Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 89

Search results for: cavitation

89 Cavitating Jet Design for Enhanced Drilling Performance

Authors: Abdullah Ababtain, Mouhammad El Hassan, Hassan Assoum, Anas Sakout

Abstract:

In this paper, a brief literature review on cavitation jets is presented in order to introduce the cavitation mechanism, strategies to assess when cavitation occurs, and the factors that influence cavitation in cavitating jets. The objectivity of the cavitation number often used to predict cavitation is also discussed. The results show that cavitation cannot be foreseen just using the cavitation number. Therefore, more efforts are needed to innovate and develop a self-resonating jet geometry that would be maintains the flow and the pressure in the cavitation condition just earlier than the flow acts on the target that would be used in such operating conditions. This study focused on a particular aspect related to improving drilling efficiency and the rate of penetration (ROP). In addition, a discussion on the methods used to measure cavitation and the factors that affect cavitation occurrence will be discussed. Two different types of cavitation nozzles were designed and tested. It has been shown that the self-resonating cavitation nozzle presents greater performance than standard non-resonating nozzle. It is thus concluded that a self-resonating cavitation jet present a high potential for improving drilling performance.

Keywords: cavitating jet, erosion, cavitation number, rate of penetration (ROP)

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
88 Measuring the Cavitation Cloud by Electrical Impedance Tomography

Authors: Michal Malik, Jiri Primas, Darina Jasikova, Michal Kotek, Vaclav Kopecky

Abstract:

This paper is a case study dealing with the viability of using Electrical Impedance Tomography for measuring cavitation clouds in a pipe setup. The authors used a simple passive cavitation generator to cause a cavitation cloud, which was then recorded for multiple flow rates using electrodes in two measuring planes. The paper presents the results of the experiment, showing the used industrial grade tomography system ITS p2+ is able to measure the cavitation cloud and may be particularly useful for identifying the inception of cavitation in setups where other measuring tools may not be viable.

Keywords: cavitation cloud, conductivity measurement, electrical impedance tomography, mechanically induced cavitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
87 Utilization of Schnerr-Sauer Cavitation Model for Simulation of Cavitation Inception and Super Cavitation

Authors: Mohammadreza Nezamirad, Azadeh Yazdi, Sepideh Amirahmadian, Nasim Sabetpour, Amirmasoud Hamedi

Abstract:

In this study, the Reynolds-Stress-Navier-Stokes framework is utilized to investigate the flow inside the diesel injector nozzle. The flow is assumed to be multiphase as the formation of vapor by pressure drop is visualized. For pressure and velocity linkage, the coupled algorithm is used. Since the cavitation phenomenon inherently is unsteady, the quasi-steady approach is utilized for saving time and resources in the current study. Schnerr-Sauer cavitation model is used, which was capable of predicting flow behavior both at the initial and final steps of the cavitation process. Two different turbulent models were used in this study to clarify which one is more capable in predicting cavitation inception and super-cavitation. It was found that K-ε was more compatible with the Shnerr-Sauer cavitation model; therefore, the mentioned model is used for the rest of this study.

Keywords: CFD, RANS, cavitation, fuel, injector

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
86 Study of Cavitation Erosion of Pump-Storage Hydro Power Plant Prototype

Authors: Tine Cencič, Marko Hočevar, Brane Širok

Abstract:

An experimental investigation has been made to detect cavitation in pump–storage hydro power plant prototype suffering from cavitation in pump mode. Vibrations and acoustic emission on the housing of turbine bearing and pressure fluctuations in the draft tube were measured and the corresponding signals have been recorded and analyzed. The analysis was based on the analysis of high-frequency content of measured variables. The pump-storage hydro power plant prototype has been operated at various input loads and Thoma numbers. Several estimators of cavitation were evaluated according to coefficient of determination between Thoma number and cavitation estimators. The best results were achieved with a compound discharge coefficient cavitation estimator. Cavitation estimators were evaluated in several intervals of frequencies. Also, a prediction of cavitation erosion was made in order to choose the appropriate maintenance and repair periods.

Keywords: cavitation erosion, turbine, cavitation measurement, fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
85 Investigation about Mechanical Equipment Needed to Break the Molecular Bonds of Heavy Oil by Using Hydrodynamic Cavitation

Authors: Mahdi Asghari

Abstract:

The cavitation phenomenon is the formation and production of micro-bubbles and eventually the bursting of the micro-bubbles inside the liquid fluid, which results in localized high pressure and temperature, causing physical and chemical fluid changes. This pressure and temperature are predicted to be 2000 atmospheres and 5000 °C, respectively. As a result of small bubbles bursting from this process, temperature and pressure increase momentarily and locally, so that the intensity and magnitude of these temperatures and pressures provide the energy needed to break the molecular bonds of heavy compounds such as fuel oil. In this paper, we study the theory of cavitation and the methods of cavitation production by acoustic and hydrodynamic methods and the necessary mechanical equipment and reactors for industrial application of the hydrodynamic cavitation method to break down the molecular bonds of the fuel oil and convert it into useful and economical products.

