloy, and Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-Gr5) alloy. A special testing geometry was used to characterize the titanium alloys properties from the point of view of the forming zone and titanium structure effect. The structure and properties of the materials were assessed by means of metallographic analyses and microhardness measurements.The highest differences in the parameters assessed as a function of the sampling zone were observed in the case of alpha-phase Ti-Gr2at the expense of the most substantial sheet thinning occurrence. A springback causes a smaller stored deformation in Timetal (β alloy) resulting in less pronounced microstructure refinement and microhardness increase. Ti-6Al-4V alloy exhibited early failure due to its poor formability at ambient temperature.

Keywords: incremental forming, metallography, hardness, titanium alloys

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705 Characterization of Titanium -Niobium Alloys by Powder Metallurgy as İmplant

Authors: Eyyüp Murat Karakurt, Yan Huang, Mehmet Kaya, Hüseyin Demirtaş, Alper İncesu


In this study, Ti-(x) Nb (at. %) master alloys (x:10, 20, and 30) were fabricated following a standard powder metallurgy route and were sintered at 1200 ˚C for 6h, under 300 MPa by powder metallurgy method. The effect of the Nb concentration in Ti matrix and porosity level was examined experimentally. For metallographic examination, the alloys were analysed by optical microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry analysis. In addition, X-ray diffraction was performed on the alloys to determine which compound formed in the microstructure. The compression test was applied to the alloys to understand the mechanical behaviors of the alloys. According to Nb concentration in Ti matrix, the β phase increased. Also, porosity level played a crucial role on the mechanical performance of the alloys.

Keywords: Nb concentration, porosity level, powder metallurgy, The β phase

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704 Biocompatible Beta Titanium Alloy Ti36Nb6Ta as a Suitable Material for Bone Regeneration

Authors: Vera Lukasova, Eva Filova, Jana Dankova, Vera Sovkova, Matej Daniel, Michala Rampichova


Proper bone implants should promote fast adhesion of cells, stimulate cell differentiation and support the formation of bone tissue. Nowadays titanium is used as a biocompatible material capable of bone tissue integration. This study was focused on comparison of bioactive properties of two titanium alloys - beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta and standard medical titanium alloy Ti6A14V. The advantage of beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta is mainly that this material does not contain adverse elements like vanadium or aluminium. Titanium alloys were sterilized in ethanol, placed into 48 well plates and seeded with porcine mesenchymal stem cells. Cells were cultivated for 14 days in standard growth cultivation media with osteogenic supplements. Cell metabolic activity was quantified using MTS assay (Promega). Cell adhesion on day 1 and cell proliferation on further days were verified immunohistochemically using beta-actin monoclonal antibody and secondary antibody conjugated with AlexaFluor®488. Differentiation of cells was evaluated using alkaline phosphatase assay. Additionally, gene expression of collagen I was measured by qRT-PCR. Porcine mesenchymal stem cells adhered and spread well on beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta on day 1. During the 14 days’ time period the cells were spread confluently on the surface of the beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta. The metabolic activity of cells increased during the whole cultivation period. In comparison to standard medical titanium alloy Ti6A14V, we did not observe any differences. Moreover, the expression of collagen I gene revealed no statistical differences between both titanium alloys. Therefore, a beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta promotes cell adhesion, metabolic activity, proliferation and collagen I expression equally to standard medical titanium alloy Ti6A14V. Thus, beta titanium is a suitable material that provides sufficient biocompatible properties. This project was supported by the Czech Science Foundation: grant No. 16-14758S.

Keywords: beta titanium alloy, biocompatibility, differentiation, mesenchymal stem cells

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703 Mechanical Properties and Characterization of Ti–6Al–4V Alloy Diffused by Molybdenum

Authors: Alaeddine Kaouka


The properties and characterization of Ti-6Al-4V alloys with different contents of Mo were investigated. Microstructure characterization and hardness are considered. The alloy structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction, SEM and optical microscopy. The results showed that the addition of Mo stabilized the β-phase in the treated solution condition. The Mo element added to titanium alloys changes the lattice parameters of phases. Microstructural observations indicate an obvious reduction in the prior grain size. The hardness has increased with the increase in β-phase stability, while Young’s modulus and ductility have decreased.

