Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4272

Search results for: natural gas

4272 Redefining Problems and Challenges of Natural Resource Management in Indonesia

Authors: Amalia Zuhra

Abstract:

Indonesia is very rich with its natural resources. Natural resource management becomes a challenge for Indonesia. Improper management will make the natural resources run out and future generations will not be able to enjoy the natural wealth. A good rule of law and proper implementation determines the success of the management of a country's natural resources. This paper examines the need to redefine problems and challenges in the management of natural resources in Indonesia in the context of law. The purpose of this article is to overview the latest issues and challenges in natural resource management and to redefine legal provisions related to environmental management and human rights protection so that the management of natural resources in the present and future will be more sustainable. This paper finds that sustainable management of natural resources is absolutely essential. The aspect of environmental protection and human rights must be elaborated more deeply so that the management of natural resources can be done maximally without harming not only people but also the environment.

Keywords: international environmental law, human rights law, natural resource management, sustainable development

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
4271 The Capacity Building in the Natural Disaster Management of Thailand

Authors: Eakarat Boonreang

Abstract:

The past two decades, Thailand faced the natural disasters, for instance, Gay typhoon in 1989, tsunami in 2004, and huge flood in 2011. The disaster management in Thailand was improved both structure and mechanism for cope with the natural disaster since 2007. However, the natural disaster management in Thailand has various problems, for examples, cooperation between related an organizations have not unity, inadequate resources, the natural disaster management of public sectors not proactive, people has not awareness the risk of the natural disaster, and communities did not participate in the natural disaster management. Objective of this study is to find the methods for capacity building in the natural disaster management of Thailand. The concept and information about the capacity building and the natural disaster management of Thailand were reviewed and analyzed by classifying and organizing data. The result found that the methods for capacity building in the natural disaster management of Thailand should be consist of 1)link operation and information in the natural disaster management between nation, province, local and community levels, 2)enhance competency and resources of public sectors which relate to the natural disaster management, 3)establish proactive natural disaster management both planning and implementation, 4)decentralize the natural disaster management to local government organizations, 5)construct public awareness in the natural disaster management to community, 6)support Community Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) seriously, and 7)emphasis on participation in the natural disaster management of all stakeholders.

Keywords: capacity building, Community Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM), Natural Disaster Management, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
4270 Natural Disaster Tourism as a Type of Dark Tourism

Authors: Dorota Rucińska

Abstract:

This theoretical paper combines the academic discourse regarding a specific part of dark tourism. Based on the literature analysis, distinction of natural disasters in thanatourism was investigated, which is connected with dynamic geographical conditions. Natural disasters used to play an important role in social life by their appearance in myths and religions. Nowadays, tourists pursuing natural hazards can be divided into three groups: Those interested in natural hazards themselves; those interested in landscape deformation and experiencing emotions shortly after extreme events - natural disasters - occur; and finally those interested in historic places log after an extreme event takes place. An important element of the natural disaster tourism is quick access to information on the location of a disaster and the destination of a potential excursion. Natural disaster tourism suits alternative tourism, yet it is opposed culture tourism, and sustainable tourism. The paper compares types and groups of tourists. It also considers the contradictions that describe dualism, which exists in dark tourism.

Keywords: dark tourism, dualism, natural disasters, natural hazards, thanatoursim

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
4269 Using Information Theory to Observe Natural Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Lipeng Zhang, Limei Li, Yanming Pearl Zhang

Abstract:

This paper takes a philosophical view as axiom, and reveals the relationship between information theory and Natural Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence under real world conditions. This paper also derives the relationship between natural intelligence and nature. According to communication principle of information theory, Natural Intelligence can be divided into real part and virtual part. Based on information theory principle that Information does not increase, the restriction mechanism of Natural Intelligence creativity is conducted. The restriction mechanism of creativity reveals the limit of natural intelligence and artificial intelligence. The paper provides a new angle to observe natural intelligence and artificial intelligence.