Keywords: Cavitation, Hydrodynamic Cavitation, Cavitation Reactor, Fuel Oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
84 Optimal Design of 3-Way Reversing Valve Considering Cavitation Effect

Authors: Myeong-Gon Lee, Yang-Gyun Kim, Tae-Young Kim, Seung-Ho Han

Abstract:

The high-pressure valve uses one set of 2-way valves for the purpose of reversing fluid direction. If there is no accurate control device for the 2-way valves, lots of surging can be generated. The surging is a kind of pressure ripple that occurs in rapid changes of fluid motions under inaccurate valve control. To reduce the surging effect, a 3-way reversing valve can be applied which provides a rapid and precise change of water flow directions without any accurate valve control system. However, a cavitation occurs due to a complicated internal trim shape of the 3-way reversing valve. The cavitation causes not only noise and vibration but also decreasing the efficiency of valve-operation, in which the bubbles generated below the saturated vapor pressure are collapsed rapidly at higher pressure zone. The shape optimization of the 3-way reversing valve to minimize the cavitation effect is necessary. In this study, the cavitation index according to the international standard ISA was introduced to estimate macroscopically the occurrence of the cavitation effect. Computational fluid dynamic analysis was carried out, and the cavitation effect was quantified by means of the percent of cavitation converted from calculated results of vapor volume fraction. In addition, the shape optimization of the 3-way reversing valve was performed by taking into account of the percent of cavitation.

Keywords: 3-Way reversing valve, cavitation, shape optimization, vapor volume fraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
83 Numerical Prediction of Wall Eroded Area by Cavitation

Authors: Ridha Zgolli, Ahmed Belhaj, Maroua Ennouri

Abstract:

This study presents a new method to predict cavitation area that may be eroded. It is based on the post-treatment of URANS simulations in cavitant flows. The most RANS calculations with incompressible consideration are based on cavitation model using mixture fluid with density (ρm) calculated as a function of liquid density (ρliq), vapour or gas density (ρvap) and vapour or gas volume fraction α (ρm = αρvap + (1-α) ρliq). The calculations are performed on hydrofoil geometries and compared with experimental works concerning flows characteristics (size of pocket, pressure, velocity). We present here the used cavitation model and the approach followed to evaluate the value of α fixing the shape of pocket around wall before collapsing.

Keywords: flows, CFD, cavitation, erosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
82 Numerical Investigation of Cavitation on Different Venturi Shapes by Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Sedat Yayla, Mehmet Oruc, Shakhwan Yaseen

Abstract:

Cavitation phenomena might rigorously impair machine parts such as pumps, propellers and impellers or devices as the pressure in the fluid declines under the liquid's saturation pressure. To evaluate the influence of cavitation, in this research two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) venturi models with variety of inlet pressure values, throat lengths and vapor fluid contents were applied. In this research three different vapor contents (0%, 5% 10%), four inlet pressures (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 atm) and two venturi models were employed at different throat lengths ( 5, 10, 15 and 20 mm) for discovering the impact of each parameter on the cavitation number. It is uncovered that there is a positive correlation between pressure inlet and vapor fluid content and cavitation number. Furthermore, it is unveiled that velocity remains almost constant at the inlet pressures of 6, 8,10atm, nevertheless increasing the length of throat results in the substantial escalation in the velocity of the throat at inlet pressures of 2 and 4 atm. Furthermore, velocity and cavitation number were negatively correlated. The results of the cavitation number varied between 0.092 and 0.495 depending upon the velocity values of the throat.

Keywords: cavitation number, computational fluid dynamics, mixture of fluid, two-phase flow, velocity of throat

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
81 Study of Cavitation Phenomena Based on Flow Visualization Test in 3-Way Reversing Valve

Authors: Hyo Lim Kang, Tae An Kim, Seung Ho Han

Abstract:

A 3-way reversing valve has been used in automotive washing machines to remove remaining oil and dirt on machined engine and transmission blocks. It provides rapid and accurate changes of water flow direction without any precise control device. However, due to its complicated bottom-plug shape, a cavitation occurs in a wide range of the bottom-plug in a downstream. In this study, the cavitation index and POC (percent of cavitation) were used to evaluate quantitatively the cavitation phenomena occurring at the bottom-plug. An optimal shape design was carried out via parametric study for geometries of the bottom-plug, in which a simple CAE-model was used in order to avoid time-consuming CFD analysis and hard to achieve convergence. To verify the results of numerical analysis, a flow visualization test was carried out using a test specimen with a transparent acryl pipe according to ISA-RP75.23. The flow characteristics such as the cavitation occurring in the downstream were investigated by using a flow test equipment with valve and pump including a flow control system and high-speed camera.

