Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1362

Search results for: observation

1362 The Impact of Election Observation on Electoral Reforms in Nigeria

Authors: Abubakar Sulaiman


The paper examines how election observation influences electoral reforms in Nigeria. Over the years, election observation continues to play critical role in the electoral process specifically in Nigeria and Africa at large. Election observation keeps an eye on the electoral process and all the stakeholders during elections, to ensure that the process is fair to all contestants. While literature abound on this role of election observation on electoral process in Nigeria, scanty scholarly efforts have been made to appraise how election observation influences electoral reforms in Nigeria. Also, while election observation may play a role in ensuring that the electoral process is credible, specifically, its role in prvoking and eliciting various electoral reforms in the country has not been explored. The paper adopts the explanatory research design using secondary data and document analysis. Preliminary findings show that election observation has influenced electoral reforms in Nigeria in no small measure. The paper concludes that election observation is critical for result oriented electoral reforms in Nigeria, albeit, such reforms have to be implemented to the latter.

Keywords: electoral reforms, election observation, electoral process, developing country

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1361 Virtual Player for Learning by Observation to Assist Karate Training

Authors: Kazumoto Tanaka


It is well known that sport skill learning is facilitated by video observation of players’ actions in sports. The optimal viewpoint for the observation of actions depends on sport scenes. On the other hand, it is impossible to change viewpoint for the observation in general, because most videos are filmed from fixed points. The study has tackled the problem and focused on karate match as a first step. The study developed a method for observing karate player’s actions from any point of view by using 3D-CG model (i.e. virtual player) obtained from video images, and verified the effectiveness of the method on karate match.

Keywords: computer graphics, karate training, learning by observation, motion capture, virtual player

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1360 Effects of Different Kinds of Combined Action Observation and Motor Imagery on Improving Golf Putting Performance and Learning

Authors: Chi H. Lin, Chi C. Lin, Chih L. Hsieh


Motor Imagery (MI) alone or combined with action observation (AO) has been shown to enhance motor performance and skill learning. The most effective way to combine these techniques has received limited scientific scrutiny. In the present study, we examined the effects of simultaneous (i.e., observing an action whilst imagining carrying out the action concurrently), alternate (i.e., observing an action and then doing imagery related to that action consecutively) and synthesis (alternately perform action observation and imagery action and then perform observation and imagery action simultaneously) AOMI combinations on improving golf putting performance and learning. Participants, 45 university students who had no formal experience of using imagery for the study, were randomly allocated to one of four training groups: simultaneous action observation and motor imagery (S-AOMI), alternate action observation and motor imagery (A-AOMI), synthesis action observation and motor imagery (A-S-AOMI), and a control group. And it was applied 'Different Experimental Groups with Pre and Post Measured' designs. Participants underwent eighteen times of different interventions, which were happened three times a week and lasting for six weeks. We analyzed the information we received based on two-factor (group × times) mixed between and within analysis of variance to discuss the real effects on participants' golf putting performance and learning about different intervention methods of different types of combined action observation and motor imagery. After the intervention, we then used imagery questionnaire and journey to understand the condition and suggestion about different motor imagery and action observation intervention from the participants. The results revealed that the three experimental groups both are effective in putting performance and learning but not for the control group, and the A-S-AOMI group is significantly better effect than S-AOMI group on golf putting performance and learning. The results confirmed the effect of motor imagery combined with action observation on the performance and learning of golf putting. In particular, in the groups of synthesis, motor imagery, or action observation were alternately performed first and then performed motor imagery, and action observation simultaneously would have the best effectiveness.

Keywords: motor skill learning, motor imagery, action observation, simulation

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1359 Teacher Culture Inquiry of Classroom Observation at an Elementary School in Taiwan

Authors: Tsai-Hsiu Lin


Three dimensions of teacher culture hinder educational improvement: individualism, conservatism and presentism. To promote the professional development of teachers, these three aspects in teacher culture should be eliminated. Classroom observation may be a useful method of eliminating individualism. The Ministry of Education in Taiwan has attempted to reduce the isolation of teachers to promote their professional growth. Because classroom observation discourse varies, teachers are generally unwilling to allow their teaching to be observed. However, classroom observations take place in the country in the form of school evaluations. The main purpose of this study was to explore the differences in teachers’ conservatism, individualism and presentism after classroom observations had been conducted at an elementary school in Taiwan. The research method was a qualitative case study involving interviews with the school principal, the director of academic affairs, and two classroom teachers. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) Educators in different positions viewed classroom observations differently; (2) The classroom teachers did not highly value classroom observation; (3) There was little change in the teachers’ conservatism, individualism and presentism after classroom observation.

