Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2513

Search results for: welding speed

2513 Development of Orbital TIG Welding Robot System for the Pipe

Authors: Dongho Kim, Sung Choi, Kyowoong Pee, Youngsik Cho, Seungwoo Jeong, Soo-Ho Kim

Abstract:

This study is about the orbital TIG welding robot system which travels on the guide rail installed on the pipe, and welds and tracks the pipe seam using the LVS (Laser Vision Sensor) joint profile data. The orbital welding robot system consists of the robot, welder, controller, and LVS. Moreover we can define the relationship between welding travel speed and wire feed speed, and we can make the linear equation using the maximum and minimum amount of weld metal. Using the linear equation we can determine the welding travel speed and the wire feed speed accurately corresponding to the area of weld captured by LVS. We applied this orbital TIG welding robot system to the stainless steel or duplex pipe on DSME (Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co. Ltd.,) shipyard and the result of radiographic test is almost perfect. (Defect rate: 0.033%).

Keywords: adaptive welding, automatic welding, pipe welding, orbital welding, laser vision sensor, LVS, welding D/B

Procedia PDF Downloads 525
2512 High-Production Laser and Plasma Welding Technologies for High-Speed Vessels Production

Authors: V. M. Levshakov, N. A. Steshenkova, N. A. Nosyrev

Abstract:

Application of hulls processing technologies, based on high-concentrated energy sources (laser and plasma technologies), allow improve shipbuilding production. It is typical for high-speed vessels construction using steel and aluminum alloys with high precision hulls required. Report describes high-performance technologies for plasma welding (using direct current of reversed polarity), laser, and hybrid laser-arc welding of hulls structures developed by JSC “SSTC”.

Keywords: flat sections, hybrid laser-arc welding, plasma welding, plasmatron

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
2511 Investigation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Dissimilar Aluminium Alloys

Authors: Gurpreet Singh, Hazoor Singh, Kulbir Singh Sandhu

Abstract:

Friction Stir Welding Process emerged as promising solid-state welding and eliminates various welding defects like cracks and porosity in joining of dissimilar aluminum alloys. In the present research, Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is carried out on dissimilar aluminum alloys 2000 series and 6000 series this combination of alloys are highly used in automobile and aerospace industry due to their good strength to weight ratio, mechanical, and corrosion properties. The joints characterized by applying various destructive and non-destructive tests. Three critical welding parameters were considered i.e. Tool Rotation speed, Transverse speed, and Tool Geometry. The effective range of tool rotation speed from 1200-1800 rpm and transverse speed from 60-240 mm/min and tool geometry was studied. The two-different difficult to weld alloys were successfully welded. All the samples showed different microstructure with different set of welding parameters. It has been revealed with microstructure scans that grain refinement plays a crucial role in mechanical properties.

Keywords: aluminum alloys, friction stir welding, mechanical properties, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
2510 Effect of Process Parameters on Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints Using Factorial Design

Authors: Gurjinder Singh, Ankur Gill, Amardeep Singh Kang

Abstract:

In the present work an effort has been made to study the influence of the welding parameters on tensile strength of friction stir welding of aluminum. Three process parameters tool rotation speed, welding speed, and shoulder diameter were selected for the study. Two level factorial design of eight runs was selected for conducting the experiments. The mathematical model was developed from the data obtained. The significance of coefficients and adequacy of developed models were tested by ‘t’ test and ‘F’ test respectively. The effects of process parameters on mechanical properties have been represented in the form of graphs for better understanding.

Keywords: friction stir welding, aluminium alloy, mathematical model, welding speed

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
2509 Friction Stir Welding Process as a Solid State Joining -A Review

Authors: Mohd Anees Siddiqui, S. A. H. Jafri, Shahnawaz Alam

Abstract:

Through this paper an attempt is made to review a special welding technology of friction stir welding (FSW) which is a solid-state joining. Friction stir welding is used for joining of two plates which are applied compressive force by using fixtures over the work table. This is a non consumable type welding technique in which a rotating tool of cylindrical shape is used. Process parameters such as tool geometry, joint design and process speed are discussed in the paper. Comparative study of Friction stir welding with other welding techniques such as MIG, TIG & GMAW is also done. Some light is put on several major applications of friction stir welding in different industries. Quality and environmental aspects of friction stir welding is also discussed.