Keywords: cavitation, flow visualization test, optimal shape design, percent of cavitation, reversing valve

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
80 Metal Berthelot Tubes with Windows for Observing Cavitation under Static Negative Pressure

Authors: K. Hiro, Y. Imai, T. Sasayama

Abstract:

Cavitation under static negative pressure is not revealed well. The Berthelot method to generate such negative pressure can be a means to study cavitation inception. In this study, metal Berthelot tubes built in observation windows are newly developed and are checked whether high static negative pressure is generated or not. Negative pressure in the tube with a pair of a corundum plate and an aluminum gasket increased with temperature cycles. The trend was similar to that as reported before.

Keywords: Berthelot method, cavitation, negative pressure, observation

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
79 Bulk/Hull Cavitation Induced by Underwater Explosion: Effect of Material Elasticity and Surface Curvature

Authors: Wenfeng Xie

Abstract:

Bulk/hull cavitation evolution induced by an underwater explosion (UNDEX) near a free surface (bulk) or a deformable structure (hull) is numerically investigated using a multiphase compressible fluid solver coupled with a one-fluid cavitation model. A series of two-dimensional computations is conducted with varying material elasticity and surface curvature. Results suggest that material elasticity and surface curvature influence the peak pressures generated from UNDEX shock and cavitation collapse, as well as the bulk/hull cavitation regions near the surface. Results also show that such effects can be different for bulk cavitation generated from UNDEX-free surface interaction and for hull cavitation generated from UNDEX-structure interaction. More importantly, results demonstrate that shock wave focusing caused by a concave solid surface can lead to a larger cavitation region and thus intensify the cavitation reload. The findings can be linked to the strength and the direction of reflected waves from the structural surface and reflected waves from the expanding bubble surface, which are functions of material elasticity and surface curvature. Shockwave focusing effects are also observed for axisymmetric simulations, but the strength of the pressure contours for the axisymmetric simulations is less than those for the 2D simulations due to the difference between the initial shock energy. The current method is limited to two-dimensional or axisymmetric applications. Moreover, the thermal effects are neglected and the liquid is not allowed to sustain tension in the cavitation model.

Keywords: cavitation, UNDEX, fluid-structure interaction, multiphase

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
78 Modeling of the Cavitation by Bubble around a NACA0009 Profile

Authors: L. Hammadi, D. Boukhaloua

Abstract:

In this study, a numerical model was developed to predict cavitation phenomena around a NACA0009 profile. The equations of the Rayleigh-Plesset and modified Rayleigh-Plesset are used to modeling the cavitation by bubble around a NACA0009 profile. The study shows that the distributions of pressures around extrados and intrados of profile for angle of incidence equal zero are the same. The study also shows that the increase in the angle of incidence makes it possible to differentiate the pressures on the intrados and the extrados.

Keywords: cavitation, NACA0009 profile, flow, pressure coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
77 Free Radical Dosimetry for Ultrasound in Terephthalic Acid Solutions Containing Gold Nanoparticles

Authors: Ahmad Shanei, Mohammad Mahdi Shanei

Abstract:

When a liquid is irradiated with high intensities (> 1 W) and low frequencies (≤ 1 MHz) ultrasound, acoustic cavitation occurs. Acoustic cavitation generates free radicals from the breakdown of water and other molecules. The existence of particles in liquid provide nucleation sites for cavitation bubbles and lead to decrease the ultrasonic intensity threshold needed for cavitation onset. The study was designed to measure hydroxyl radicals in terephthalic acid solutions containing 30 nm gold nanoparticles in a near field of a 1 MHz sonotherapy probe. The effect of ultrasound irradiation parameters containing mode of sonication and ultrasound intensity in hydroxyl radicals production have been investigated by the spectrofluorometry method. Recorded fluorescence signal in terephthalic acid solution containing gold nanoparticles was higher than the terephthalic acid solution without gold nanoparticles. Also, the results showed that any increase in intensity of the sonication would be associated with an increase in the fluorescence intensity. Acoustic cavitation in the presence of gold nanoparticles has been introduced as a way for improving therapeutic effects on the tumors. Also, the terephthalic acid dosimetry is suitable for detecting and quantifying free hydroxyl radicals as a criterion of cavitation production over a range of condition in medical ultrasound fields.

Keywords: acoustic cavitation, gold nanoparticle, chemical dosimetry, terephthalic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
76 Design and Optimization of Flow Field for Cavitation Reduction of Valve Sleeves

Authors: Kamal Upadhyay, Zhou Hua, Yu Rui

Abstract:

This paper aims to improve the streamline linked with the flow field and cavitation on the valve sleeve. We observed that local pressure fluctuation produces a low-pressure zone, central to the formation of vapor volume fraction within the valve chamber led to air-bubbles (or cavities). Thus, it allows simultaneously to a severe negative impact on the inner surface and lifespan of the valve sleeves. Cavitation reduction is a vitally important issue to pressure control valves. The optimization of the flow field is proposed in this paper to reduce the cavitation of valve sleeves. In this method, the inner wall of the valve sleeve is changed from a cylindrical surface to the conical surface, leading to the decline of the fluid flow velocity and the rise of the outlet pressure. Besides, the streamline is distributed inside the sleeve uniformly. Thus, the bubble generation is lessened. The fluid models are built and analysis of flow field distribution, pressure, vapor volume and velocity was carried out using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and numerical technique. The results indicate that this structure can suppress the cavitation of valve sleeves effectively.