Keywords: classroom observation, Lortie’s Trinity, teacher culture, teacher professional development

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1358 Video-Observation: A Phenomenological Research Tool for International Relation?

Authors: Andreas Aagaard Nohr


International Relations is an academic discipline which is rarely in direct contact with its field. However, there has in recent years been a growing interest in the different agents within and beyond the state and their associated practices; yet some of the research tools with which to study them are not widely used. This paper introduces video-observation as a method for the study of IR and argues that it offers a unique way of studying the complexity of the everyday context of actors. The paper is divided into two main parts: First, the philosophical and methodological underpinnings of the kind of data that video-observation produces are discussed; primarily through a discussion of the phenomenology of Husserl, Heidegger, and Merleau-Ponty. Second, taking simulation of a WTO negotiation round as an example, the paper discusses how the data created can be analysed: in particular with regard to the structure of events, the temporal and spatial organization of activities, rhythm and periodicity, and the concrete role of artefacts and documents. The paper concludes with a discussion of the ontological, epistemological, and practical challenges and limitations that ought to be considered if video-observation is chosen as a method within the field of IR.

Keywords: video-observation, phenomenology, international relations

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1357 Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder as an In-Class Observation Tool for Teachers

Authors: Werona Król-Gierat


The majority of Special Educational Needs checklists are intended for preliminary screening in the special education disability process. The aim of the present paper is to present their potential usefulness as in-class observation tools for teachers working with students who have already been diagnosed with a disorder. A checklist may complement and organize information about a given child, which is indispensable to improve his or her condition. The case of a Polish boy with autism will serve as an example. Last but not the least, alternative uses of checklists are suggested in the article.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, case study, checklist, observation tool

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1356 Mechanical Qualification Test Campaign on the Demise Observation Capsule

Authors: B. Tiseo, V. Quaranta, G. Bruno, R. Gardi, T. Watts, S. Dussy


This paper describes the qualification test campaign performed on the Demise Observation Capsule DOC-EQM as part of the Future Launch Preparatory Program FLPP3. The mechanical environment experienced during launch ascent and separation phase was first identified and then replicated in terms of sine, random and shock vibration. The loads identification is derived by selecting the worst possible case. Vibration and shock qualification test performed at CIRA Space Qualification laboratory is herein described. Mechanical fixtures’ design and validation, carried out by means of FEM, is also addressed due to its fundamental role in the vibrational test campaign. The Demise Observation Capsule (DOC) successfully passed the qualification test campaign. Functional test and resonance search have not been point any fault and damages of the capsule.

Keywords: capsule, demise, demise observation capsule, DOC, launch environment, re-ntry, qualification

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1355 A Folk Theorem with Public Randomization Device in Repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma under Costly Observation

Authors: Yoshifumi Hino


An infinitely repeated prisoner’s dilemma is a typical model that represents teamwork situation. If both players choose costly actions and contribute to the team, then both players are better off. However, each player has an incentive to choose a selfish action. We analyze the game under costly observation. Each player can observe the action of the opponent only when he pays an observation cost in that period. In reality, teamwork situations are often costly observation. Members of some teams sometimes work in distinct rooms, areas, or countries. In those cases, they have to spend their time and money to see other team members if they want to observe it. The costly observation assumption makes the cooperation difficult substantially because the equilibrium must satisfy the incentives not only on the action but also on the observational decision. Especially, it is the most difficult to cooperate each other when the stage-game is prisoner's dilemma because players have to communicate through only two actions. We examine whether or not players can cooperate each other in prisoner’s dilemma under costly observation. Specifically, we check whether symmetric Pareto efficient payoff vectors in repeated prisoner’s dilemma can be approximated by sequential equilibria or not (efficiency result). We show the efficiency result without any randomization device under certain circumstances. It means that players can cooperate with each other without any randomization device even if the observation is costly. Next, we assume that public randomization device is available, and then we show that any feasible and individual rational payoffs in prisoner’s dilemma can be approximated by sequential equilibria under a specific situation (folk theorem). It implies that players can achieve asymmetric teamwork like leadership situation when public randomization device is available.

Keywords: cost observation, efficiency, folk theorem, prisoner's dilemma, private monitoring, repeated games.