Keywords: characterization, mechanical properties, molybdenum, titanium alloy

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702 Effect of Vanadium Addition to Aluminum Grain Refined by Ti or Ti + B on Its Microstructure, Mechanical Behavior, Fatigue Strength and Life

Authors: Adnan I. O. Zaid


As aluminum solidifies in columnar structure with large grain size which reduces its surface quality and mechanical strength; therefore it is normally grain refined either by titanium or titanium + boron (Ti or Ti + B). In this paper, the effect of addition of either Ti or Ti + B to commercially pure aluminum on its grain size, Vickers hardness, mechanical strength and fatigue strength and life is presented and discussed. Similarly, the effect of vanadium addition to Al grain refined by Ti or Ti+ B is presented and discussed. Two binary master alloys Al-Ti and Al-Vi were laboratory prepared from which five different micro-alloys in addition to the commercially pure aluminum namely Al-Ti, Al-Ti-B, Al-V, Al-Ti-V and Al-Ti-B-V were prepared for the investigation. Finally, the effect of their addition on the fatigue cracks initiation and propagation, using scanning electron microscope, SEM, is also presented and discussed. Photomirographs and photoscans are included in the paper.

Keywords: aluminum, fatigue, grain refinement, titanium, titanium+boron, vanadium

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701 Enhancement and Characterization of Titanium Surfaces with Sandblasting and Acid Etching for Dental Implants

Authors: Busra Balli, Tuncay Dikici, Mustafa Toparli


Titanium and its alloys have been used extensively over the past 25 years as biomedical materials in orthopedic and dental applications because of their good mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. It is known that the surface properties of titanium implants can enhance the cellular response and play an important role in Osseo integration. The rate and quality of Osseo integration in titanium implants are related to their surface properties. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of sandblasting and acid etching on surface morphology, roughness, the wettability of titanium. The surface properties will be characterized by scanning electron microscopy and contact angle and roughness measurements. The results show that surface morphology, roughness, and wettability were changed and enhanced by these treatments.

Keywords: dental implant, etching, surface modifications, surface morphology, surface roughness

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700 First-Principles Calculations and Thermo-Calc Study of the Elastic and Thermodynamic Properties of Ti-Nb-ZR-Ta Alloy for Biomedical Applications

Authors: M. Madigoe, R. Modiba


High alloyed beta (β) phase-stabilized titanium alloys are known to have a low elastic modulus comparable to that of the human bone (≈30 GPa). The β phase in titanium alloys exhibits an elastic Young’s modulus of about 60-80 GPa, which is nearly half that of α-phase (100-120 GPa). In this work, a theoretical investigation of structural stability and thermodynamic stability, as well as the elastic properties of a quaternary Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr alloy, will be presented with an attempt to lower Young’s modulus. The structural stability and elastic properties of the alloy were evaluated using the first-principles approach within the density functional theory (DFT) framework implemented in the CASTEP code. The elastic properties include bulk modulus B, elastic Young’s modulus E, shear modulus cʹ and Poisson’s ratio v. Thermodynamic stability, as well as the fraction of β phase in the alloy, was evaluated using the Thermo-Calc software package. Thermodynamic properties such as Gibbs free energy (Δ?⁰?) and enthalpy of formation will be presented in addition to phase proportion diagrams. The stoichiometric compositions of the alloy is Ti-Nbx-Ta5-Zr5 (x = 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 at.%). An optimum alloy composition must satisfy the Born stability criteria and also possess low elastic Young’s modulus. In addition, the alloy must be thermodynamically stable, i.e., Δ?⁰? < 0.