Keywords: natural intelligence, artificial intelligence, creativity, information theory, restriction of creativity

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
4268 Natural Gas Production Forecasts Using Diffusion Models

Authors: Md. Abud Darda

Abstract:

Different options for natural gas production in wide geographic areas may be described through diffusion of innovation models. This type of modeling approach provides an indirect estimate of an ultimately recoverable resource, URR, capture the quantitative effects of observed strategic interventions, and allow ex-ante assessments of future scenarios over time. In order to ensure a sustainable energy policy, it is important to forecast the availability of this natural resource. Considering a finite life cycle, in this paper we try to investigate the natural gas production of Myanmar and Algeria, two important natural gas provider in the world energy market. A number of homogeneous and heterogeneous diffusion models, with convenient extensions, have been used. Models validation has also been performed in terms of prediction capability.

Keywords: diffusion models, energy forecast, natural gas, nonlinear production

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
4267 A CFD Analysis of Flow through a High-Pressure Natural Gas Pipeline with an Undeformed and Deformed Orifice Plate

Authors: R. Kiš, M. Malcho, M. Janovcová

Abstract:

This work aims to present a numerical analysis of the natural gas which flows through a high-pressure pipeline and an orifice plate, through the use of CFD methods. The paper contains CFD calculations for the flow of natural gas in a pipe with different geometry used for the orifice plates. One of them has a standard geometry and a shape without any deformation and the other is deformed by the action of the pressure differential. It shows the behaviour of natural gas in a pipeline using the velocity profiles and pressure fields of the gas in both models with their differences. The entire research is based on the elimination of any inaccuracy which should appear in the flow of the natural gas measured in the high-pressure pipelines of the gas industry and which is currently not given in the relevant standard.

Keywords: orifice plate, high-pressure pipeline, natural gas, CFD analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
4266 Production of Natural Gas Hydrate by Using Air and Carbon Dioxide

Authors: Yun-Ho Ahn, Hyery Kang, Dong-Yeun Koh, Huen Lee

Abstract:

In this study, we demonstrate the production of natural gas hydrates from permeable marine sediments with simultaneous mechanisms for methane recovery and methane-air or methane-air/carbon dioxide replacement. The simultaneous melting happens until the chemical potentials become equal in both phases as natural gas hydrate depletion continues and self-regulated methane-air replacement occurs over an arbitrary point. We observed certain point between dissociation and replacement mechanisms in the natural gas hydrate reservoir, and we call this boundary as critical methane concentration. By the way, when carbon dioxide was added, the process of chemical exchange of methane by air/carbon dioxide was observed in the natural gas hydrate. The suggested process will operate well for most global natural gas hydrate reservoirs, regardless of the operating conditions or geometrical constraints.

Keywords: air injection, carbon dioxide sequestration, hydrate production, natural gas hydrate

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
4265 Effectiveness of Natural Zeolite in Mitigating Alkali Silica Reaction Expansions

Authors: Esma Gizem Daskiran, Mehmet Mustafa Daskiran

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effectiveness of two natural zeolites in reducing expansion of concrete due to alkali-silica reaction. These natural zeolites have different reactive silica content. Three aggregates; two natural sand and one crushed stone aggregate were used while preparing mortar bars in accordance with accelerated mortar bar test method, ASTM C1260. Performance of natural zeolites are compared by examining the expansions due to alkali silica reaction. Natural zeolites added to the mixtures at %10 and %20 replacement levels by weight of cement. Natural zeolite with high reactive silica content had better performance on reducing expansions due to ASR. In this research, using high reactive zeolite at %20 replacement level was effective in mitigating expansions.

Keywords: alkali silica reaction, natural zeolite, durability, expansion

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
4264 Nondestructive Natural Gas Hydrate Production by Using Air and Carbon Dioxide

Authors: Ahn Yun-Ho, Hyery Kang, Koh Dong-Yeun, Huen Lee

Abstract:

In this study, we demonstrate the production of natural gas hydrates from permeable marine sediments with simultaneous mechanisms for methane recovery and methane-air or methane-air/carbon dioxide replacement. The simultaneous melting happens until the chemical potentials become equal in both phases as natural gas hydrate depletion continues and self-regulated methane-air replacement occurs over an arbitrary point. We observed certain point between dissociation and replacement mechanisms in the natural gas hydrate reservoir, and we call this boundary as critical methane concentration. By the way, when carbon dioxide was added, the process of chemical exchange of methane by air/carbon dioxide was observed in the natural gas hydrate. The suggested process will operate well for most global natural gas hydrate reservoirs, regardless of the operating conditions or geometrical constraints.