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1354 Considering the Reliability of Measurements Issue in Distributed Adaptive Estimation Algorithms

Authors: Wael M. Bazzi, Amir Rastegarnia, Azam Khalili


In this paper we consider the issue of reliability of measurements in distributed adaptive estimation problem. To this aim, we assume a sensor network with different observation noise variance among the sensors and propose new estimation method based on incremental distributed least mean-square (IDLMS) algorithm. The proposed method contains two phases: I) Estimation of each sensors observation noise variance, and II) Estimation of the desired parameter using the estimated observation variances. To deal with the reliability of measurements, in the second phase of the proposed algorithm, the step-size parameter is adjusted for each sensor according to its observation noise variance. As our simulation results show, the proposed algorithm considerably improves the performance of the IDLMS algorithm in the same condition.

Keywords: adaptive filter, distributed estimation, sensor network, IDLMS algorithm

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1353 Analysis of Filtering in Stochastic Systems on Continuous- Time Memory Observations in the Presence of Anomalous Noises

Authors: S. Rozhkova, O. Rozhkova, A. Harlova, V. Lasukov


For optimal unbiased filter as mean-square and in the case of functioning anomalous noises in the observation memory channel, we have proved insensitivity of filter to inaccurate knowledge of the anomalous noise intensity matrix and its equivalence to truncated filter plotted only by non anomalous components of an observation vector.

Keywords: mathematical expectation, filtration, anomalous noise, memory

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1352 An Efficient Book Keeping Strategy for the Formation of the Design Matrix in Geodetic Network Adjustment

Authors: O. G. Omogunloye, J. B. Olaleye, O. E. Abiodun, J. O. Odumosu, O. G. Ajayi


The focus of the study is to proffer easy formulation and computation of least square observation equation’s design matrix by using an efficient book keeping strategy. Usually, for a large network of many triangles and stations, a rigorous task is involved in the computation and placement of the values of the differentials of each observation with respect to its station coordinates (latitude and longitude), in their respective rows and columns. The efficient book keeping strategy seeks to eliminate or reduce this rigorous task involved, especially in large network, by simple skillful arrangement and development of a short program written in the Matlab environment, the formulation and computation of least square observation equation’s design matrix can be easily achieved.

Keywords: design, differential, geodetic, matrix, network, station

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1351 Qualitative Data Summary of Piloted Observation Instrument for Designing Adaptations in Inclusive Settings

Authors: Rebecca Lynn


The successful inclusion of students with disabilities depends upon many factors, including the collaboration between general and special education teachers for meeting student learning goals as outlined in the Individualized Education Plan (IEP). However, Individualized Education Plans do not provide sufficient information on accommodations and modifications for the variety of general education contexts and content areas in which a student may participate. In addition, general and special education teachers lack observation skills and tools for gathering essential information about the strengths and needs of students with disabilities in relation to general education instruction and classrooms. More research and tools are needed for planning adaptations that increase access to content in general education classrooms. This paper will discuss the outcomes of a qualitative field-based study of a structured observation instrument used for gathering information on student strengths and needs in relation to social, academic and regulatory expectations during instruction in general education classrooms. The study explores the following questions: To what extent does the observation structure and instrument increase collaborative planning of adaptations in general education classrooms for students with disabilities? To what extent does the observation structure and instrument change pedagogical practices and collaboration in general education classrooms for fostering successful inclusion? A hypothesis of this study was that use of the instrument in the context of lessons and in collaborative debriefing would increase awareness and use of meaningful adaptations, and lead to universal design in the planning of instruction. A finding of the study is a shift from viewing students with disabilities as passive participants to a more pedagogical inclusion as teachers developed skills in observation and created content/context-specific adaptations for students with disabilities in the general education classroom.

Keywords: adaptations, collaboration, inclusion, observations

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1350 Observation and Analysis of Urban Micro-Climate and Urban Morphology on Block Scale in Zhengzhou City

Authors: Linlin Guo, Baofeng Li


Zhengzhou is a typical plain city with a high population density and a permanent population of 10 million, located in central China. The scale of this city is constantly expanding, and the urban form has changed dramatically by the accelerating process of urbanization, which makes a great effect on the urban microclimate. In order to study the influence of block morphology on urban micro-climate, air temperature, humidity, wind velocity and so on in three typical types of blocks in the center of Zhengzhou were collected, which was chosen to perform the fixed and mobile observation. After data handling and analysis, a series of graphs and diagrams were obtained to reflect the differences in the influence of different types of block morphology on the urban microclimate. These can provide targeted strategies for urban design to improve and regulate urban micro-climate.