Keywords: elastic modulus, phase proportion diagram, thermo-calc, titanium alloys

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699 Effect of Gas-Diffusion Oxynitriding on Microstructure and Hardness of Ti-6Al-4V Alloys

Authors: Dong Bok Lee, Min Jung Kim


The commercially available titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, was oxynitrided in the deoxygenated nitrogen gas at high temperatures followed by cooling in oxygen-containing nitrogen in order to analyze the influence of oxynitriding parameters on the phase modification, hardness, and the microstructural evolution of the oxynitrided coating. The surface microhardness of the oxynitrided alloy increased due to the strengthening effect of the formed titanium oxynitrides, TiNxOy. The maximum microhardness was obtained, when TiNxOy had near equiatomic composition of nitrogen and oxygen. It could be attained under the optimum oxygen partial pressure and temperature-time condition.

Keywords: titanium alloy, oxynitriding, gas diffusion, surface treatment

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698 Growth and Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Titanium Alloy Ti6Al4V and Novel Beta Titanium Alloy Ti36Nb6Ta

Authors: Eva Filová, Jana Daňková, Věra Sovková, Matej Daniel


Titanium alloys are biocompatible metals that are widely used in clinical practice as load bearing implants. The chemical modification may influence cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation as well as stiffness of the material. The aim of the study was to evaluate the adhesion, growth and differentiation of pig mesenchymal stem cells on the novel beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta compared to standard medical titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. Discs of Ti36Nb6Ta and Ti6Al4V alloy were sterilized by ethanol, put in 48-well plates, and seeded by pig mesenchymal stem cells at the density of 60×103/cm2 and cultured in Minimum essential medium (Sigma) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and penicillin/streptomycin. Cell viability was evaluated using MTS assay (CellTiter 96® AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay;Promega), cell proliferation using Quant-iT™ ds DNA Assay Kit (Life Technologies). Cells were stained immunohistochemically using monoclonal antibody beta-actin, and secondary antibody conjugated with AlexaFluor®488 and subsequently the spread area of cells was measured. Cell differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase assay using p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) as a substrate; the reaction was stopped by NaOH, and the absorbance was measured at 405 nm. Osteocalcin, specific bone marker was stained immunohistochemically and subsequently visualized using confocal microscopy; the fluorescence intensity was analyzed and quantified. Moreover, gene expression of osteogenic markers osteocalcin and type I collagen was evaluated by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). For statistical evaluation, One-way ANOVA followed by Student-Newman-Keuls Method was used. For qRT-PCR, the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis Test and Dunn's Multiple Comparison Test were used. The absorbance in MTS assay was significantly higher on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V compared to beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta on days 7 and 14. Mesenchymal stem cells were well spread on both alloys, but no difference in spread area was found. No differences in alkaline phosphatase assay, fluorescence intensity of osteocalcin as well as the expression of type I collagen, and osteocalcin genes were observed. Higher expression of type I collagen compared to osteocalcin was observed for cells on both alloys. Both beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta and titanium alloy Ti6Al4V Ti36Nb6Ta supported mesenchymal stem cellsˈ adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Novel beta titanium alloys Ti36Nb6Ta is a promising material for bone implantation. The project was supported by the Czech Science Foundation: grant No. 16-14758S, the Grant Agency of the Charles University, grant No. 1246314 and by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports NPU I: LO1309.

