Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: saddle

12 Design of Saddle Support for Horizontal Pressure Vessel

Authors: Vinod Kumar, Navin Kumar, Surjit Angra, Prince Sharma


This paper presents the design analysis of saddle support of a horizontal pressure vessel. Since saddle have the vital role to support the pressure vessel and to maintain its stability, it should be designed in such a way that it can afford the vessel load and internal pressure of the vessel due to liquid contained in the vessel. A model of horizontal pressure vessel and saddle support is created in Ansys. Stresses are calculated using mathematical approach and Ansys software. The analysis reveals the zone of high localized stress at the junction part of the pressure vessel and saddle support due to operating conditions. The results obtained by both the methods are compared with allowable stress value for safe designing.

Keywords: ANSYS, pressure vessel, saddle, support

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11 X-Corner Detection for Camera Calibration Using Saddle Points

Authors: Abdulrahman S. Alturki, John S. Loomis


This paper discusses a corner detection algorithm for camera calibration. Calibration is a necessary step in many computer vision and image processing applications. Robust corner detection for an image of a checkerboard is required to determine intrinsic and extrinsic parameters. In this paper, an algorithm for fully automatic and robust X-corner detection is presented. Checkerboard corner points are automatically found in each image without user interaction or any prior information regarding the number of rows or columns. The approach represents each X-corner with a quadratic fitting function. Using the fact that the X-corners are saddle points, the coefficients in the fitting function are used to identify each corner location. The automation of this process greatly simplifies calibration. Our method is robust against noise and different camera orientations. Experimental analysis shows the accuracy of our method using actual images acquired at different camera locations and orientations.

Keywords: camera calibration, corner detector, edge detector, saddle points

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10 Form-Finding of Tensioned Fabric Structure in Mathematical Monkey Saddle Model

Authors: Yee Hooi Min, Abdul Hadi, M. N., A. G. Kay Dora


Form-finding has to be carried out for tensioned fabric structure in order to determine the initial equilibrium shape under prescribed support condition and pre-stress pattern. Tensioned fabric structures are normally designed to be in the form of equal tensioned surface. Tensioned fabric structure is highly suited to be used for realizing surfaces of complex or new forms. However, research study on a new form as a tensioned fabric structure has not attracted much attention. Another source of inspiration minimal surface which could be adopted as form for tensioned fabric structure is very crucial. The aim of this study is to propose initial equilibrium shape of tensioned fabric structures in the form of Monkey Saddle. Computational form-finding is frequently used to determine the possible form of uniformly stressed surfaces. A tensioned fabric structure must curve equally in opposite directions to give the resulting surface a three dimensional stability. In an anticlastic doubly curved surface, the sum of all positive and all negative curvatures is zero. This study provides an alternative choice for structural designer to consider the Monkey Saddle applied in tensioned fabric structures. The results on factors affecting initial equilibrium shape can serve as a reference for proper selection of surface parameter for achieving a structurally viable surface. Such in-sight will lead to improvement of rural basic infrastructure, economic gains, sustainability of built environment and green technology initiative.

Keywords: anticlastic, curvatures, form-finding, initial equilibrium shape, minimal surface, tensioned fabric structure

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9 Accelerated Molecular Simulation: A Convolution Approach

Authors: Jannes Quer, Amir Niknejad, Marcus Weber


Computational Drug Design is often based on Molecular Dynamics simulations of molecular systems. Molecular Dynamics can be used to simulate, e.g., the binding and unbinding event of a small drug-like molecule with regard to the active site of an enzyme or a receptor. However, the time-scale of the overall binding event is many orders of magnitude longer than the time-scale of simulation. Thus, there is a need to speed-up molecular simulations. In order to speed up simulations, the molecular dynamics trajectories have to be ”steared” out of local minimizers of the potential energy surface – the so-called metastabilities – of the molecular system. Increasing the kinetic energy (temperature) is one possibility to accelerate simulated processes. However, with temperature the entropy of the molecular system increases, too. But this kind ”stearing” is not directed enough to stear the molecule out of the minimum toward the saddle point. In this article, we give a new mathematical idea, how a potential energy surface can be changed in such a way, that entropy is kept under control while the trajectories are still steared out of the metastabilities. In order to compute the unsteared transition behaviour based on a steared simulation, we propose to use extrapolation methods. In the end we mathematically show, that our method accelerates the simulations along the direction, in which the curvature of the potential energy surface changes the most, i.e., from local minimizers towards saddle points.