Keywords: air injection, carbon dioxide sequestration, hydrate production, natural gas hydrate

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
4263 Thermodynamic Analysis of GT Cycle with Naphtha or Natural Gas as the Fuel: A Thermodynamic Comparison

Authors: S. Arpit, P. K. Das, S. K. Dash

Abstract:

In this paper, a comparative study is done between two fuels, naphtha and natural gas (NG), for a gas turbine (GT) plant of 32.5 MW with the same thermodynamic configuration. From the energy analysis, it is confirmed that the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) of the gas turbine in the case of natural gas is higher as compared to naphtha, and hence the isentropic efficiency of the turbine is better. The result from the exergy analysis also confirms that due to high turbine inlet temperature in the case of natural gas, exergy destruction in combustion chamber is less. But comparing two fuels for overall analysis, naphtha has higher energy and exergetic efficiency as compared to natural gas.

Keywords: exergy analysis, gas turbine, naphtha, natural gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
4262 Study of Heat Transfer by Natural Convection in Overhead Storage Tank of LNG

Authors: Hariti Rafika, Fekih Malika, Saighi Mohamed

Abstract:

During the period storage of liquefied natural gas, stability is necessarily affected by natural convection along the walls of the tank with thermal insulation is not perfectly efficient. In this paper, we present the numerical simulation of heat transfert by natural convection double diffusion,in unsteady laminar regime in a storage tank. The storage tank contains a liquefied natural gas (LNG) in its gaseous phase. Fluent, a commercial CFD package, based on the numerical finite volume method, is used to simulate the flow. The gas is just on the surface of the liquid phase. This numerical simulation allowed us to determine the temperature profiles, the stream function, the velocity vectors and the variation of the heat flux density in the vapor phase in the LNG storage tank volume. The results obtained for a general configuration, by numerical simulation were compared to those found in the literature.

Keywords: numerical simulation, natural convection, heat gains, storage tank, liquefied natural gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
4261 Water Saving in Electricity Generation System Considering Natural Gas Limitation

Authors: Mehdi Ganjkhani, Sobhan Badakhshan, Seyedvahid Hosseini

Abstract:

Power plants exploit striking proportion of underground water consumption. Correspondingly, natural gas-fired power plants need less water than the other conventional power plants. Therefore, shifting unit commitment planning toward these power plants would help to save water consumption. This paper discusses the impacts of water consumption limitation on natural gas consumption and vice versa as a short-term water consumption management solution. To do so, conventional unit commitment problem is extended by adding water consumption and natural gas constraints to the previous constrains. The paper presents the impact of water saving on natural gas demands as well as natural gas shortage on water demand. Correspondingly, the additional cost of electricity production according to the aforementioned constraints is evaluated. Finally, a test system is applied to investigate potentials and impacts of water saving and natural gas shortage. Different scenarios are conducted and the results are presented. The results of the study illustrate that in order to use less water for power production it needs to use more natural gas. Meanwhile, natural gas shortage causes to utilize more amount of water in aggregate.

Keywords: electric energy generation system, underground water sources, unit commitment, water consumption saving, natural gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
4260 Advances in Natural Fiber Surface Treatment Methodologies for Upgradation in Properties of Their Reinforced Composites

Authors: G. L. Devnani, Shishir Sinha

Abstract:

Natural fiber reinforced polymer composite is a very attractive area among the scientific community because of their low cost, eco-friendly and sustainable in nature. Among all advantages there are few issues which need to be addressed, those issues are the poor adhesion and compatibility between two opposite nature materials that is fiber and matrix and their relatively high water absorption. Therefore, natural fiber modifications are necessary to improve their adhesion with different matrices. Excellent properties could be achieved with the surface treatment of these natural fibers ultimately leads to property up-gradation of their reinforced composites with different polymer matrices. Lot of work is going on to improve the adhesion between reinforced fiber phase and polymer matrix phase to improve the properties of composites. Researchers have suggested various methods for natural fiber treatment like silane treatment, treatment with alkali, acetylation, acrylation, maleate coupling, etc. In this study a review is done on the different methods used for the surface treatment of natural fibers and what are the advance treatment methodologies for natural fiber surface treatment for property improvement of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites.