Keywords: urban micro-climate, block morphology, fixed and mobile observation, urban design

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1349 A Comparative and Mixed Methods Study of Possible Selves of Adolescent Boys in an Observation Home and a Children's Home in India

Authors: Apurva Sapra


The aim of this research was to study and compare the nature of expected, feared and hoped-for selves in institutionalized adolescent boys in two residential settings – an observation home with children in conflict with the law, and a children’s home with children in need of care and protection. The study uses a concurrent mixed methods design, in which eight adolescent boys from each group, aged 13-17, were asked to respond to a questionnaire, followed by an in-depth interview. The questionnaire looked into the total scores on current, probable and hoped-for/feared positive and negative self-descriptors. Possible selves of both groups were found to be influenced by their unique histories, such as with their experience of violence, interaction with the police and emphasis given on education. Expected selves and hoped-for selves were similar within the two groups. However, they were more concrete and attainable in the observation home and more ambitious in the children’s home. Quantitative results showed that on the positive self-descriptors, the participants in the observation home had a slightly lower total score on the current parameter as on the probable and hoped-for parameters. The participants in the children’s home showed similar results on current and probable positive self-descriptors, with higher scores on the hoped-for parameter. For most of the negative self-descriptors, the current score for the observation home group was lower than the expected score, and for the children’s home group, they were feared slightly more than they were expected. Along with the nature of possible selves, the study also looked into threats and support to desired and feared possible selves, as well as strategies to attain the desired possible selves and avoid feared possible selves. While threats to possible selves were identified as external and internal in both groups, the participants in the children’s home tended to identify threats as external. The categories of support were similar across the two groups, although the nature of support provided differed. Strategies adopted by participants in the observation home could be clearly divided as past, present and future strategies, while those adopted by participants in the children’s home had an overlap with past and future strategies. The institution was perceived as having a negative influence for the future in the observation home group, but positive in the children’s home group. Limitations of the study and recommendations for future research, policy setting and the counselling profession are discussed.

Keywords: adolescents, expected self, feared self, hoped-for self, institutions, possible selves

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1348 How to Improve Teaching and Learning Strategies Through Educational Research. An Experience of Peer Observation in Legal Education

Authors: Luigina Mortari, Alessia Bevilacqua, Roberta Silva


The experience presented in this paper aims to understand how educational research can support the introduction and optimization of teaching innovations in legal education. In this increasingly complex context, a strong need to introduce paths aimed at acquiring not only professional knowledge and skills but also transversal such as reflective, critical, and problem-solving skills emerges. Through a peer observation intertwined with an analysis of discursive practices, researchers and the teacher worked together through a process of participatory and transformative accompaniment whose objective was to promote the active participation and engagement of students in learning processes, an element indispensable to work in the more specific direction of strengthening key competences. This reflective faculty development path led the teacher to activate metacognitive processes, becoming thus aware of the strengths and areas of improvement of his teaching innovation.

Keywords: legal education, teaching innovation, peer observation, discursive analysis, faculty development

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1347 Immunologically Non-Treated Vascular Xenografts in Long-Term Survival Animals

Authors: W. G. Kim, J. M. Chang, W. S. Kim


Immunologically non-treated and acellularized porcine xenografts were implanted as an arterial graft in goats and comparatively analyzed for the explanted grafts with gross observation, as well as light microscopy and immunohistochemistry, following the predetermined periods. For immunologically non-treated xenografts, bilateral porcine carotid arteries were harvested, and after short-term freezing at -70°C, were implanted into goats. The preparation of acellularized xenograft vessels has been performed with Nacl-SDS solution and stored at the freezer until use. The goats were randomly assigned for three periods of observation (3, 6, and 12 months after implantation), four animals were observed at each of these times. Periodic ultrasonographic examinations were performed during observation period. Following the predetermined periods, the explanted grafts were analyzed. Among 12 animals, one goat died prematurely, and a total of 22 grafts were evaluated. Gross observations revealed non-thrombotic patent smooth lumens. Microscopic examinations of the explanted grafts showed satisfactory cellular reconstruction up to the 12-month observation period. The proportions of CD3 positive T lymphocytes among inflammatory cells infiltrations were very low. In conclusion, these findings, as a whole, suggest that porcine vessel xenografts can be clinically acceptably implanted in the goats as a form of small-diameter vascular graft, regardless of the acellularized xenograft or immunologically non-treated xenograft.