Keywords: extrapolation, Eyring-Kramers, metastability, multilevel sampling

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8 Two Steady States and Two Movement Patterns under the Balanced Budget Rule: An Economy with Divisible Labor

Authors: Fujio Takata


When governments levy taxes on labor income on the basis of a balanced budget rule, two steady states in an economy exist, of which one can cause two movement patterns, namely, indeterminacy paths and a saddle path. However, in this paper, we assume an economy with divisible labor, in which labor adjustment is made by an intensive margin. We demonstrate that there indeed exist the two paths in the economy and that there exists a critical condition dividing them. This is proved by establishing the relationship between a finite elasticity of labor with regard to real wages and the share of capital in output. Consequently, we deduce the existence of an upper limit in the share of capital in output for indeterminacy to occur. The largest possible value of that share is less than 0.5698.

Keywords: balanced budget rule, divisible labor, labor income taxation, two movement patterns

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7 Development and Modeling of a Geographic Information System Solar Flux in Adrar, Algeria

Authors: D. Benatiallah, A. Benatiallah, K. Bouchouicha, A. Harouz


The development and operation of renewable energy known an important development in the world with significant growth potential. Estimate the solar radiation on terrestrial geographic locality is of extreme importance, firstly to choose the appropriate site where to place solar systems (solar power plants for electricity generation, for example) and also for the design and performance analysis of any system using solar energy. In addition, solar radiation measurements are limited to a few areas only in Algeria. Thus, we use theoretical approaches to assess the solar radiation on a given location. The Adrar region is one of the most favorable sites for solar energy use with a medium flow that exceeds 7 kWh / m2 / d and saddle of over 3500 hours per year. Our goal in this work focuses on the creation of a data bank for the given data in the energy field of the Adrar region for the period of the year and the month then the integration of these data into a geographic Information System (GIS) to estimate the solar flux on a location on the map.

Keywords: Adrar, flow, GIS, deposit potential

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6 Comparative Analysis of Turbulent Plane Jets from a Sharp-Edged Orifice, a Beveled-Edge Orifice and a Radially Contoured Nozzle

Authors: Ravinesh C. Deo


This article investigates through experiments the flow characteristics of plane jets from sharp-edged orifice-plate, beveled-edge and radially contoured nozzle. The first two configurations exhibit saddle-backed velocity profiles while the third shows a top-hat. A vena contracta is found for the jet emanating from orifice at x/h = 3 while the contoured case displays a potential core extending to the range x/h = 5. A spurt in jet pressure on the centerline supports vena contracta for the orifice-jet. Momentum thicknesses and integral length scales elongate linearly with x although the growth of the shear-layer and large-scale eddies for the orifice are greater than the contoured case. The near-field spectrum exhibits higher frequency of the primary eddies that concur with enhanced turbulence intensity. Importantly, highly “turbulent” state of the orifice-jet prevails in the far-field where the spectra confirm more energetic secondary eddies associated with greater flapping amplitude of the orifice-jet.

