Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

Search results for: Calum McLaughlin

2 High Pressure Multiphase Flow Experiments: The Impact of Pressure on Flow Patterns Using an X-Ray Tomography Visualisation System

Authors: Sandy Black, Calum McLaughlin, Alessandro Pranzitelli, Marc Laing


Multiphase flow structures of two-phase multicomponent fluids were experimentally investigated in a large diameter high-pressure pipeline up to 130 bar at TÜV SÜD’s National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Multiphase Facility. One of the main objectives of the experimental test campaign was to evaluate the impact of pressure on multiphase flow patterns as much of the existing information is based on low-pressure measurements. The experiments were performed in a horizontal and vertical orientation in both 4-inch and 6-inch pipework using nitrogen, ExxsolTM D140 oil, and a 6% aqueous solution of NaCl at incremental pressures from 10 bar to 130 bar. To visualise the detailed structure of the flow of the entire cross-section of the pipe, a fast response X-ray tomography system was used. A wide range of superficial velocities from 0.6 m/s to 24.0 m/s for gas and 0.04 m/s and 6.48 m/s for liquid was examined to evaluate different flow regimes. The results illustrated the suppression of instabilities between the gas and the liquid at the measurement location and that intermittent or slug flow was observed less frequently as the pressure was increased. CFD modellings of low and high-pressure simulations were able to successfully predict the likelihood of intermittent flow; however, further tuning is necessary to predict the slugging frequency. The dataset generated is unique as limited datasets exist above 100 bar and is of considerable value to multiphase flow specialists and numerical modellers.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, high pressure, multiphase, X-ray tomography

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1 Using Health Literacy and Medico-Legal Guidance to Improve Restorative Dentistry Patient Information Leaflets

Authors: Hasneet K. Kalsi, Julie K. Kilgariff


Introduction: Within dentistry, the process for gaining informed consent has become more complex. To consent for treatment, patients must understand all reasonable treatment options and associated risks and benefits. Consenting is therefore deeply embedded in health literacy. Patients attending for dental consultation are often presented with an array of information and choices, yet studies show patients recall less than half of the information provided immediately after. Appropriate and comprehensible patient information leaflets (PILs) may be useful aid memories. In 2016 the World Health Organisation set improving health literacy as a global priority. Soon after, Scotland’s 2017-2025 Making it Easier: A Health Literacy Action Plan followed. This project involved the review of Restorative PILs used within Dundee Dental Hospital to assess the Content and Readability. Method: The current PIL on Root Canal Treatment (RCT) was created in 2011. This predates the Montgomery vs. NHS Lanarkshire case, a ruling which significantly impacted dental consenting processes, as well as General Dental Council’s (GDC’s) Standards for the Dental Team and Faculty of General Dental Practice’s Good Practice Guidance on Clinical Examination and Record-Keeping. Current evidence-based guidance, including that stipulated by the GDC, was reviewed. A 20-point Essential Content Checklist was designed to conform to best practice guidance for valid consenting processes. The RCT leaflet was scored against this to ascertain if the content was satisfactory. Having ensured the content satisfied medicolegal requirements, health literacy considerations were reviewed regarding readability. This was assessed using McLaughlin’s Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) formula, which identifies school stages that would have to be achieved to comprehend the PIL. The sensitivity of the results to alternative readability methods were assessed. Results: The PIL was not sufficient for modern consenting processes and reflected a suboptimal level of health literacy. Evaluation of the leaflet revealed key content was missing, including information pertaining to risks and benefits. Only five points out of the 20-point checklist were present. The readability score was 16, equivalent to a level 2 in National Adult Literacy Standards/Scottish Credit and Qualification Framework Level 5; 62% of Scottish adults are able to read to this standard. Discussion: Assessment of the leaflet showed it was no longer fit for purpose. Reasons include a lack of pertinent information, a text-heavy leaflet lacking flow, and content errors. The SMOG score indicates a high level of comprehension is required to understand this PIL, which many patients may not possess. A new PIL, compliant with medicolegal and health literacy guidance, was designed with patient-driven checklists, notes spaces for annotations/ questions and areas for clinicians to highlight important case-specific information. It has been tested using the SMOG formula. Conclusion: PILs can be extremely useful. Studies show that interactive use can enhance their effectiveness. PILs should reflect best practice guidance and be understood by patients. The 2020 leaflet designed and implemented aims to fulfill the needs of a modern healthcare system and its service users. It embraces and embeds Scotland’s Health Literacy Action Plan within the consenting process. A review of further leaflets using this model is ongoing.

Keywords: consent, health literacy, patient information leaflet, restorative dentistry

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