Keywords: beta titanium, cell growth, mesenchymal stem cells, titanium alloy, implant

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697 Selective Laser Melting (SLM) Process and Its Influence on the Machinability of TA6V Alloy

Authors: Rafał Kamiński, Joel Rech, Philippe Bertrand, Christophe Desrayaud


Titanium alloys are among the most important material in the aircraft industry, due to its low density, high strength, and corrosion resistance. However, these alloys are considered as difficult to machine because they have poor thermal properties and high reactivity with cutting tools. The Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process becomes even more popular through industry since it enables the design of new complex components, that cannot be manufactured by standard processes. However, the high temperature reached during the melting phase as well as the several rapid heating and cooling phases, due to the movement of the laser, induce complex microstructures. These microstructures differ from conventional equiaxed ones obtained by casting+forging. Parts obtained by SLM have to be machined in order calibrate the dimensions and the surface roughness of functional surfaces. The ball milling technique is widely applied to finish complex shapes. However, the machinability of titanium is strongly influenced by the microstructure. So the objective of this work is to investigate the influence of the SLM process, i.e. microstructure, on the machinability of titanium, compared to conventional forming processes. The machinability is analyzed by measuring surface roughness, cutting forces, cutting tool wear for a range of cutting conditions (depth of cut ap, feed per tooth fz, spindle speed N) in accordance with industrial practices.

Keywords: ball milling, microstructure, surface roughness, titanium

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696 Investigation of Stellram Indexable Milling Cutter XDLT09-D41 Tool Wear for Machining of Ti6Al4V

Authors: Saad Nawaz, Yu Gang, Miao Haibin


Titanium alloys are attractive materials for aerospace industry due to their exceptional strength to weight ratio that is maintained at elevated temperatures and their good corrosion resistance. Major applications of titanium alloys were military aerospace industry, but since last decade the trend has now shifted towards commercial industry. On the other hand, titanium alloys are notorious for being poor thermal conductor that leads to them being difficult materials for machining. In this experimental study, Stellram Indexable milling cutter XDLT09-D41 is used for rough down milling of Ti6Al4V for small depth of cut under different combinations of parameters and application of high-pressure coolant. The machining performance was evaluated in terms of tool wear, tool life, and thermal crack. The tool wear was mostly observed at the tool tip and at bottom part of tool thermal deformations were observed which propagated with respect to time. Flank wear due to scratching of the cutting chips and diffusion wear because of high thermal stresses were observed specially at the bottom of the cutting tool. It was found that maximum tool life was obtained at the speed of 40m/min, feed rate of 358mm/min and depth of cut of 0.8mm. In the end, it was concluded that machining of Ti6Al4V is a thermally dominant process which leads to high thermal stresses in machining zone that results in increasing tool wear rate and deformation propagation.

Keywords: tool wear, cutting speed, flank wear , tool life

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695 Thermodynamics of Chlorination of Acid-Soluble Titanium Slag in Molten Salt for Preparation of TiCl4

Authors: Li Liang


Chinese titanium iron ore reserves with high calcium and magnesium accounted for more than 90% of the total reserves, and acid-soluble titanium slag which is produced by titanium iron ore always used to produce titanium dioxide through sulphate process. To broad the application range of acid-soluble titanium slag, the feasibility and thermodynamics of chlorinated reaction for preparation TiCl4 by titanium slag chlorination in molten slat were conducted in this paper. The analysis results show that TiCl4 can be obtained by chlorinate the acid-dissolved titanium slag with carbon. Component’s thermodynamics reaction trend is: CaO>MnO>FeO(FeCl2)>MgO>V2O5>Fe2O3>FeO(FeCl3)>TiO2>Al2O3>SiO2 in the standard state. Industrial experimental results are consistent with the thermodynamics analysis, the content of TiCl4 is more than 98% in the production. Fe, Si, V, Al, and other impurity content can satisfy the requirements of production.