Keywords: streamline, cavitation, optimization, computational fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
75 Simulations of Cryogenic Cavitation of Low Temperature Fluids with Thermodynamics Effects

Authors: A. Alhelfi, B. Sunden

Abstract:

Cavitation in cryogenic liquids is widely present in contemporary science. In the current study, we re-examine a previously validated acoustic cavitation model which was developed for a gas bubble in liquid water. Furthermore, simulations of cryogenic fluids including the thermal effect, the effect of acoustic pressure amplitude and the frequency of sound field on the bubble dynamics are presented. A gas bubble (Helium) in liquids Nitrogen, Oxygen and Hydrogen in an acoustic field at ambient pressure and low temperature is investigated numerically. The results reveal that the oscillation of the bubble in liquid Hydrogen fluctuates more than in liquids Oxygen and Nitrogen. The oscillation of the bubble in liquids Oxygen and Nitrogen is approximately similar.

Keywords: cryogenic liquids, cavitation, rocket engineering, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
74 Significance of High Specific Speed in Circulating Water Pump, Which Can Cause Cavitation, Noise and Vibration

Authors: Chandra Gupt Porwal

Abstract:

Excessive vibration means increased wear, increased repair efforts, bad product selection & quality and high energy consumption. This may be sometimes experienced by cavitation or suction/discharge re-circulation which could occur only when net positive suction head available NPSHA drops below the net positive suction head required NPSHR. Cavitation can cause axial surging if it is excessive, will damage mechanical seals, bearings, possibly other pump components frequently and shorten the life of the impeller. Efforts have been made to explain Suction Energy (SE), Specific Speed (Ns), Suction Specific Speed (Nss), NPSHA, NPSHR & their significance, possible reasons of cavitation /internal re-circulation, its diagnostics and remedial measures to arrest and prevent cavitation in this paper. A case study is presented by the author highlighting that the root cause of unwanted noise and vibration is due to cavitation, caused by high specific speeds or inadequate net- positive suction head available which results in damages to material surfaces of impeller & suction bells and degradation of machine performance, its capacity and efficiency too. The author strongly recommends revisiting the technical specifications of CW pumps to provide sufficient NPSH margin ratios > 1.5, for future projects and Nss be limited to 8500 -9000 for cavitation free operation.

Keywords: best efficiency point (BEP), net positive suction head NPSHA, NPSHR, specific speed NS, suction specific speed NSS

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
73 Effect of Needle Height on Discharge Coefficient and Cavitation Number

Authors: Mohammadreza Nezamirad, Sepideh Amirahmadian, Nasim Sabetpour, Azadeh Yazdi, Amirmasoud Hamedi

Abstract:

Cavitation inside diesel injector nozzle is investigated using Reynolds-Stress-Navier Stokes equations. Schnerr-Sauer cavitation model is used for modeling cavitation inside diesel injector nozzle. The carrying fluid utilized in the current study is diesel fuel. The flow is verified at the beginning by comparing with the previous experimental data, and it was found that K-Epsilon turbulent model could lead to a better accuracy comparing to K-Omega turbulent model. Moreover, the mass flow rate obtained numerically is compared with the experimental value, and the discrepancy was found to be less than 5 percent which shows the accuracy of the current results. Finally, a real-size four-hole nozzle is investigated, and the flow inside it is visualized based on velocity profile, discharge coefficient, and cavitation number. It was found that the mesh density could be reduced significantly by utilizing periodic boundary conditions. Velocity contour at the mid nozzle showed that the maximum value of velocity occurs at the end of the needle before entering the orifice area. Last but not least, at the same boundary conditions, when different needle heights were utilized, it was found that as needle height increases with an increase in cavitation number, discharge coefficient increases, while the mentioned increases are more tangible at smaller values of needle heights.