Keywords: composites, acetylation, natural fiber, surface treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
4259 Sustainability and Awareness with Natural Dyes in Textile

Authors: Recep Karadag

Abstract:

Natural dyeing had started since pre-historical times for dyeing of textile materials. The natural dyeing had continued to beginning of 20th century. At the end of 19th century some synthetic dyes were synthesized. Although development of dyeing technologies and methods, natural dyeing was not developed in recent years. Despite rapid advances of synthetic dyestuff industries, natural dye processes have not developed. Therefore natural dyeing was not competed against synthetic dyes. At the same time, it was very difficult that large quantities of coloured textile was dyed with natural dyes And it was very difficult to get reproducible results in the natural dyeing using classical and traditional processes. However, natural dyeing has used slightly in the textile handicraft up to now. It is very important view that re-using of natural dyes to create awareness in textiles in recent years. Natural dyes have got many awareness and sustainability properties. Natural dyes are more eco-friendly than synthetic dyes. A lot of natural dyes have got antioxidant, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antifungal and anti –UV properties. It had been known that were obtained limited numbers colours with natural dyes in the past. On the contrary, colour scale is too wide with natural dyes. Except fluorescent colours, numerous colours can be obtained with natural dyes. Fastnesses of dyed textiles with natural dyes are good that there are light, washing, rubbing, etc. The fastness values can be improved depend on dyeing processes. Thanks to these properties mass production can be made with natural dyes in textiles. Therefore fabric dyeing machine was designed. This machine is too suitable for natural dyeing and mass production. Also any dyeing machine can be modified for natural dyeing. Although dye extraction and dyeing are made separately in the traditional natural dyeing processes and these procedures are become by designed this machine. Firstly, colouring compounds are extracted from natural dye resources, then dyeing is made with extracted colouring compounds. The colouring compounds are moderately dissolved in water. Less water is used in the extraction of colouring compounds from dye resources and dyeing with this new technique on the contrary much quantity water needs to use for dissolve of the colouring compounds in the traditional dyeing. This dyeing technique is very useful method for mass productions with natural dyes in traditional natural dyeing that use less energy, less dye materials, less water, etc. than traditional natural dyeing techniques. In this work, cotton, silk, linen and wool fabrics were dyed with some natural dye plants by the technique. According to the analysis very good results were obtained by this new technique. These results are shown sustainability and awareness of natural dyes for textiles.

Keywords: antibacterial, antimicrobial, natural dyes, sustainability

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4258 Onboard Heat, Pressure and Boil-Off Gas Treatment for Stacked NGH Tank Containers

Authors: Hee Jin Kang

Abstract:

Despite numerous studies on the reserves and availability of natural gas hydrates, the technology of transporting natural gas hydrates in large quantities to sea has not been put into practical use. Several natural gas hydrate transport technologies presented by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) are under preparation for commercialization. Among them, NGH tank container concept modularized transportation unit to prevent sintering effect during sea transportation. The natural gas hydrate can be vaporized in a certain part during the transportation. Unprocessed BOG increases the pressure inside the tank. Also, there is a risk of fire if you export the BOG out of the tank without proper handling. Therefore, in this study, we have studied the concept of technology to properly process BOG to modularize natural gas hydrate and to transport it to sea for long distance. The study is expected to contribute to the practical use of NGH tank container, which is a modular transport concept proposed to solve the sintering problem that occurs when transporting natural gas hydrate in the form of bulk cargo.