Keywords: thermodynamics, acid-soluble titanium slag, preparation of TiCl4, chlorination

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694 The Effect of Addition of Some Rare Earth Materials to Zinc Aluminum Alloy ZA-22

Authors: Adnan I. O. Zaid


Zinc aluminum alloys are versatile materials which are widely used in manufacturing several parts in the automobile and aircraft industries. The effect of grain refinement of these alloys by rare earth elements on their mechanical characteristics is scarce. The equal channel angular pressing is relatively recent method for producing severe plastic deformation in materials subjected to it resulting in refinement of their structure and enhancement of their mechanical characteristics. The phase diagram of these alloys indicates that large dendrites of large grain size can be formed during their solidification of the cast which tends to deteriorate their mechanical strength and surface quality. To overcome this problem they are normally grain refined by either titanium or titanium + boron to their melt prior to solidification. In this paper, comparison between the effect of adding either titanium, (Ti), titanium+boron, (Ti+B), or Molybdenum, Mo, to zinc-aluminum22, alloy, (ZA22) on its metallurgical and mechanical characteristics in the cast condition and after pressing by the ECAP process is investigated. It was found that addition of either Ti, Ti+B, or Mo to the ZA22 alloy in the cast condition resulted in refining of their structure being more refined by the addition of Mo, then .Ti+B and less refining by Ti addition. Furthermore, the ECAP process resulted in further refinement of the alloy micro structure except in case of Ti+B addition where poisoning i.e. coarsening of the grains has occurred. Regarding the addition of these element on the mechanical behavior; it was found that addition of Ti Or Ti+B resulted in little enhancement of the alloy strength factor and its flow stress at 20% true strain; whereas, the addition of resulted in deteriorating of its mechanical behavior as % decrease in the strength factor and % in its flow stress of 20%. As for the strain hardening index; addition of any of these elements resulted in decreasing the strain hardening index.

Keywords: addition, grain refinement, mechanical characteristics, microstructure, rare earth elements, ZA-22, Zinc- aluminum alloy

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693 Applications of Nanoparticles via Laser Ablation in Liquids: A Review

Authors: Fawaz M. Abdullah, Abdulrahman M. Al-Ahmari, Madiha Rafaqat


Laser ablation of any solid target in the liquid leads to fabricate nanoparticles (NPs) with metal or different compositions of materials such as metals, alloys, oxides, carbides, hydroxides. The fabrication of NPs in liquids based on laser ablation has grown up rapidly in the last decades compared to other techniques. Nowadays, laser ablation has been improved to prepare different types of NPs with special morphologies, microstructures, phases, and sizes, which can be applied in various fields. The paper reviews and highlights the different sizes, shapes and application field of nanoparticles that are produced by laser ablation under different liquids and materials. Also, the paper provides a case study for producing a titanium NPs produced by laser ablation submerged in distilled water. The size of NPs is an important parameter, especially for their usage and applications. The size and shape have been analyzed by SEM, (EDAX) was applied to evaluate the oxidation and elements of titanium NPs and the XRD was used to evaluate the phase composition and the peaks of both titanium and some element. SEM technique showed that the synthesized NPs size ranges were between 15-35 nm which can be applied in various field such as annihilator for cancerous cell etc.

Keywords: nanoparticles, laser ablation, titanium NPs, applications

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692 Microstructural and Corrosion Analysis of a Ti-Nb-Ta Biocompatible Dental Implant Alloy

Authors: Roxana Maria Angelescu, Doina Răducanu, Mariana Lucia Angelescu, Ion Cincă, Vasile Dănuţ Cojocaru, Cosmin Cotruț, Şerban Nicolae


Titanium alloys are often used for biomedical applications as hard tissue replacements, such as: orthopedic implants, spinal fixation devices and dental implants. Their advantages are well known and demonstrated: excellent mechanical properties, biocompatibility and good corrosion resistance, but it is also known that the main disadvantage of the metallic materials is their tendency of corrosion in in-vivo environments. In 1987, titanium was found to be the only metallic biomaterial that osseointegrates. The aim of this study was to investigate the microstructure and the corrosion behavior of the Ti-20Nb-5Ta wt% alloy. In this case Nb stabilizes the β-Ti structure and Ta is a highly passivating metal. The as studied alloy was melt under argon protective atmosphere in a levitation induction melting furnace, type FIVE CELES - MP25, with a nominal power of 25 kW and a melting capacity of 30 cm3. The microstructure of the as studied alloy was analyzed by using the electronic microscope Tescan Vega II-XMU. The phase structure of the as studied alloy was determined, as well as the crystalline grain size (100-200µ). To determine the corrosion behavior of the as studied alloy, the technique used was the linear polarization, with the PARSTAT 4000 potentiostat, produced by Princeton Applied Research; potentiodynamic curves were obtained with the VeraStudio v.2.4.2 software.