Keywords: cavitation, diesel fuel, CFD, real size nozzle, mass flow rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
72 Investigation of Cavitation in a Centrifugal Pump Using Synchronized Pump Head Measurements, Vibration Measurements and High-Speed Image Recording

Authors: Simon Caba, Raja Abou Ackl, Svend Rasmussen, Nicholas E. Pedersen

Abstract:

It is a challenge to directly monitor cavitation in a pump application during operation because of a lack of visual access to validate the presence of cavitation and its form of appearance. In this work, experimental investigations are carried out in an inline single-stage centrifugal pump with optical access. Hence, it gives the opportunity to enhance the value of CFD tools and standard cavitation measurements. Experiments are conducted using two impellers running in the same volute at 3000 rpm and the same flow rate. One of the impellers used is optimized for lower NPSH₃% by its blade design, whereas the other one is manufactured using a standard casting method. The cavitation is detected by pump performance measurements, vibration measurements and high-speed image recordings. The head drop and the pump casing vibration caused by cavitation are correlated with the visual appearance of the cavitation. The vibration data is recorded in an axial direction of the impeller using accelerometers recording at a sample rate of 131 kHz. The vibration frequency domain data (up to 20 kHz) and the time domain data are analyzed as well as the root mean square values. The high-speed recordings, focusing on the impeller suction side, are taken at 10,240 fps to provide insight into the flow patterns and the cavitation behavior in the rotating impeller. The videos are synchronized with the vibration time signals by a trigger signal. A clear correlation between cloud collapses and abrupt peaks in the vibration signal can be observed. The vibration peaks clearly indicate cavitation, especially at higher NPSHA values where the hydraulic performance is not affected. It is also observed that below a certain NPSHA value, the cavitation started in the inlet bend of the pump. Above this value, cavitation occurs exclusively on the impeller blades. The impeller optimized for NPSH₃% does show a lower NPSH₃% than the standard impeller, but the head drop starts at a higher NPSHA value and is more gradual. Instabilities in the head drop curve of the optimized impeller were observed in addition to a higher vibration level. Furthermore, the cavitation clouds on the suction side appear more unsteady when using the optimized impeller. The shape and location of the cavitation are compared to 3D fluid flow simulations. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental investigations. In conclusion, these investigations attempt to give a more holistic view on the appearance of cavitation by comparing the head drop, vibration spectral data, vibration time signals, image recordings and simulation results. Data indicates that a criterion for cavitation detection could be derived from the vibration time-domain measurements, which requires further investigation. Usually, spectral data is used to analyze cavitation, but these investigations indicate that the time domain could be more appropriate for some applications.

Keywords: cavitation, centrifugal pump, head drop, high-speed image recordings, pump vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
71 Multiple Approaches for Ultrasonic Cavitation Monitoring of Oxygen-Loaded Nanodroplets

Authors: Simone Galati, Adriano Troia

Abstract:

Ultrasound (US) is widely used in medical field for a variety diagnostic techniques but, in recent years, it has also been creating great interest for therapeutic aims. Regarding drug delivery, the use of US as an activation source provides better spatial delivery confinement and limits the undesired side effects. However, at present there is no complete characterization at a fundamental level of the different signals produced by sono-activated nanocarriers. Therefore, the aim of this study is to obtain a metrological characterization of the cavitation phenomena induced by US through three parallel investigation approaches. US was focused into a channel of a customized phantom in which a solution with oxygen-loaded nanodroplets (OLNDs) was led to flow and the cavitation activity was monitored. Both quantitative and qualitative real-time analysis were performed giving information about the dynamics of bubble formation, oscillation and final implosion with respect to the working acoustic pressure and the type of nanodroplets, compared with pure water. From this analysis a possible interpretation of the observed results is proposed.

Keywords: cavitation, drug delivery, nanodroplets, ultra-sound

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
70 Measuring Investigation and Computational Simulation of Cavitation Phenomenon Effects on the Industrial Centrifugal Pump Vibration

Authors: Mahdi Hamzehei, Homan Alimoradzadeh, Mahdi Shahriyari

Abstract:

In this paper, vibration of the industrial centrifugal pumps studied by measuring analysis and computational simulation. Effects of different parameters on pump vibration were investigated. Also, simulation of cavitation in the centrifugal pump was down. First, via CF-TURBO software, the pump impeller and the fluid passing through the pump is modelled and finally, the phenomenon of cavitation in the impeller has been modelled by Ansys software. Also, the effects of changes in the amount of NPSH and bubbles generation in the pump impeller were investigated. By simulation of piping with pipe flow software, effect of fluid velocity and pressure on hydraulics and vibration were studied computationally by applying Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) techniques, fluent software and experimentally. Furthermore, this comparison showed that the model can predict hydraulics and vibration behaviour.

Keywords: cavitation, vibration, centrifugal pumps, performance curves, NPSH

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
69 Effect of Different Diesel Fuels on Formation of the Cavitation Phenomena

Authors: Mohammadreza Nezamirad, Sepideh Amirahmadian, Nasim Sabetpour, Azadeh Yazdi, Amirmasoud Hamedi

Abstract:

Cavitation inside the diesel injector nozzle is investigated numerically in this study. Reynolds Stress Navier Stokes set of equations (RANS) are utilized to investigate flow behavior inside the nozzle numerically. Moreover, K-ε turbulent model is found to be a better approach comparing to K-ω turbulent model. Winklhofer rectangular shape nozzle is also simulated in order to verify the current numerical scheme, and with, mass flow rate approach, the current solution is verified. Afterward, a six-hole real-size nozzle was simulated, and it was found that among different fuels used in this study with the same condition, diesel fuel provides the largest length of cavitation. Also, it was found that at the same boundary condition, RME fuel leads to the highest value of discharge coefficient and mass flow rate.