Keywords: xenograft, arterial graft, long-term survival animals, immunology

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1346 Observation of Large-Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance over Peninsular Malaysia Using GPS Receivers

Authors: Intan Izafina Idrus, Mardina Abdullah, Alina Marie Hasbi, Asnawi Husin


This paper presents the result of large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance (LSTID) observation during moderate magnetic storm event on 25 October 2011 with SYM-H ~ -160 nT and Kp ~ 7 over Peninsular Malaysia at equatorial region using vertical total electron content (VTEC) from the Global Positioning System (GPS) observation measurement. The propagation of the LSTID signatures in the TEC measurements over Peninsular Malaysia was also investigated using VTEC map. The LSTID was found to propagate equator-ward during this event. The results showed that the LSTID propagated with an average phase velocity of 526.41 m/s and average periods of 140 min. The occurrence of this LSTID was also found to be the subsequent effects of substorm activities in the auroral region.

Keywords: Global Positioning System (GPS), large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance (LSTID), moderate geomagnetic storm, vertical total electron content (VTEC)

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1345 Coordinative Remote Sensing Observation Technology for a High Altitude Barrier Lake

Authors: Zhang Xin


Barrier lakes are lakes formed by storing water in valleys, river valleys or riverbeds after being blocked by landslide, earthquake, debris flow, and other factors. They have great potential safety hazards. When the water is stored to a certain extent, it may burst in case of strong earthquake or rainstorm, and the lake water overflows, resulting in large-scale flood disasters. In order to ensure the safety of people's lives and property in the downstream, it is very necessary to monitor the barrier lake. However, it is very difficult and time-consuming to manually monitor the barrier lake in high altitude areas due to the harsh climate and steep terrain. With the development of earth observation technology, remote sensing monitoring has become one of the main ways to obtain observation data. Compared with a single satellite, multi-satellite remote sensing cooperative observation has more advantages; its spatial coverage is extensive, observation time is continuous, imaging types and bands are abundant, it can monitor and respond quickly to emergencies, and complete complex monitoring tasks. Monitoring with multi-temporal and multi-platform remote sensing satellites can obtain a variety of observation data in time, acquire key information such as water level and water storage capacity of the barrier lake, scientifically judge the situation of the barrier lake and reasonably predict its future development trend. In this study, The Sarez Lake, which formed on February 18, 1911, in the central part of the Pamir as a result of blockage of the Murgab River valley by a landslide triggered by a strong earthquake with magnitude of 7.4 and intensity of 9, is selected as the research area. Since the formation of Lake Sarez, it has aroused widespread international concern about its safety. At present, the use of mechanical methods in the international analysis of the safety of Lake Sarez is more common, and remote sensing methods are seldom used. This study combines remote sensing data with field observation data, and uses the 'space-air-ground' joint observation technology to study the changes in water level and water storage capacity of Lake Sarez in recent decades, and evaluate its safety. The situation of the collapse is simulated, and the future development trend of Lake Sarez is predicted. The results show that: 1) in recent decades, the water level of Lake Sarez has not changed much and remained at a stable level; 2) unless there is a strong earthquake or heavy rain, it is less likely that the Lake Sarez will be broken under normal conditions, 3) lake Sarez will remain stable in the future, but it is necessary to establish an early warning system in the Lake Sarez area for remote sensing of the area, 4) the coordinative remote sensing observation technology is feasible for the high altitude barrier lake of Sarez.

Keywords: coordinative observation, disaster, remote sensing, geographic information system, GIS

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1344 Metal Berthelot Tubes with Windows for Observing Cavitation under Static Negative Pressure

Authors: K. Hiro, Y. Imai, T. Sasayama


Cavitation under static negative pressure is not revealed well. The Berthelot method to generate such negative pressure can be a means to study cavitation inception. In this study, metal Berthelot tubes built in observation windows are newly developed and are checked whether high static negative pressure is generated or not. Negative pressure in the tube with a pair of a corundum plate and an aluminum gasket increased with temperature cycles. The trend was similar to that as reported before.