Keywords: friction stir welding (FSW), process parameters, tool, solid state joining processes

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
2508 The Effects of Gas Metal Arc Welding Parameters on the Corrosion Behaviour of Austenitic Stainless Steel Immersed in Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide

Authors: I. M. B. Omiogbemi, D. S. Yawas, I. M. Dagwa, F. G. Okibe

Abstract:

This work present the effects of some gas metal arc welding parameters on the corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steel, exposed to 0.5M sodium hydroxide at ambient temperatures (298K) using conventional weight loss determination, together with surface morphology evaluation by scanning electron microscopy and the application of factorial design of experiment to determine welding conditions which enhance the integrity of the welded stainless steel. The welding variables evaluated include speed, voltage and current. Different samples of the welded stainless steels were immersed in the corrosion environment for 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 days and weight loss determined. From the results, it was found that increase in welding current and speed at constant voltage gave the optimum performance of the austenitic stainless steel in the environment. At a of speed 40cm/min, 110Amp current and voltage of 230 volt the welded stainless steel showed only a 0.0015mg loss in weight after 40 days. Pit-like openings were observed on the surface of the metals indicating corrosion but were minimal at the optimum conditions. It was concluded from the research that relatively high welding speed and current at a constant voltage gives a good welded austenitic stainless steel with better integrity.

Keywords: welding, current, speed, austenitic stainless steel, sodium hydroxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
2507 Optimization of Submerged Arc Welding Parameters for Joining SS304 and MS1018

Authors: Jasvinder Singh, Manjinder Singh

Abstract:

Welding of dissimilar materials is a complicated process due to the difference in melting point of two materials. Thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion of dissimilar materials also different; therefore, residual stresses produced in the weldment and base metal are the most critical problem associated with the joining of dissimilar materials. Tensile strength and impact toughness also reduced due to the residual stresses. In the present research work, an attempt has been made to weld SS304 and MS1018 dissimilar materials by submerged arc welding (SAW). By conducting trail, runs most effective parameters welding current, Arc voltage, welding speed and nozzle to plate distance were selected to weld these materials. The fractional factorial technique was used to optimize the welding parameters. Effect on tensile strength (TS), fracture toughness (FT) and microhardness of weldment were studied. It was concluded that by optimizing welding current, voltage and welding speed the properties of weldment can be enhanced.

Keywords: SAW, Tensile Strength (TS), fracture toughness, micro hardness

Procedia PDF Downloads 457
2506 Effect of Welding Parameters on Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of Aluminum Alloys Produced by Friction Stir Welding

Authors: Khalil Aghapouramin

Abstract:

The aim of the present work is to investigate the mechanical and microstructural properties of dissimilar and similar aluminum alloys welded by Friction Stir Welding (FSW). The specimens investigated by applying different welding speed and rotary speed. Typically, mechanical properties of the joints performed through tensile test fatigue test and microhardness (HV) at room temperature. Fatigue test investigated by using electromechanical testing machine under constant loading control with similar since wave loading. The Maximum stress versus minimum got the range between 0.1 to 0.3 in the research. Based upon welding parameters by optical observation and scanning electron microscopy microstructural properties fulfilled with a cross section of welds, in addition, SEM observations were made of the fracture surfaces

Keywords: friction stir welding, fatigue and tensile test, Al alloys, microstructural behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
2505 Influences of Plunge Speed on Axial Force and Temperature of Friction Stir Spot Welding in Thin Aluminum A1100

Authors: Suwarsono, Ario S. Baskoro, Gandjar Kiswanto, Budiono

Abstract:

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a relatively new technique for joining metal. In some cases on aluminum joining, FSW gives better results compared with the arc welding processes, including the quality of welds and produces less distortion.FSW welding process for a light structure and thin materials requires small forces as possible, to avoid structure deflection. The joining process on FSW occurs because of melting temperature and compressive forces, the temperature generation of caused by material deformation and friction between the cutting tool and material. In this research, High speed rotation of spindle was expected to reduce the force required for deformation. The welding material was Aluminum A1100, with thickness of 0.4 mm. The tool was made of HSS material which was shaped by micro grinding process. Tool shoulder diameter is 4 mm, and the length of pin was 0.6 mm (with pin diameter= 1.5 mm). The parameters that varied were the plunge speed (2 mm/min, 3 mm/min, 4 mm/min). The tool speed is fixed at 33,000 rpm. Responses of FSSW parameters to analyze were Axial Force (Z-Force), Temperature and the Shear Strength of welds. Research found the optimum µFSSW parameters, it can be concluded that the most important parameters in the μFSSW process was plunge speed. lowest plunge speed (2 mm / min) causing the lowest axial force (110.40 Newton). The increases of plunge speed will increase the axial force (maximum Z-Farce= 236.03 Newton), and decrease the shear strength of welds.

Keywords: friction stir spot welding, aluminum A1100, plunge speed, axial force, shear strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
2504 Developing an Empirical Relationship to Predict Tensile Strength and Micro Hardness of Friction Stir Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints

Authors: Gurmeet Singh Cheema, Gurjinder Singh, Amardeep Singh Kang

Abstract:

Aluminium alloy 6061 is a medium to high strength heat-treatable alloy which has very good corrosion resistance and very good weldability. Friction Stir Welding was developed and this technique has attracted considerable interest from the aerospace and automotive industries since it is able to produce defect free joints particularly for light metals i.e aluminum alloy and magnesium alloy. In the friction stir welding process, welding parameters such as tool rotational speed, welding speed and tool shoulder diameter play a major role in deciding the weld quality. In this research work, an attempt has been made to understand the effect of tool rotational speed, welding speed and tool shoulder diameter on friction stir welded AA6061 aluminium alloy joints. Statistical tool such as central composite design is used to develop the mathematical relationships. The mathematical model was developed to predict mechanical properties of friction stir welded aluminium alloy joints at the 95% confidence level.

Keywords: aluminium alloy, friction stir welding, central composite design, mathematical relationship

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
2503 Investigation on the Effect of Welding Parameters in Additive Friction Stir Welding of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyamide 66 Composite

Authors: Nandhini Ravi, Muthukumaran Shanmugam

Abstract:

Metals are being replaced by thermoplastic polymer composites in automotive industries because of their low density, easiness to fabricate, low cost and good wear resistance. Complex polymer components consist of assemblies of smaller parts which can be joined by friction stir welding. This study deals with the additive friction stir welding of 15 wt.% glass fiber reinforced polyamide 66 composite which is a modified technique of the conventional friction stir welding by the addition of a filler plate for the heating of the composite work piece through the tool during the welding process. Welding at different combinations of tool rotational speed, travel speed and tool plunge depth was done after which the tensile strength of the respective experiments was determined. The maximum tensile strength obtained was 77 MPa which was 80% of the strength of the base material. The process parameters were optimized using the L9 orthogonal array and also the effect of individual welding parameter on the tensile strength was studied. The optimum parameter combination was determined with the help of ANOVA studies. The hardness of the welded joints was studied with the help of Shore Durometer which yielded the maximum of D 75.

Keywords: additive friction stir welding, polyamide 66, process parameters, thermoplastic polymer composite

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
2502 Process Parameter Study on Friction Push Plug Welding of AA6061 Alloy

Authors: H. Li, W. Qin, Ben Ye

Abstract:

Friction Push Plug Welding (FPPW) is a solid phase welding suitable for repairing defective welds and filling self-reacting weld keyholes in Friction Stir Welds. In FPPW process, a tapered shaped plug is rotated at high speed and forced into a tapered hole in the substrate. The plug and substrate metal is softened by the increasing temperature generated by friction and material plastic deformation. This paper aims to investigate the effect of process parameters on the quality of the weld. Orthogonal design methods were employed to reduce the amount of experiment. Three values were selected for each process parameter, rotation speed (1500r/min, 2000r/min, 2500r/min), plunge depth (2mm, 3mm, 4mm) and plunge speed (60mm/min, 90mm/min, 120r/min). AA6061aluminum alloy plug and substrate plate was used in the experiment. In a trial test with the plunge depth of 1mm, a noticeable defect appeared due to the short plunge time and insufficient temperature. From the recorded temperature profiles, it was found that the peak temperature increased with the increase of the rotation speed, plunge speed and plunge depth. In the initial stage, the plunge speed was the main factor affecting heat generation, while in the steady state welding stage, the rotation speed played a more important role. The FPPW weld defect includes flash and incomplete penetration in the upper, middle and bottom interface with the substrate. To obtain defect free weld, the higher rotation speed and proper plunge depth were recommended.

Keywords: friction push plug welding, process parameter, weld defect, orthogonal design

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
2501 Temperature Gradient In Weld Zones During Friction Stir Process Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Armansyah, I. P. Almanar, M. Saiful Bahari Shaari, M. Shamil Jaffarullah

Abstract:

Finite element approach have been used via three-dimensional models by using Altair Hyper Work, a commercially available software, to describe heat gradients along the welding zones (axially and coronaly) in Friction Stir Welding (FSW). Transient thermal finite element analyses are performed in AA 6061-T6 Aluminum Alloy to obtain temperature distribution in the welded aluminum plates during welding operation. Heat input from tool shoulder and tool pin are considered in the model. A moving heat source with a heat distribution simulating the heat generated by frictions between tool shoulder and work piece is used in the analysis. The developed model was then used to show the effect of various input parameters such as total rate of welding speed and rotational speed on temperature distribution in the work piece.

Keywords: Frictions Stir Welding (FSW), temperature distribution, Finite Element Method (FEM), altair hyperwork

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
2500 Effect of Rotation Speed on Microstructure and Microhardness of AA7039 Rods Joined by Friction Welding

Authors: H. Karakoc, A. Uzun, G. Kırmızı, H. Çinici, R. Çitak

Abstract:

The main objective of this investigation was to apply friction welding for joining of AA7039 rods produced by powder metallurgy. Friction welding joints were carried out using a rotational friction welding machine. Friction welds were obtained under different rotational speeds between (2700 and 2900 rpm). The friction pressure of 10 MPa and friction time of 30 s was kept constant. The cross sections of joints were observed by optical microscopy. The microstructures were analyzed using scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The Vickers micro hardness measurement of the interface was evaluated using a micro hardness testing machine. Finally the results obtained were compared and discussed.

Keywords: Aluminum alloy, powder metallurgy, friction welding, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
2499 A New Approach to the Boom Welding Technique by Determining Seam Profile Tracking

Authors: Muciz Özcan, Mustafa Sacid Endiz, Veysel Alver

Abstract:

In this paper we present a new approach to the boom welding related to the mobile cranes manufacturing, implementing a new method in order to get homogeneous welding quality and reduced energy usage during booms production. We aim to get the realization of the same welding quality carried out on the boom in every region during the manufacturing process and to detect the possible welding errors whether they could be eliminated using laser sensors. We determine the position of the welding region directly through our system and with the help of the welding oscillator we are able to perform a proper boom welding. Errors that may occur in the welding process can be observed by monitoring and eliminated by means of an operator. The major modification in the production of the crane booms will be their form of the booms. Although conventionally, more than one welding is required to perform this process, with the suggested concept, only one particular welding is sufficient, which will be more energy and environment-friendly. Consequently, as only one welding is needed for the manufacturing of the boom, the particular welding quality becomes more essential. As a way to satisfy the welding quality, a welding manipulator was made and fabricated. By using this welding manipulator, the risks of involving dangerous gases formed during the welding process for the operator and the surroundings are diminished as much as possible.