Keywords: cavitation, diesel fuel, CFD, real size nozzle, discharge coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
68 Structural Morphing on High Performance Composite Hydrofoil to Postpone Cavitation

Authors: Fatiha Mohammed Arab, Benoit Augier, Francois Deniset, Pascal Casari, Jacques Andre Astolfi

Abstract:

For the top high performance foiling yachts, cavitation is often a limiting factor for take-off and top speed. This work investigates solutions to delay the onset of cavitation thanks to structural morphing. The structural morphing is based on compliant leading and trailing edge, with effect similar to flaps. It is shown here that the commonly accepted effect of flaps regarding the control of lift and drag forces can also be used to postpone the inception of cavitation. A numerical and experimental study is conducted in order to assess the effect of the geometric parameters of hydrofoil on their hydrodynamic performances and in cavitation inception. The effect of a 70% trailing edge and a 30% leading edge of NACA 0012 is investigated using Xfoil software at a constant Reynolds number 106. The simulations carried out for a range flaps deflections and various angles of attack. So, the result showed that the lift coefficient increase with the increase of flap deflection, but also with the increase of angle of attack and enlarged the bucket cavitation. To evaluate the efficiency of the Xfoil software, a 2D analysis flow over a NACA 0012 with leading and trailing edge flap was studied using Fluent software. The results of the two methods are in a good agreement. To validate the numerical approach, a passive adaptive composite model is built and tested in the hydrodynamic tunnel at the Research Institute of French Naval Academy. The model shows the ability to simulate the effect of flap by a LE and TE structural morphing due to hydrodynamic loading.

Keywords: cavitation, flaps, hydrofoil, panel method, xfoil

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
67 High-Speed Imaging and Acoustic Measurements of Dual-frequency Ultrasonic Processing of Graphite in Water

Authors: Justin Morton, Mohammad Khavari, Abhinav Priyadarshi, Nicole Grobert, Dmitry G. Eskin, Jiawei Mi, Kriakos Porfyrakis, Paul Prentice

Abstract:

Ultrasonic cavitation is used for various processes and applications. Recently, ultrasonic assisted liquid phase exfoliation has been implemented to produce two dimensional nanomaterials. Depending on parameters such as input transducer power and the operational frequency used to induce the cavitation, bubble dynamics can be controlled and optimised. Using ultra-high-speed imagining and acoustic pressure measurements, a dual-frequency systemand its effect on bubble dynamics was investigated. A high frequency transducer (1.174 MHz) showed that bubble fragments and satellite bubbles induced from a low frequency transducer (24 kHz) were able to extend their lifecycle. In addition, this combination of ultrasonic frequencies generated higher acoustic emissions (∼24%) than the sum of the individual transducers. The dual-frequency system also produced an increase in cavitation zone size of∼3 times compared to the low frequency sonotrode. Furthermore, the high frequency induced cavitation bubbleswere shown to rapidly oscillate, although remained stable and did not transiently collapse, even in the presence of a low pressure field. Finally, the spatial distribution of satellite and fragment bubbles from the sonotrode were shown to increase, extending the active cavitation zone. These observations elucidated the benefits of using a dual-frequency system for generating nanomaterials with the aid of ultrasound, in deionised water.

Keywords: dual-frequency, cavitation, bubble dynamics, graphene

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
66 Software Tool Design for Heavy Oil Upgrading by Hydrogen Donor Addition in a Hydrodynamic Cavitation Process

Authors: Munoz A. Tatiana, Solano R. Brandon, Montes C. Juan, Cierco G. Javier

Abstract:

The hydrodynamic cavitation is a process in which the energy that the fluids have in the phase changes is used. From this energy, local temperatures greater than 5000 °C are obtained where thermal cracking of the fluid molecules takes place. The process applied to heavy oil affects variables such as viscosity, density, and composition, which constitutes an important improvement in the quality of crude oil. In this study, the need to design a software through mathematical integration models of mixing, cavitation, kinetics, and reactor, allows modeling changes in density, viscosity, and composition of a heavy oil crude, when the fluid passes through a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor. In order to evaluate the viability of this technique in the industry, a heavy oil of 18° API gravity, was simulated using naphtha as a hydrogen donor at concentrations of 1, 2 and 5% vol, where the simulation results showed an API gravity increase to 0.77, 1.21 and 1.93° respectively and a reduction viscosity by 9.9, 12.9 and 15.8%. The obtained results allow to have a favorable panorama on this technological development, an appropriate visualization on the generation of innovative knowledge of this technique and the technical-economic opportunity that benefits the development of the hydrocarbon sector related to heavy crude oil that includes the largest world oil production.