Keywords: Berthelot method, cavitation, negative pressure, observation

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1343 Tracking Maximum Power Point Utilizing Artificial Immunity System

Authors: Marwa Ahmed Abd El Hamied


In this paper In this paper, a new technique based on Artificial Immunity System (AIS) technique has been developed to track Maximum Power Point (MPP). AIS system is implemented in a photovoltaic system that is subjected to variable temperature and insulation condition. The proposed novel is simulated using Mat Lab program. The results of simulation have been compared to those who are generated from Observation Controller. The proposed model shows promising results as it provide better accuracy comparing to classical model.

Keywords: component, artificial immunity technique, solar energy, perturbation and observation, power based methods

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1342 Protection of Human Rights in Europe: The Parliamentary Dimension

Authors: Aleksandra Chiniaeva


The following paper describes the activity of national and international parliamentary assemblies of the European region in protection and promotion of human rights. It may be said that parliamentarians have a “double mandate” — as members of the international assembly and of their respective national parliaments. In other words, parliamentarization at both international and national level provides a situation for parliamentarians, where they link people, national governments and international organizations. The paper is aimed towards demonstrating that the activity of the main international parliamentary assemblies of the European region have a real positive impact on the human rights situation in the European region. In addition, the paper describes the assemblies that include protection of human rights in their Agenda as one of the main subjects: the EP, the PACE, the OSCE PA and the IPA CIS. Co-operation activities such as joint election observation; participation in inter-parliamentary associations, such as the IPU; conclusion agreements allow assemblies to provide observation of human right situation in the states that are not members of the particular organization and as consequence make their impact broader.

Keywords: human rights, international parliamentary assembly, IPU, EP, PACE, OSCE, international election observation

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1341 The Assesment of Animal Welfare at Slaughterhouses in Badung District, Bali Province

Authors: Ulil Afidah, Mustopa


The study aims to determine the assessment of animal welfare at slaughterhouses in Badung district, Bali province. The study was conducted for ten days with observed five cattle per day with a total 50 cattle. Observation begins when a cow came out of the pick up to be slaughtered, subsequently recorded in a questionnaire that has been provided.The result of the observation showed that the slaughterhouses in Bandung district have the implemented animal welfare which fulfills the requirement that is 63% before slaughtering process, and 76% at slaughtering process. Based on these results it can be concluded in slaughterhouses of Badung district already fulfill the requirements.

Keywords: animal welfare, assesment, Badung district, slaughterhousess

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1340 Evaluation of Virtual Reality for the Rehabilitation of Athlete Lower Limb Musculoskeletal Injury: A Method for Obtaining Practitioner’s Viewpoints through Observation and Interview

Authors: Hannah K. M. Tang, Muhammad Ateeq, Mark J. Lake, Badr Abdullah, Frederic A. Bezombes


Based on a theoretical assessment of current literature, virtual reality (VR) could help to treat sporting injuries in a number of ways. However, it is important to obtain rehabilitation specialists’ perspectives in order to design, develop and validate suitable content for a VR application focused on treatment. Subsequently, a one-day observation and interview study focused on the use of VR for the treatment of lower limb musculoskeletal conditions in athletes was conducted at St George’s Park England National Football Centre with rehabilitation specialists. The current paper established the methods suitable for obtaining practitioner’s viewpoints through observation and interview in this context. Particular detail was provided regarding the method of qualitatively processing interview results using the qualitative data analysis software tool NVivo, in order to produce a narrative of overarching themes. The observations and overarching themes identified could be used as a framework and success criteria of a VR application developed in future research. In conclusion, this work explained the methods deemed suitable for obtaining practitioner’s viewpoints through observation and interview. This was required in order to highlight characteristics and features of a VR application designed to treat lower limb musculoskeletal injury of athletes and could be built upon to direct future work.

Keywords: athletes, lower-limb musculoskeletal injury, rehabilitation, return-to-sport, virtual reality

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1339 Observation and Experience of Using Mechanically Activated Fly Ash in Concrete

Authors: Rudolf Hela, Lenka Bodnarova


Paper focuses on experimental testing of possibilities of mechanical activation of fly ash and observation of influence of specific surface and granulometry on final properties of fresh and hardened concrete. Mechanical grinding prepared various fineness of fly ash, which was classed by specific surface in accordance with Blain and their granulometry was determined by means of laser granulometer. Then, sets of testing specimens were made from mix designs of identical composition with 25% or Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R replaced with fly ash with various specific surface and granulometry. Mix design with only Portland cement was used as reference. Mix designs were tested on consistency of fresh concrete and compressive strength after 7, 28, 60, and 90 days.