Keywords: boom welding, seam tracking, energy saving, global warming

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
2498 The Joint Properties for Friction Stir Welding of Aluminium Tubes

Authors: Ahbdelfattah M. Khourshid, T. Elabeidi

Abstract:

Friction Stir Welding (FSW), a solid state joining technique, is widely being used for joining Al alloys for aerospace, marine automotive and many other applications of commercial importance. FSW were carried out using a vertical milling machine on Al 5083 alloy pipe. These pipe sections are relatively small in diameter, 5mm, and relatively thin walled, 2mm. In this study, 5083 aluminum alloy pipe were welded as similar alloy joints using (FSW) process in order to investigate mechanical and microstructural properties .rotation speed 1400 r.p.m and weld speed 10,40,70 mm/min. In order to investigate the effect of welding speeds on mechanical properties, metallographic and mechanical tests were carried out on the welded areas. Vickers hardness profile and tensile tests of the joints as a metallurgical investigation, Optic Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used for base and weld zones.

Keywords: friction stir welding (FSW), Al alloys, mechanical properties, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 463
2497 Bending Test Characteristics for Splicing of Thermoplastic Polymer Using Hot Gas Welding

Authors: Prantasi Harmi Tjahjanti, Iswanto Iswanto, Edi Widodo, Sholeh Pamuji

Abstract:

Materials of the thermoplastic polymer when they break is usually thrown away, or is recycled which requires a long process. The purpose of this study is to splice the broken thermoplastic polymer using hot gas welding with different variations of welding wire/electrodes. Materials of thermoplastic polymer used are Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP), and Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by using welding wire like the three materials. The method is carried out by using hot gas welding; there are two materials that cannot be connected, namely PE with PVC welding wire, and PP with PVC welding wire. The permeable liquid penetrant test is PP with PE welding wire, and PVC with PE welding wire. The best bending test result with the longest elongation is PE with PE welding wire with a bending test value of 179.03 kgf/mm². The microstructure was all described in Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations.

Keywords: thermoplastic polymers, bending test, polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), hot gas welding, bending test

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
2496 Effect of Shot Peening on the Mechanical Properties for Welded Joints of Aluminium Alloy 6061-T6

Authors: Muna Khethier Abbass, Khairia Salman Hussan, Huda Mohummed AbdudAlaziz

Abstract:

This work aims to study the effect of shot peening on the mechanical properties of welded joints which performed by two different welding processes: Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding and friction stir welding (FSW) processes of aluminum alloy 6061 T6. Arc welding process (TIG) was carried out on the sheet with dimensions of (100x50x6 mm) to obtain many welded joints with using electrode type ER4043 (AlSi5) as a filler metal and argon as shielding gas. While the friction stir welding process was carried out using CNC milling machine with a tool of rotational speed (1000 rpm) and welding speed of (20 mm/min) to obtain the same butt welded joints. The welded pieces were tested by X-ray radiography to detect the internal defects and faulty welded pieces were excluded. Tensile test specimens were prepared from welded joints and base alloy in the dimensions according to ASTM17500 and then subjected to shot peening process using steel ball of diameter 0.9 mm and for 15 min. All specimens were subjected to Vickers hardness test and micro structure examination to study the effect of welding process (TIG and FSW) on the micro structure of the weld zones. Results showed that a general decay of mechanical properties of TIG and FSW welded joints comparing with base alloy while the FSW welded joint gives better mechanical properties than that of TIG welded joint. This is due to the micro structure changes during the welding process. It has been found that the surface hardening by shot peening improved the mechanical properties of both welded joints, this is due to the compressive residual stress generation in the weld zones which was measured using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) inspection.

Keywords: friction stir welding, TIG welding, mechanical properties, shot peening

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
2495 Temperature Distribution in Friction Stir Welding Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Armansyah, I. P. Almanar, M. Saiful Bahari Shaari, M. Shamil Jaffarullah, Nur’amirah Busu, M. Arif Fadzleen Zainal Abidin, M. Amlie A. Kasim

Abstract:

Temperature distribution in Friction Stir Welding (FSW) of 6061-T6 Aluminum Alloy is modeled using the Finite Element Method (FEM). In order to obtain temperature distribution in the welded aluminum plates during welding operation, transient thermal finite element analyses are performed. Heat input from tool shoulder and tool pin are considered in the model. A moving heat source with a heat distribution simulating the heat generated by frictions between tool shoulder and workpiece is used in the analysis. Three-dimensional model for simulated process is carried out by using Altair HyperWork, a commercially available software. Transient thermal finite element analyses are performed in order to obtain the temperature distribution in the welded Aluminum plates during welding operation. The developed model was then used to show the effect of various input parameters such as total rate of welding speed and rotational speed on temperature distribution in the workpiece.