Keywords: corrosion resistance, microstructure, titanium alloys

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691 Effect of Carbon Additions on FeCrNiMnTi High Entropy Alloy

Authors: C. D. Gomez-Esparza, Z. V. Hernandez-Castro, C. A. Rodriguez-Gonzalez, R. Martinez-Sanchez, A. Duarte-Moller


Recently, the high entropy alloys (HEA) are the focus of attention in metallurgical and materials science due to their desirable and superior properties in comparison to conventional alloys. The HEA field has promoted the exploration of several compositions including the addition of non-metallic elements like carbon, which in traditional metallurgy is mainly used in the steel industry. The aim of this work was the synthesis of equiatomic FeCrNiMnTi high entropy alloys, with minor carbon content, by mechanical alloying and sintering. The effect of the addition of carbon nanotubes and graphite were evaluated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and microhardness test. The structural and microstructural characteristics of the equiatomic alloys, as well as their hardness were compared with those of an austenitic AISI 321 stainless steel processed under the same conditions. The results showed that porosity in bulk samples decreases with carbon nanotubes addition, while the equiatomic composition favors the formation of titanium carbide and increased the AISI 321 hardness more than three times.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, graphite, high entropy alloys, mechanical alloying

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690 Effect of Impurities in the Chlorination Process of TiO2

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha


With the increasing interest on Ti alloys, the extraction process of Ti from its typical ore, TiO2, has long been and will be important issue. As an intermediate product for the production of pigment or titanium metal sponge, tetrachloride (TiCl4) is produced by fluidized bed using high TiO2 feedstock. The purity of TiCl4 after chlorination is subjected to the quality of the titanium feedstock. Since the impurities in the TiCl4 product are reported to final products, the purification process of the crude TiCl4 is required. The purification process includes fractional distillation and chemical treatment, which depends on the nature of the impurities present and the required quality of the final product. In this study, thermodynamic analysis on the impurity effect in the chlorination process, which is the first step of extraction of Ti from TiO2, has been conducted. All thermodynamic calculations were performed using the FactSage thermodynamical software.

Keywords: rutile, titanium, chlorination process, impurities, thermodynamic calculation, FactSage

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689 Effect of Zirconium Addition to Aluminum Grain Refined by Ti on its Resistance to Wear: A Three-Dimensional Approach

Authors: S. M. A. Al-Qawabah, A. I. O. Zaid


Aluminum and its alloys are versatile materials which are widely used in industrial and engineering applications due to their good and useful properties e.g. high strength to weight ratio, high thermal and electrical conductivities and good resistance to corrosion. However, against these favorable properties they have the disadvantage they solidifying large grain columnar structure which negatively affects their mechanical properties and surface quality. Aluminum alloys are normally grain refined by some alloying elements, such as Ti, Ti-B or Zr. In this paper, the effect of zirconium addition to Al grain refined by Ti after extrusion on its wear resistance is investigated under different loads and sliding speeds namely at 5,10 and 20 N loads and sliding speeds ranging from m/min. and m/min. the results are presented in three-dimensional wear mode. To the best the authors' knowledge, the wear of aluminum in 3-dimensions has never been tackled before. In this work, the wear resistance of by presenting the results of wear are presented and discussed on the time, load and speed plots.