Keywords: concrete, fly ash, latent hydraulicity, mechanically activated fly ash

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1338 Reliability of an Application for the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities in the Recreovia of Bucaramanga, Colombia

Authors: Erika Tatiana Paredes Prada, Diana Marina Camargo Lemos


Introduction: Recreovía as a public health strategy contributes to encourage the practice and adherence to physical activity (PA) recommendations, by temporarily closing the roads to motorized vehicles. The determination of the PA requires the evaluation of the reliability of the measurement instruments, in order to sustain the continuity and relevance of Recreovía as a community intervention. Objective: Establish the inter-rater reliability of the App for the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (iSOPARC®) in the Recreovía of Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methods: Five trained observers at two observation points on the 2.3 km of the Recreovía (14th Street and 32nd Street) used the App (iSOPARC®), between 08:00 a.m. and 12:00 m. in periods of 20 minutes during a regular Sunday. Reliability analysis was performed using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC 2.1). Results: A total of 2682 users were observed (43.6 % women) in 7 observations. ICC showed a range between 0.96 and 0.99 for the PA level and ICC between 0.95 and 0.99 for age group for the two observation points. Conclusion: The reliability found for the iSOPARC® guarantees the consecutive measurement of the PA level at the Recreovía, which will allow measuring it is effectiveness in the medium and long term, as a community intervention strategy.

Keywords: environment, observation, physical activity, recreation, reliability

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1337 Assessing Pain Using Morbid Motion Monitor System in the Pain Management of Nurse Practitioner

Authors: Mohammad Reza Dawoudi


With the increasing rate of patients suffering from chronic pain, several methods for evaluating of chronic pain are suggested. Motion of morbid has been defined as the rate of pine and it is linked with various co-morbid conditions. This study provides a summary of procedure useful to statistics performing direct behavioral observation in hospital settings. We describe the need for and usefulness of comprehensive “morbid motions” observations; provide a primer on the identification, definition, and assessment of morbid behaviors; and outline and discuss specific statistical procedures, including formulating referral motions, describing and conducting the observation. We also provide practical devices for observing and analyzing the obtained information into a report that guides clinical intervention.

Keywords: assessing pain, DNA modeling, image matching technique, pain scale

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1336 Thanking as a Compliment Response at Higher Education Institution: A Comparative Study of Omani and Australian Speakers

Authors: Arfat Bait Jamil


This study investigates how the compliment response of thanking is performed by Omani and Australian, lecturers and students, in higher educational settings. Semi-structured interviews and observation records were used to collect data. Thanking responses were aggregated from interviews with Omani lecturers and students in Oman, and from Australian lecturers and students in Australia, wherein they were asked to imagine themselves being complimented on five different compliment topics. After the interviews, they used observation record to note down real-life examples of compliment exchanges, along with their opinions. The findings show that thanking is not a simple compliment response. Depending on the context in which the compliment is delivered, thanking does not always suggest positive thoughts or feelings and compliment approval.

Keywords: Australia, compliment responses, Oman, thanking

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1335 The Effect of Probiotic and Vitamin B Complex Supplementation on Interferon-γ and Interleukin-10 Levels in Patients with TB Infection during Intensive Phase Therapy

Authors: Yulistiani Yulistiani, Wenny Nilamsari, Laurin Winarso, Rizkiya Rizkiya, Zamrotul Izzah, Budi Suprapti, Arif Bachtiar