Keywords: frictions stir welding, temperature distribution, finite element method, altair hyperwork

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
2494 Hybrid Laser-Gas Metal Arc Welding of ASTM A106-B Steel Pipes

Authors: Masoud Mohammadpour, Nima Yazdian, Radovan Kovacevic

Abstract:

The Oil and Gas industries are vigorously looking for new ways to increase the efficiency of their pipeline constructions. Besides the other approaches, implementing of new welding methods for joining pipes can be the best candidate on this regard. Hybrid Laser Arc Welding (HLAW) with the capabilities of high welding speed, deep penetration, and excellent gap bridging ability can be a possible alternative method in pipeline girth welding. This paper investigates the feasibility of applying the HLAW to join ASTM A106-B as the mostly used piping material for transporting high-temperature and high-pressure fluids and gases. The experiments were carried out on six-inch diameter pipes with the wall thickness of 10mm. AWS ER 70 S6 filler wire with diameter of 1.2mm was employed. Relating to this welding procedure, characterization of welded samples such as hardness, tensile testing and Charpy V-notch testing were performed and the results will be reported in this paper. In order to have better understanding about the thermal history and the microstructural alterations caused by the welding heat cycle, a comprehensive Finite Element (FE) model was also conducted. The obtained results have shown that the Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) procedure with the minimum number of 5 passes to complete the wall thickness, was reduced to only single pass by using the HLAW process with the welding time less than 15s.

Keywords: finite element modeling, high-temperature service, hybrid laser/arc welding, welding pipes

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
2493 Mathematical Models for GMAW and FCAW Welding Processes for Structural Steels Used in the Oil Industry

Authors: Carlos Alberto Carvalho Castro, Nancy Del Ducca Barbedo, Edmilsom Otoni Côrrea

Abstract:

With increase the production oil and lines transmission gases that are in ample expansion, the industries medium and great transport they had to adapt itself to supply the demand manufacture in this fabrication segment. In this context, two welding processes have been more extensively used: the GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding) and the FCAW (Flux Cored Arc Welding). In this work, welds using these processes were carried out in flat position on ASTM A-36 carbon steel plates in order to make a comparative evaluation between them concerning to mechanical and metallurgical properties. A statistical tool based on technical analysis and design of experiments, DOE, from the Minitab software was adopted. For these analyses, the voltage, current, and welding speed, in both processes, were varied. As a result, it was observed that the welds in both processes have different characteristics in relation to the metallurgical properties and performance, but they present good weldability, satisfactory mechanical strength e developed mathematical models.

Keywords: Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW), Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), Design of Experiments (DOE), mathematical models

Procedia PDF Downloads 465
2492 Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of SA 210 Gr. C Pipes Welded by Tungsten Inert Gas

Authors: H. Demirtaş, İ. H. Kara, H. Ahlatcı

Abstract:

Welding failures of steel pipes in power plants usually occur in weld zones. This is similar for the economizer, water walls and superheaters in the power plants where SA 210 Gr. C steel pipes are used. Although these steel pipes have very good welding properties, the welding parameters are also important for the welding life. Welding processes of this pipes are carried out by TIG and SMA techniques. In this study SA 210 Gr. C steel pipes were welded by TIG method and investigated how PWHT affected the welding properties. The results show that this steel does not require post weld heat treatment.