Keywords: Natural gas hydrate, tank container, marine transportation, boil-off gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
4257 Analysis of the Torque Required for Mixing LDPE with Natural Fibre and DCP

Authors: A. E. Delgado, W. Aperador

Abstract:

This study evaluated the incidence of concentrated natural fibre, as well as the effects of adding a crosslinking agent on the torque when those components are mixed with low density polyethylene (LDPE). The natural fibre has a particle size of between 0.8-1.2mm and a moisture content of 0.17%. An internal mixer was used to measure the torque required to mix the polymer with the fibre. The effect of the fibre content and crosslinking agent on the torque was also determined. A change was observed in the morphology of the mixes using SEM differential scanning microscopy.

Keywords: WPC, DCP, LDPE, natural fibre, torque

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
4256 Study of Natural Convection in Storage Tank of LNG

Authors: Hariti Rafika, Fekih Malika, Saighi Mohamed

Abstract:

Heat transfer by natural convection in storage tanks for LNG is extremely related to heat gains through the walls with thermal insulation is not perfectly efficient. In this paper, we present the study of natural convection in the unsteady regime for natural gas in aware phase using the fluent software. The gas is just on the surface of the liquid phase. The CFD numerical method used to solve the system of equations is based on the finite volume method. This numerical simulation allowed us to determine the temperature profiles, the stream function, the velocity vectors and the variation of the heat flux density in the vapor phase in the LNG storage tank volume. The results obtained for a general configuration, by numerical simulation were compared to those found in the literature.

Keywords: numerical simulation, natural convection, heat gains, storage tank, liquefied natural gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
4255 Impact of Natural Language Processing in Educational Setting: An Effective Approach towards Improved Learning

Authors: Khaled M. Alhawiti

Abstract:

Natural Language Processing (NLP) is an effective approach for bringing improvement in educational setting. This involves initiating the process of learning through the natural acquisition in the educational systems. It is based on following effective approaches for providing the solution for various problems and issues in education. Natural Language Processing provides solution in a variety of different fields associated with the social and cultural context of language learning. It is based on involving various tools and techniques such as grammar, syntax, and structure of text. It is effective approach for teachers, students, authors, and educators for providing assistance for writing, analysis, and assessment procedure. Natural Language Processing is widely integrated in the large number of educational contexts such as research, science, linguistics, e-learning, evaluations system, and various other educational settings such as schools, higher education system, and universities. Natural Language Processing is based on applying scientific approach in the educational settings. In the educational settings, NLP is an effective approach to ensure that students can learn easily in the same way as they acquired language in the natural settings.

Keywords: natural language processing, education, application, e-learning, scientific studies, educational system

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
4254 CFD Simulations to Examine Natural Ventilation of a Work Area in a Public Building

Authors: An-Shik Yang, Chiang-Ho Cheng, Jen-Hao Wu, Yu-Hsuan Juan

Abstract:

Natural ventilation has played an important role for many low energy-building designs. It has been also noticed as a essential subject to persistently bring the fresh cool air from the outside into a building. This study carried out the computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based simulations to examine the natural ventilation development of a work area in a public building. The simulated results can be useful to better understand the indoor microclimate and the interaction of wind with buildings. Besides, this CFD simulation procedure can serve as an effective analysis tool to characterize the airing performance, and thereby optimize the building ventilation for strengthening the architects, planners and other decision makers on improving the natural ventilation design of public buildings.

Keywords: CFD simulations, natural ventilation, microclimate, wind environment

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4253 The Use of Plant-Based Natural Fibers in Reinforced Cement Composites

Authors: N. AlShaya, R. Alhomidan, S. Alromizan, W. Labib

Abstract:

Plant-based natural fibers are used more increasingly in construction materials. It is done to reduce the pressure on the built environment, which has been increased dramatically due to the increases world population and their needs. Plant-based natural fibers are abundant in many countries. Despite the low-cost of such environmental friendly renewable material, it has the ability to enhance the mechanical properties of construction materials. This paper presents an extensive discussion on the use of plant-based natural fibers as reinforcement for cement-based composites, with a particular emphasis upon fiber types; fiber characteristics, and fiber-cement composites performance. It also covers a thorough overview on the main factors, affecting the properties of plant-based natural fiber cement composite in it fresh and hardened state. The feasibility of using plant-based natural fibers in producing various construction materials; such as, mud bricks and blocks is investigated. In addition, other applications of using such fibers as internal curing agents as well as durability enhancer are also discussed. Finally, recommendation for possible future work in this area is presented.