Approximately, a million new cases of TB have been found out per year, making Indonesia as the second greatest country with TBC after India. Nevertheless, until now, there are still many patients failure to conventional therapy with oral anti tuberculosis. Thus, the discovery of supplement therapy is urgently needed. Many studies showed that probiotic had the positive impact in lung diseases, diarrhea, pneumonia and it was attributed to its capability to balance the level of cytokine pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory. It was demonstrated in active disease the production of IFN-γ is strongly depressed and IL-10 level increases. This study aimed to investigate the effect of probiotic (multi strains) and vitamin B complex supplementation on IFN-γ and IL-10 level in patients with TB infection during intensive phase therapy. A randomized controlled trial, open labeled was conducted in TB patients with the following criteria: 1) age 18-55 years old 2) receiving oral antituberculosis during intensive therapy 3) not using probiotic, vitamin B1, B6, B12 2 weeks before enrollment 4) willing to participate in this study and signed an informed consent. While, patients with HIV, pregnant, had the history of diabetes mellitus, using corticosteroid or other immunosuppressants were excluded. IFN-γ and IL-10 levels were drawn before observation and after a month observation. The assay was performed by ELISA. There were seven patients in treated group and five patients in controlled group obtained in this study. Between groups, there was no statistical difference in comorbid, age, and disease duration. The mean level of IFN-γ after a month observation increased in treated group and controlled group, which were 31.47 ± 105.46 pg/ml and 15.09 ± 24.23 pg/ml, respectively (p> 0.005). Although, there were not statistically different, treated group showed a greater increase of IFN-γ level than that of the controlled group. IFN-γ plays an important role in immune response to Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, by activating macrofag, monosit and furthermore killing Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Thus the level was expected to increase after supplementation with probiotic and Vitamin B complex. While the mean level of IL-10 also increased after one month observation in the treated group and controlled group (4.28 ± 12.29 pg/ml and 5.77± 6.21 pg/ml, respectively) (p>0.005). To be compared, the increased level of IL-10 in the treated group were lower than the controlled group, although it was not statistically different. IL-10 is a cytokine anti-inflammatory, thus, the level after the observation was expected to decrease. In this study, a month therapy of probiotic and vitamin B complex was not able to demonstrate the decrease of the IL-10 level. It is suggested to prolong observation up to 2 months, because, in intensive phase, the level of cytokine anti-inflammatory is very high, so the longer therapy is needed. It is indicated that supplementation therapy with probiotic and vitamin B complex to Oral Anti-Tuberculosis may have a positive effect on increasing IFN-γ level and slowing the progression of IL-10.

Keywords: TB Infection, IFN-γ, IL-10, probiotic, vitamin B complex

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1334 A Narrative of Monks: Culture Heroes in Songkhla Province

Authors: Kuntalee Vaitayavanich


This study aimed to look into roles of culture heroes of monks in Buddhism in Songkhla province during the last 50 years. Qualitative study, in-depth interviews, participatory observation and non-participatory observation were employed for this study. The results of the study indicated that culture heroes in Songkhla province would act as the followings. 1) For secular matters, monks would do something beneficial to the community. 2) For religious matters, monks would behave to follow Buddhism discipline strictly and unambitiously. At the same time, monks would not neglect to teach Buddhists to give respect to Lord Buddha by doing meditation and praying. However, when some of those culture heroes passed away, villagers in the community would show gratitude and appreciation by arranging a religious death anniversary ceremony, having icon, or having narrative to recognize those, continuously.

Keywords: narrative of monks, culture heroes, Songkhla province, social sustainability

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1333 Using Action Based Research to Examine the Effects of Co-Teaching on Middle School and High School Student Achievement in Math and Language Arts

Authors: Kathleen L. Seifert


Students with special needs are expected to achieve the same academic standards as their general education peers, yet many students with special needs are pulled-out of general content instruction. Because of this, many students with special needs are denied content knowledge from a content expert and instead receive content instruction in a more restrictive setting. Collaborative teaching, where a general education and special education teacher work alongside each other in the same classroom, has become increasingly popular as a means to meet the diverse needs of students in America’s public schools. The idea behind co-teaching is noble; to ensure students with special needs receive content area instruction from a content expert while also receiving the necessary supports to be successful. However, in spite of this noble effort, the effects of co-teaching are not always positive. The reasons why have produced several hypotheses, one of which has to do with lack of proper training and implementation of effective evidence-based co-teaching practices. In order to examine the effects of co-teacher training, eleven teaching pairs from a small mid-western school district in the United States participated in a study. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of co-teacher training on middle and high school student achievement in Math and Language Arts. A local university instructor provided teachers with training in co-teaching via a three-day workshop. In addition, co-teaching pairs were given the opportunity for direct observation and feedback using the Co-teaching Core Competencies Observation Checklist throughout the academic year. Data are in the process of being collected on both the students enrolled in the co-taught classes as well as on the teachers themselves. Student data compared achievement on standardized assessments and classroom performance across three domains: 1. General education students compared to students with special needs in co-taught classrooms, 2. Students with special needs in classrooms with and without co-teaching, 3. Students in classrooms where teachers were given observation and feedback compared to teachers who refused the observation and feedback. Teacher data compared the perceptions of the co-teaching initiative between teacher pairs who received direct observation and feedback from those who did not. The findings from the study will be shared with the school district and used for program improvement.

Keywords: collabortive teaching, collaboration, co-teaching, professional development

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