Keywords: hydrodynamic cavitation, thermal cracking, hydrogen donor, heavy oil upgrading, simulator

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
65 Performance Analysis of Pumps-as-Turbine Under Cavitating Conditions

Authors: Calvin Stephen, Biswajit Basu, Aonghus McNabola

Abstract:

Market liberalization in the power sector has led to the emergence of micro-hydropower schemes that are dependent on the use of pumps-as-turbines in applications that were not suitable as potential hydropower sites in earlier years. These applications include energy recovery in water supply networks, sewage systems, irrigation systems, alcohol breweries, underground mining and desalination plants. As a result, there has been an accelerated adoption of pumpsas-turbine technology due to the economic advantages it presents in comparison to the conventional turbines in the micro-hydropower space. The performance of this machines under cavitation conditions, however, is not well understood as there is a deficiency of knowledge in literature focused on their turbine mode of operation. In hydraulic machines, cavitation is a common occurrence which needs to be understood to safeguard them and prolong their operation life. The overall purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of cavitation on the performance of a pumps-as-turbine system over its entire operating range. At various operating speeds, the cavitating region is identified experimentally while monitoring the effects this has on the power produced by the machine. Initial results indicate occurrence of cavitation at higher flow rates for lower operating speeds and at lower flow rates at higher operating speeds. This implies that for cavitation free operation, low speed pumps-as-turbine must be used for low flow rate conditions whereas for sites with higher flow rate conditions high speed turbines should be adopted. Such a complete understanding of pumps-as-turbine suction performance can aid avoid cavitation induced failures hence improved reliability of the micro-hydropower plant.

Keywords: cavitation, micro-hydropower, pumps-as-turbine, system design

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64 Hybrid Advanced Oxidative Pretreatment of Complex Industrial Effluent for Biodegradability Enhancement

Authors: K. Paradkar, S. N. Mudliar, A. Sharma, A. B. Pandit, R. A. Pandey

Abstract:

The study explores the hybrid combination of Hydrodynamic Cavitation (HC) and Subcritical Wet Air Oxidation-based pretreatment of complex industrial effluent to enhance the biodegradability selectively (without major COD destruction) to facilitate subsequent enhanced downstream processing via anaerobic or aerobic biological treatment. Advanced oxidation based techniques can be less efficient as standalone options and a hybrid approach by combining Hydrodynamic Cavitation (HC), and Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) can lead to a synergistic effect since both the options are based on common free radical mechanism. The HC can be used for initial turbulence and generation of hotspots which can begin the free radical attack and this agitating mixture then can be subjected to less intense WAO since initial heat (to raise the activation energy) can be taken care by HC alone. Lab-scale venturi-based hydrodynamic cavitation and wet air oxidation reactor with biomethanated distillery wastewater (BMDWW) as a model effluent was examined for establishing the proof-of-concept. The results indicated that for a desirable biodegradability index (BOD: COD - BI) enhancement (up to 0.4), the Cavitation (standalone) pretreatment condition was: 5 bar and 88 min reaction time with a COD reduction of 36 % and BI enhancement of up to 0.27 (initial BI - 0.17). The optimum WAO condition (standalone) was: 150oC, 6 bar and 30 minutes with 31% COD reduction and 0.33 BI. The hybrid pretreatment (combined Cavitation + WAO) worked out to be 23.18 min HC (at 5 bar) followed by 30 min WAO at 150oC, 6 bar, at which around 50% COD was retained yielding a BI of 0.55. FTIR & NMR analysis of pretreated effluent indicated dissociation and/or reorientation of complex organic compounds in untreated effluent to simpler organic compounds post-pretreatment.

Keywords: hybrid, hydrodynamic cavitation, wet air oxidation, biodegradability index

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63 Analysis of Impact Load Induced by Ultrasonic Cavitation Bubble Collapse Using Thin Film Pressure Sensors

Authors: Moiz S. Vohra, Nagalingam Arun Prasanth, Wei L. Tan, S. H. Yeo

Abstract:

The understanding of generation and collapse of acoustic cavitation bubbles are prerequisites for application of cavitation erosion. Microbubbles generated due to rapid fluctuation of pressure induced by propagation of ultrasonic wave lead to formation of high velocity microjets and or shock waves upon collapse. Due to vast application of ultrasonic, it is important to characterize and understand cavitation collapse pressure under the radiating surface at different conditions. A comparative investigation is carried out to determine impact load and dynamic pressure distribution exerted upon bubble collapse using thin film pressure sensors. Measurements were recorded at different input conditions such as amplitude, stand-off distance, insertion depth of the horn inside the liquid and pulse on-off time of acoustic vibrations. Impact force of 2.97 N is recorded at amplitude of 108 μm and stand-off distance of 1 mm from the sensor film, whereas impulsive force as low as 0.4 N is recorded at amplitude of 12 μm and stand-off distance of 5 mm from the sensor film. The results drawn from the investigation indicated that variety of impact loads can be achieved by controlling generation and collapse of bubbles, making it suitable to use for numerous application.