Keywords: orifice, beveled-edge-orifice, radially contoured nozzle, plane jets

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5 Iterative Solver for Solving Large-Scale Frictional Contact Problems

Authors: Thierno Diop, Michel Fortin, Jean Deteix


Since the precise formulation of the elastic part is irrelevant for the description of the algorithm, we shall consider a generic case. In practice, however, we will have to deal with a non linear material (for instance a Mooney-Rivlin model). We are interested in solving a finite element approximation of the problem, leading to large-scale non linear discrete problems and, after linearization, to large linear systems and ultimately to calculations needing iterative methods. This also implies that penalty method, and therefore augmented Lagrangian method, are to be banned because of their negative effect on the condition number of the underlying discrete systems and thus on the convergence of iterative methods. This is in rupture to the mainstream of methods for contact in which augmented Lagrangian is the principal tool. We shall first present the problem and its discretization; this will lead us to describe a general solution algorithm relying on a preconditioner for saddle-point problems which we shall describe in some detail as it is not entirely standard. We will propose an iterative approach for solving three-dimensional frictional contact problems between elastic bodies, including contact with a rigid body, contact between two or more bodies and also self-contact.

Keywords: frictional contact, three-dimensional, large-scale, iterative method

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4 Degree of Bending in Axially Loaded Tubular KT-Joints of Offshore Structures: Parametric Study and Formulation

Authors: Hamid Ahmadi, Shadi Asoodeh


The fatigue life of tubular joints commonly found in offshore industry is not only dependent on the value of hot-spot stress (HSS), but is also significantly influenced by the through-the-thickness stress distribution characterized by the degree of bending (DoB). The determination of DoB values in a tubular joint is essential for improving the accuracy of fatigue life estimation using the stress-life (S–N) method and particularly for predicting the fatigue crack growth based on the fracture mechanics (FM) approach. In the present paper, data extracted from finite element (FE) analyses of tubular KT-joints, verified against experimental data and parametric equations, was used to investigate the effects of geometrical parameters on DoB values at the crown 0˚, saddle, and crown 180˚ positions along the weld toe of central brace in tubular KT-joints subjected to axial loading. Parametric study was followed by a set of nonlinear regression analyses to derive DoB parametric formulas for the fatigue analysis of KT-joints under axial loads. The tubular KT-joint is a quite common joint type found in steel offshore structures. However, despite the crucial role of the DoB in evaluating the fatigue performance of tubular joints, this paper is the first attempt to study and formulate the DoB values in KT-joints.

Keywords: tubular KT-joint, fatigue, degree of bending (DoB), axial loading, parametric formula

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3 Multi-Point Dieless Forming Product Defect Reduction Using Reliability-Based Robust Process Optimization

Authors: Misganaw Abebe Baye, Ji-Woo Park, Beom-Soo Kang


The product quality of multi-point dieless forming (MDF) is identified to be dependent on the process parameters. Moreover, a certain variation of friction and material properties may have a substantially worse influence on the final product quality. This study proposed on how to compensate the MDF product defects by minimizing the sensitivity of noise parameter variations. This can be attained by reliability-based robust optimization (RRO) technique to obtain the optimal process setting of the controllable parameters. Initially two MDF Finite Element (FE) simulations of AA3003-H14 saddle shape showed a substantial amount of dimpling, wrinkling, and shape error. FE analyses are consequently applied on ABAQUS commercial software to obtain the correlation between the control process setting and noise variation with regard to the product defects. The best prediction models are chosen from the family of metamodels to swap the computational expensive FE simulation. Genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to determine the optimal process settings of the control parameters. Monte Carlo Analysis (MCA) is executed to determine how the noise parameter variation affects the final product quality. Finally, the RRO FE simulation and the experimental result show that the amendment of the control parameters in the final forming process leads to a considerably better-quality product.

Keywords: dimpling, multi-point dieless forming, reliability-based robust optimization, shape error, variation, wrinkling

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2 Computer Simulation and Mathematical Modeling of the Interactions Between Ecological Selection and Sexual Selection in Sympatric Speciation of a 2-Niche, 2-Sex-allele Ecoscape