Keywords: natural fibres, cement composites, construction materia, sustainability, stregth, durability

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
4252 Research on Natural Lighting Design of Atriums Based on Energy-Saving Aim

Authors: Fan Yu

Abstract:

An atrium is a place for natural climate exchanging of indoor and outdoor space of buildings, which plays an active role in the overall energy conservation, climate control and environmental purification of buildings. Its greatest contribution is serving as a natural light collector and distributor to solve the problem of natural lighting in large and deep spaces. However, in real situations, the atrium space often results in energy consumption due to improper design in considering its big size and large amount use of glass. Based on the purpose of energy conservation of buildings, this paper emphasizes the significance of natural lighting of atriums. Through literature research, case analysis and other methods, four factors, namely: the light transmittance through the top of the atrium, the geometric proportion of the atrium space, the size and position of windows and the material of the surface of walls in the atrium, were studied, and the influence of different architectural compositions on the natural light distribution of the atrium is discussed. Relying on the analysis of relevant cases, it is proposed that when designing the natural lighting of the atrium, the height and width of the atrium should be paid attention to, the atrium walls are required being rough surfaces and the atrium top-level windows need to be minimized in order to introduce more natural light into the buildings and achieve the purpose of energy conservation.

Keywords: energy conservation, atrium, natural lighting, architectural design

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
4251 Build Back Better Propositions for Disaster Risk Reduction in Natural Environment Recovery

Authors: Tinu Rose Francis, S. Wilkinson, Y. Chang-Richards, S. Mannakkara

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to assess the implementation of Build Back Better (BBB) propositions for disaster risk reduction in the natural environment with regard to greater Christchurch, New Zealand, after the 2010–2011 earthquakes in the region. A set of indicators was established to analyse the extent of recovery attained in Christchurch. Disaster recovery in the region is an ongoing process, which gives us the opportunity to rate the progress made so far. Disasters cause significant damage to the built, social and economic environments and also have severe consequences for the natural environment. Findings show that greater Christchurch has made important progress and implemented a comprehensive natural environment recovery plan. The plan addresses the restoration of biodiversity, natural resources, disaster waste management and amenity values in greater Christchurch. This paper also surveys the risk reduction actions being implemented with regard to the natural environment. The findings of this study will help governing bodies to identify and fill the gaps in their natural environment recovery plans.

Keywords: build back better (BBB), natural environment, planning, recovery, reconstruction, resilience, risk reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
4250 Flowsheet Development, Simulation and Optimization of Carbon-Di-Oxide Removal System at Natural Gas Reserves by Aspen–Hysys Process Simulator

Authors: Mohammad Ruhul Amin, Nusrat Jahan

Abstract:

Natural gas is a cleaner fuel compared to the others. But it needs some treatment before it is in a state to be used. So natural gas purification is an integral part of any process where natural gas is used as raw material or fuel. There are several impurities in natural gas that have to be removed before use. CO2 is one of the major contaminants. In this project we have removed CO2 by amine process by using MEA solution. We have built up the whole amine process for removing CO2 in Aspen Hysys and simulated the process. At the end of simulation we have got very satisfactory results by using MEA solution for the removal of CO2. Simulation result shows that amine absorption process enables to reduce CO2 content from NG by 58%. HYSYS optimizer allowed us to get a perfect optimized plant. After optimization the profit of existing plant is increased by 2.34 %.Simulation and optimization by Aspen-HYSYS simulator makes available us to enormous information which will help us to further research in future.