Keywords: ultrasonic cavitation, bubble collapse, pressure mapping sensor, impact load

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62 Investigation of the Turbulent Cavitating Flows from the Viewpoint of the Lift Coefficient

Authors: Ping-Ben Liu, Chien-Chou Tseng

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the lift coefficient and dynamic behaviors of cavitating flow around a two-dimensional Clark Y hydrofoil at 8° angle of attack, cavitation number of 0.8, and Reynolds number of 7.10⁵. The flow field is investigated numerically by using a vapor transfer equation and a modified turbulence model which applies the filter and local density correction. The results including time-averaged lift/drag coefficient and shedding frequency agree well with experimental observations, which confirmed the reliability of this simulation. According to the variation of lift coefficient, the cycle which consists of growth and shedding of cavitation can be divided into three stages, and the lift coefficient at each stage behaves similarly due to the formation and shedding of the cavity around the trailing edge.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, cavitation, turbulence, lift coefficient

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61 Development of Hydrodynamic Drag Calculation and Cavity Shape Generation for Supercavitating Torpedoes

Authors: Sertac Arslan, Sezer Kefeli

Abstract:

In this paper, firstly supercavitating phenomenon and supercavity shape design parameters are explained and then drag force calculation methods of high speed supercavitating torpedoes are investigated with numerical techniques and verified with empirical studies. In order to reach huge speeds such as 200, 300 knots for underwater vehicles, hydrodynamic hull drag force which is proportional to density of water (ρ) and square of speed should be reduced. Conventional heavy weight torpedoes could reach up to ~50 knots by classic underwater hydrodynamic techniques. However, to exceed 50 knots and reach about 200 knots speeds, hydrodynamic viscous forces must be reduced or eliminated completely. This requirement revives supercavitation phenomena that could be implemented to conventional torpedoes. Supercavitation is the use of cavitation effects to create a gas bubble, allowing the torpedo to move at huge speed through the water by being fully developed cavitation bubble. When the torpedo moves in a cavitation envelope due to cavitator in nose section and solid fuel rocket engine in rear section, this kind of torpedoes could be entitled as Supercavitating Torpedoes. There are two types of cavitation; first one is natural cavitation, and second one is ventilated cavitation. In this study, disk cavitator is modeled with natural cavitation and supercavitation phenomenon parameters are studied. Moreover, drag force calculation is performed for disk shape cavitator with numerical techniques and compared via empirical studies. Drag forces are calculated with computational fluid dynamics methods and different empirical methods. Numerical calculation method is developed by comparing with empirical results. In verification study cavitation number (σ), drag coefficient (CD) and drag force (D), cavity wall velocity (U

Keywords: cavity envelope, CFD, high speed underwater vehicles, supercavitation, supercavity flows

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60 Numerical Modelling of Hydrodynamic Drag and Supercavitation Parameters for Supercavitating Torpedoes

Authors: Sezer Kefeli, Sertaç Arslan

Abstract:

In this paper, supercavitationphenomena, and parameters are explained, and hydrodynamic design approaches are investigated for supercavitating torpedoes. In addition, drag force calculation methods ofsupercavitatingvehicles are obtained. Basically, conventional heavyweight torpedoes reach up to ~50 knots by classic hydrodynamic techniques, on the other hand super cavitating torpedoes may reach up to ~200 knots, theoretically. However, in order to reachhigh speeds, hydrodynamic viscous forces have to be reduced or eliminated completely. This necessity is revived the supercavitation phenomena that is implemented to conventional torpedoes. Supercavitation is a type of cavitation, after all, it is more stable and continuous than other cavitation types. The general principle of supercavitation is to separate the underwater vehicle from water phase by surrounding the vehicle with cavitation bubbles. This situation allows the torpedo to operate at high speeds through the water being fully developed cavitation. Conventional torpedoes are entitled as supercavitating torpedoes when the torpedo moves in a cavity envelope due to cavitator in the nose section and solid fuel rocket engine in the rear section. There are two types of supercavitation phase, these are natural and artificial cavitation phases. In this study, natural cavitation is investigated on the disk cavitators based on numerical methods. Once the supercavitation characteristics and drag reduction of natural cavitationare studied on CFD platform, results are verified with the empirical equations. As supercavitation parameters cavitation number (), pressure distribution along axial axes, drag coefficient (C_?) and drag force (D), cavity wall velocity (U_?) and dimensionless cavity shape parameters, which are cavity length (L_?/d_?), cavity diameter(d_ₘ/d_?) and cavity fineness ratio (〖L_?/d〗_ₘ) are investigated and compared with empirical results. This paper has the characteristics of feasibility study to carry out numerical solutions of the supercavitation phenomena comparing with empirical equations.

Keywords: CFD, cavity envelope, high speed underwater vehicles, supercavitating flows, supercavitation, drag reduction, supercavitation parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 103