Authors: John Lin, Natalie Wassall


Ecological niche specialization and the subsequent pre-mating reproductive isolation are the putative steps of sympatric speciation, even though the exact mechanism of how the former leads to the later remains unclear. An agent-based computer simulation was used to investigate the interactions between ecological selection and sexual selection and their necessary parameters to produce sympatric speciation in a panmictic two-niche ecoscape. A mathematical model was then developed to describe the results. It was found that the interactions between ecological selection and sexual selection in a panmictic, 2-niche, 2-sex-allele ecoscape are best described by a nonlinear dynamic system. In such a system, stabilized pre-mating reproductive isolation is impossible unless the carrying capacities in the two niches are limited, and it is more likely to happen when the number of offspring produced by each niche ecotype is large enough to fill the maximum carrying capacity of its niche — for instance, in fish species that can produce millions of offspring in each generation. When the above two conditions are met, then varying degrees of reproductive isolation and an assortment of pre-mating sexual traits can happen, depending on parametric values in the system. The behavior of such a nonlinear dynamic system was found to be governed by Saddle-node and Hopf bifurcation types, which can produce fixed points in the system that allow varying degrees of reproductive isolation and pre-mating traits assortment. Lastly, a computer application was created using numerical analysis techniques to plot all the trajectories, fixed points, and bifurcation points in a 2-niche, 2-sex-allele ecosystem that is normalized with respect to parameters such as hybrid viability, degree of pre-mating traits bias, cost of mating as determined by the number of mating rounds, offspring fecundity, and maximum niche carrying capacity, for a complete analysis.

Keywords: sympatric speciation, ecological speciation, sexual selection, assortative mating, pre-mating reproductive isolation

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1 Standardization of the Roots of Gnidia stenophylla Gilg: A Potential Medicinal Plant of South Eastern Ethiopia Traditionally Used as an Antimalarial

Authors: Mebruka Mohammed, Daniel Bisrat, Asfaw Debella, Tarekegn Birhanu


Lack of quality control standards for medicinal plants and their preparations is considered major barrier to their integration in to effective primary health care in Ethiopia. Poor quality herbal preparations led to countless adverse reactions extending to death. Denial of penetration for the Ethiopian medicinal plants in to the world’s booming herbal market is also another significant loss resulting from absence of herbal quality control system. Thus, in the present study, Gnidia stenophylla Gilg (popular antimalarial plant of south eastern Ethiopia), is standardized and a full monograph is produced that can serve as a guideline in quality control of the crude drug. Morphologically, the roots are found to be cylindrical and tapering towards the end. It has a hard, corky and friable touch with saddle brown color externally and it is relatively smooth and pale brown internally. It has got characteristic pungent odor and very bitter taste. Microscopically it has showed lignified xylem vessels, wider medullary rays with some calcium oxalate crystals, reddish brown secondary metabolite contents and slender shaped long fibres. Physicochemical standards quantified and resulted: foreign matter (5.25%), moisture content (6.69%), total ash (40.80%), acid insoluble ash (8.00%), water soluble ash (2.30%), alcohol soluble extractive (15.27%), water soluble extractive (10.98%), foaming index (100.01 ml/g), swelling index (7.60 ml/g). Phytochemically: Phenols, flavonoids, steroids, tannins and saponins were detected in the root extract; TLC and HPLC fingerprints were produced and an analytical marker was also tentatively characterized as 3-(3,4-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-5-methylhex-1-en-2-yl)-7-methoxy-4-oxo-2H-chromen-8-yl)-5-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-methoxy-4H-chromen-4-one. Residue wise pesticides (i.e. DDT, DDE, g-BHC) and radiochemical levels fall below the WHO limit while Heavy metals (i.e. Co, Ni, Cr, Pb, and Cu), total aerobic count and fungal load lie way above the WHO limit. In conclusion, the result can be taken as signal that employing non standardized medicinal plants could cause many health risks of the Ethiopian people and Africans’ at large (as 80% of inhabitants in the continent depends on it for primary health care). Therefore, following a more universal approach to herbal quality by adopting the WHO guidelines and developing monographs using the various quality parameters is inevitable to minimize quality breach and promote effective herbal drug usage.

Keywords: Gnidia stenophylla Gilg, standardization/monograph, pharmacognostic, residue/impurity, quality

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