Keywords: aluminum grain refined, addition of titanium, wear resistance, titanium

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688 Phase Segregating and Complex Forming Pb Based (=X-Pb) Liquid Alloys

Authors: Indra Bahadur Bhandari, Narayan Panthi, Ishwar Koirala, Devendra Adhikari


We have used a theoretical model based on the assumption of compound formation in binary alloys to study the thermodynamic, microscopic, and surface properties of Bi-Pb and In-Pb liquid alloys. A review of the phase diagrams for these alloys shows that one of the stable complexes for Bi-Pb liquid alloy is BiPb3; also, that InPb is a stable phase in liquid In-Pb alloys. Using the same interaction parameters that are fitted for the free energy of mixing, we have been able to compute the bulk and thermodynamic properties of the alloys. From our observations, we are able to show that the Bi-Pb liquid alloy exhibits compound formation over the whole concentration range and the In-Pb alloys undergo phase separation. With regards to surface properties, Pb segregates more to the surface in In-Pb alloys than in Bi-Pb alloys. The viscosity isotherms have a positive deviation from ideality for both Bi-Pb and In-Pb alloys.

Keywords: asymmetry, Bi-Pb, deviation, In-Pb, interaction parameters

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687 Chemical Stability of Ceramic Crucibles to Molten Titanium

Authors: Jong-Min Park, Hyung-Ki Park, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha


Titanium is widely used due to its high specific strength, good biocompatibility, and excellent corrosion resistance. In order to produce titanium powders, it is necessary to melt titanium, and generally it is conducted by an induction heating method using Al₂O₃ ceramic crucible. However, since titanium reacts chemically with Al₂O₃, it is difficult to melt titanium by the induction heating method using Al₂O₃ crucible. To avoid this problem, we studied the chemical stability of the various crucibles such as Al₂O₃, MgO, ZrO₂, and Y₂O₃ crucibles to molten titanium. After titanium lumps (Grade 2, O(oxygen)<0.25wt%) were placed in each crucible, they were heated to 1800℃ with a heating rate of 5 ℃/min, held at 1800℃ for 30 min, and finally cooled to room temperature with a cooling rate of 5 ℃/min. All heat treatments were carried out in high purity Ar atmosphere. To evaluate the chemical stability, thermodynamic data such as Ellingham diagram were utilized, and also Vickers hardness test, microstructure analysis, and EPMA quantitative analysis were performed. As a result, Al₂O₃, MgO and ZrO₂ crucibles chemically reacted with molten titanium, but Y₂O₃ crucible rarely reacted with it.

Keywords: titanium, induction melting, crucible, chemical stability

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686 Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of Rotary-Swaged Wire of Commercial-Purity Titanium

Authors: Michal Duchek, Jan Palán, Tomas Kubina


Bars made of titanium grade 2 and grade 4 were subjected to rotary forging with up to 2.2 true strain reduction in the cross-section from 10 to 3.81 mm. During progressive deformation, grain refinement in the transverse direction took place. In the longitudinal direction, ultrafine microstructure has not developed. It has been demonstrated that titanium grade 2 strengthens more than grade 4. The ultimate tensile strength increased from 650 MPa to 1040 MPa in titanium grade 4. Hardness profiles on the cross section in both materials show an increase in the centre of the wire.

Keywords: commercial-purity titanium, wire, rotary swaging, tensile test, hardness, modulus of elasticity, microstructure

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685 Intermetallic Phases in the Fusion Weld of CP Ti to Stainless Steel

Authors: Juzar Vohra, Ravish Malhotra, Tim Pasang, Mana Azizi, Yuan Tao, Masami Mizutani


In this paper, dissimilar welding of titanium to stainless steels is reported. Laser Beam Welding (LBW) and Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) were employed to join CPTi to SS304. The welds were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). FeTi, Ti2Cr and Fe2Ti dendrites are formed along with beta phase titanium matrix. The hardness values of these phases are high which makes them brittle and leading to cracking along the weld pool. However, it is believed that cracking, hence, fracturing of this weld joint is largely due to the difference in thermal properties of the two alloys.

Keywords: dissimilar metals, fusion welding, intermetallics, brittle

Procedia PDF Downloads 397