Keywords: Aspen–Hysys, CO2 removal, flowsheet development, MEA solution, natural gas optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
4249 Assessment of Korea's Natural Gas Portfolio Considering Panama Canal Expansion

Authors: Juhan Kim, Jinsoo Kim

Abstract:

South Korea cannot import natural gas in any form other than LNG because of the division of South and North Korea. Further, the high proportion of natural gas in the national energy mix makes this resource crucial for energy security in Korea. Expansion of Panama Canal will allow for reducing the cost of shipping between the Far East and U.S East. Panama Canal expansion can have significant impacts on South Korea. Due to this situation, we review the natural gas optimal portfolio by considering the uniqueness of the Korean Natural gas market and expansion of Panama Canal. In order to assess Korea’s natural gas optimal portfolio, we developed natural gas portfolio model. The model comprises two steps. First, to obtain the optimal long-term spot contract ratio, the study examines the price level and the correlation between spot and long-term contracts by using the Markowitz, portfolio model. The optimal long-term spot contract ratio follows the efficient frontier of the cost/risk level related to this price level and degree of correlation. Second, by applying the obtained long-term contract purchase ratio as the constraint in the linear programming portfolio model, we determined the natural gas optimal import portfolio that minimizes total intangible and tangible costs. Using this model, we derived the optimal natural gas portfolio considering the expansion of Panama Canal. Based on these results, we assess the portfolio for natural gas import to Korea from the perspective of energy security and present some relevant policy proposals.

Keywords: natural gas, Panama Canal, portfolio analysis, South Korea

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
4248 Role of Natural Language Processing in Information Retrieval; Challenges and Opportunities

Authors: Khaled M. Alhawiti

Abstract:

This paper aims to analyze the role of natural language processing (NLP). The paper will discuss the role in the context of automated data retrieval, automated question answer, and text structuring. NLP techniques are gaining wider acceptance in real life applications and industrial concerns. There are various complexities involved in processing the text of natural language that could satisfy the need of decision makers. This paper begins with the description of the qualities of NLP practices. The paper then focuses on the challenges in natural language processing. The paper also discusses major techniques of NLP. The last section describes opportunities and challenges for future research.

Keywords: data retrieval, information retrieval, natural language processing, text structuring

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
4247 Hanna Arendt and Al-Farabi’s Non-Naturalistic Political Philosophy

Authors: Mohammad Hossein Badamchi

Abstract:

As Leo Strauss demonstrates in his works, Political Philosophy in the western tradition is an epistemic-naturalistic tradition insofar Hanna Arendt mentioning the deep conflict between philosophy and politics, opposed to be named “political philosopher” prefer the title “political thinker” for herself. In fact, the Western political philosophy’s tendency to derive politics from natural law and epistemic argumentations makes a paradox between the actual “the political” and the theoretical “natural politics” in the western tradition. In this paper, we want to show that Hanna Arendt, in her exploration to find a new realm of the non-naturalistic way of thinking about the political is walking on a completely different tradition of political philosophy which was first established by Al-Farabi, the founder of Islamic political philosophy around thousand years after Greek Philosophy. Despite Aristotelian Polis which is a Natural community based on true natural rationality to reach the natural purposes of mankind, Al-Farabi’s Madine (his reconstructed concept of Aristotelian Polis) is completely constructed against natural cities, which are formulated by necessity logic of natural arguments and natural deception of humanity. In fact, Farabi considers the natural understanding of politics as Ignorant ideologies used by governments to suppress people. Madine in Farabi’s work is not a natural institution but is a collaborative constitution founded by citizens. So despite Aristotelian thinking, here we don’t have just A Polis that is the one true polis, but we have various multiple Madines among one, is virtuous not by definition but by real action of citizens and civil relations. Al-Farabi’s political philosophy is not a Naturalistic-epistemic Political Philosophy but is a Phronetic Political Philosophy which Hanna Arendt wants to establish outside of western contemplative anti-active political philosophy tradition.

Keywords: al-farabi, hanna arendt, natural politics, the political, political philosophy

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4246 Positive Effects of Natural Gas Usage on Air Pollution

Authors: Ismail Becenen

Abstract:

Air pollution, a consequence of urbanization brought about by modern life, is as global as it is local and regional. Because of the adverse effects of air pollution on human health, air quality is given importance all over the world. According to the decision of the World Health Organization, clean air is the basic necessity for human health and well-being. It poses a very high risk especially for heart diseases and stroke cases. In this study, the positive effects of natural gas usage on air pollution in cities are explained by using literature scans and air pollution measurement values. Natural gas is cleaner than other types of fuel. It contains less sulfur and organic sulfur compounds. When natural gas burns, it does not leave ashes, it does not cause problems in the rubbish mountains. It's a clean fuel, it easily burns and shines. It is a burning gas that is easy and efficient. In addition, there is not a toxic effect for people in case of inhalation. As a result, the use of natural gas needs to be widespread to reduce air pollution around the world in order to provide a healthier life for people and the environment.

Keywords: natural gas, air pollution, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
4245 Synthesis of Iso-Amyl, Benzyl and Cinnamyl Esters over Active, Selective, Reusable and Eco-Friendly Natural Silica Catalyst

Authors: Abd El-Aziz Said

Abstract:

In this study, natural silica was used as an active, selective, reusable and eco-friendly catalyst for the liquid phase synthesis of iso-amyl, benzyl and cinnamyl esters. The original and calcined natural silica were characterized by TG-DTA, XRF, XRD, FTIR, SEM, and N2-sorption analysis. The surface acidity of the catalysts was determined using isopropanol dehydration and the strength of available acid sites was measured using chemisorption of pyridine (PY) and dimethyl pyridine (DMPY). The results of acidity specified that the acidic sites are of Brönsted type, while PY-TPD demonstrated that almost of the acidic sites over the surface of natural silica are of weak and intermediate strength. The catalytic activity of natural silica towards esterification of acetic acid with alcohols was extensively studied. The results revealed that natural silica had high catalytic activity with 100% selectivity to all targeted esters. In addition, the yields obtained in batch methods were 83, 81, and 80%, respectively, whereas these yields after simple distillation were improved 97, 99.5, and 90%, respectively.

Keywords: liquid-phase esterification, natural silica, acidity esters, characterization

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4244 Investigation on the Fire Resistance of Ultra-High Performance Concrete with Natural Fibers

Authors: Dong Zhang, Kang Hai Tan, Aravind Dasari

Abstract:

Increasing concern on environmental sustainability and waste management has driven the construction and building sector towards renewable materials. In this work, we have explored the usage of natural fibers as an alternative to synthetic fibers like polypropylene (PP) in ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC). PP fibers are incorporated into concrete to resist explosive thermal spalling of UHPC during a fire exposure scenario. Experimental studies on the effect of natural fiber on the mechanical properties and spalling resistance of UHCP were conducted. The residual mechanical properties of UHPC with natural fibers were tested after heating to different temperatures. Spalling behavior of UHPC with natural fibers is also assessed by heating the samples according to ISO 834 fire curve. A range of analytical, physical and microscopic characterization techniques was also used on the concrete samples before and after being subjected to elevated temperature to investigate the phase and microstructural change of the sample. The findings show that natural fibers are able to improve fire resistance of UHPC. Adding natural fibers can prevent UHPC from spalling at high temperature. This study provides an alternative, which is at low cost and environmentally friendly, to prevent spalling of UHPC.

Keywords: high temperature, natural fiber, spalling, ultra-high performance concrete

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4243 Removal of Vanadium from Industrial Effluents by Natural Ion Exchanger

Authors: Shashikant R. Kuchekar, Haribhau R. Aher, Priti M. Dhage

Abstract:

The removal vanadium from aqueous solution using natural exchanger was investigated. The effects of pH, contact time and exchanger dose were studied at ambient temperature (25 0C ± 2 0C). The equilibrium process was described by the Langmuir isotherm model with adsorption capacity for vanadium. The natural exchanger i.e. tamarindus seeds powder was treated with formaldehyde and sulpuric acid to increase the adsorptivity of metals. The maximum exchange level was attained as 80.1% at pH 3 with exchanger dose 5 g and contact time 60 min. Method is applied for removal of vanadium from industrial effluents.

Keywords: industrial effluent, natural ion exchange, Tamarindous indica, vanadium

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