Keywords: SA 210 Gr. C steel pipes, TIG welding, HAZ region, Widmanstatten ferrite

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
2491 Analysis of Friction Stir Welding Process for Joining Aluminum Alloy

Authors: A. M. Khourshid, I. Sabry

Abstract:

Friction Stir Welding (FSW), a solid state joining technique, is widely being used for joining Al alloys for aerospace, marine automotive and many other applications of commercial importance. FSW were carried out using a vertical milling machine on Al 5083 alloy pipe. These pipe sections are relatively small in diameter, 5mm, and relatively thin walled, 2 mm. In this study, 5083 aluminum alloy pipe were welded as similar alloy joints using (FSW) process in order to investigate mechanical and microstructural properties .rotation speed 1400 r.p.m and weld speed 10,40,70 mm/min. In order to investigate the effect of welding speeds on mechanical properties, metallographic and mechanical tests were carried out on the welded areas. Vickers hardness profile and tensile tests of the joints as a metallurgical feasibility of friction stir welding for joining Al 6061 aluminum alloy welding was performed on pipe with different thickness 2, 3 and 4 mm,five rotational speeds (485,710,910,1120 and 1400) rpm and a traverse speed (4, 8 and 10)mm/min was applied. This work focuses on two methods such as artificial neural networks using software (pythia) and response surface methodology (RSM) to predict the tensile strength, the percentage of elongation and hardness of friction stir welded 6061 aluminum alloy. An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed for the analysis of the friction stir welding parameters of 6061 pipe. The tensile strength, the percentage of elongation and hardness of weld joints were predicted by taking the parameters Tool rotation speed, material thickness and travel speed as a function. A comparison was made between measured and predicted data. Response surface methodology (RSM) also developed and the values obtained for the response Tensile strengths, the percentage of elongation and hardness are compared with measured values. The effect of FSW process parameter on mechanical properties of 6061 aluminum alloy has been analyzed in detail.

Keywords: friction stir welding (FSW), al alloys, mechanical properties, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
2490 Inertia Friction Pull Plug Welding, a New Weld Repair Technique of Aluminium Friction Stir Welding

Authors: Guoqing Wang, Yanhua Zhao, Lina Zhang, Jingbin Bai, Ruican Zhu

Abstract:

Friction stir welding with bobbin tool is a simple technique compared to conventional FSW since the backing fixture is no longer needed and assembling labor is reduced. It gets adopted more and more in the aerospace industry as a result. However, a post-weld problem, the left keyhole, has to be fixed by forced repair welding. To close the keyhole, the conventional fusion repair could be an option if the joint properties are not deteriorated; friction push plug welding, a forced repair, could be another except that a rigid support unit is demanded at the back of the weldment. Therefore, neither of the above ways is satisfaction in welding a large enclosed structure, like rocket propellant tank. Although friction pulls plug welding does not need a backing plate, the wide applications are still held back because of the disadvantages in respects of unappropriated tensile stress, (i.e. excessive stress causing neck shrinkage of plug that will bring about back defects while insufficient stress causing lack of heat input that will bring about face defects), complicated welding parameters (including rotation speed, transverse speed, friction force, welding pressure and upset),short welding time (approx. 0.5 sec.), narrow windows and poor stability of process. In this research, an updated technique called inertia friction pull plug welding, and its equipment was developed. The influencing rules of technological parameters on joint properties of inertia friction pull plug welding were observed. The microstructure characteristics were analyzed. Based on the elementary performance data acquired, the conclusion is made that the uniform energy provided by an inertia flywheel will be a guarantee to a stable welding process. Meanwhile, due to the abandon of backing plate, the inertia friction pull plug welding is considered as a promising technique in repairing keyhole of bobbin tool FSW and point type defects of aluminium base material.

Keywords: defect repairing, equipment, inertia friction pull plug welding, technological parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
2489 Optimization of MAG Welding Process Parameters Using Taguchi Design Method on Dead Mild Steel

Authors: Tadele Tesfaw, Ajit Pal Singh, Abebaw Mekonnen Gezahegn

Abstract:

Welding is a basic manufacturing process for making components or assemblies. Recent welding economics research has focused on developing the reliable machinery database to ensure optimum production. Research on welding of materials like steel is still critical and ongoing. Welding input parameters play a very significant role in determining the quality of a weld joint. The metal active gas (MAG) welding parameters are the most important factors affecting the quality, productivity and cost of welding in many industrial operations. The aim of this study is to investigate the optimization process parameters for metal active gas welding for 60x60x5mm dead mild steel plate work-piece using Taguchi method to formulate the statistical experimental design using semi-automatic welding machine. An experimental study was conducted at Bishoftu Automotive Industry, Bishoftu, Ethiopia. This study presents the influence of four welding parameters (control factors) like welding voltage (volt), welding current (ampere), wire speed (m/min.), and gas (CO2) flow rate (lit./min.) with three different levels for variability in the welding hardness. The objective functions have been chosen in relation to parameters of MAG welding i.e., welding hardness in final products. Nine experimental runs based on an L9 orthogonal array Taguchi method were performed. An orthogonal array, signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are employed to investigate the welding characteristics of dead mild steel plate and used in order to obtain optimum levels for every input parameter at 95% confidence level. The optimal parameters setting was found is welding voltage at 22 volts, welding current at 125 ampere, wire speed at 2.15 m/min and gas flow rate at 19 l/min by using the Taguchi experimental design method within the constraints of the production process. Finally, six conformations welding have been carried out to compare the existing values; the predicated values with the experimental values confirm its effectiveness in the analysis of welding hardness (quality) in final products. It is found that welding current has a major influence on the quality of welded joints. Experimental result for optimum setting gave a better hardness of welding condition than initial setting. This study is valuable for different material and thickness variation of welding plate for Ethiopian industries.

Keywords: Weld quality, metal active gas welding, dead mild steel plate, orthogonal array, analysis of variance, Taguchi method

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
2488 Effect of Taper Pin Ratio on Microstructure and Mechanical Property of Friction Stir Welded AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

Authors: N. H. Othman, N. Udin, M. Ishak, L. H. Shah

Abstract:

This study focuses on the effect of pin taper tool ratio on friction stir welding of magnesium alloy AZ31. Two pieces of AZ31 alloy with thickness of 6 mm were friction stir welded by using the conventional milling machine. The shoulder diameter used in this experiment is fixed at 18 mm. The taper pin ratio used are varied at 6:6, 6:5, 6:4, 6:3, 6:2 and 6:1. The rotational speeds that were used in this study were 500 rpm, 1000 rpm and 1500 rpm, respectively. The welding speeds used are 150 mm/min, 200 mm/min and 250 mm/min. Microstructure observation of welded area was studied by using optical microscope. Equiaxed grains were observed at the TMAZ and stir zone indicating fully plastic deformation. Tool pin diameter ratio 6/1 causes low heat input to the material because of small contact surface between tool surface and stirred materials compared to other tool pin diameter ratio. The grain size of stir zone increased with increasing of ratio of rotational speed to transverse speed due to higher heat input. It is observed that worm hole is produced when excessive heat input is applied. To evaluate the mechanical properties of this specimen, tensile test was used in this study. Welded specimens using taper pin ratio 6:1 shows higher tensile strength compared to other taper pin ratio up to 204 MPa. Moreover, specimens using taper pin ratio 6:1 showed better tensile strength with 500 rpm of rotational speed and 150mm/min welding speed.

Keywords: friction stir welding, magnesium AZ31, cylindrical taper tool, taper pin ratio

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2487 Appraisal of the Impact Strength on Mild Steel Cladding Weld Metal Geometry

Authors: Chukwuemeka Daniel Ezeliora, Chukwuebuka Lawrence Ezeliora

Abstract:

The research focused on the appraisal of impact strength on mild steel cladding weld metal geometry. Over the years, poor welding has resulted in failures in engineering components, poor material quality, the collapse of welded materials, and failures in material strength. This is as a result of poor selection and combination of welding input process parameters. The application of the Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding method with weld specimen of length 60; width 40, and thickness of 10 was used for the experiment. A butt joint method was prepared for the welding, and tungsten inert gas welding process was used to perform the twenty (20) experimental runs. A response surface methodology was used to model and to analyze the system. For an adequate polynomial approximation, the experimental design was used to collect the data. The key parameters considered in this work are welding current, gas flow rate, welding speed, and voltage. The range of the input process parameters was selected from the literature and the design. The steps followed to achieve the experimental design and results is the use of response surface method (RSM) implemented in central composite design (CCD) to generate the design matrix, to obtain quadratic model, and evaluate the interactions in the factors as well as optimizing the factors and the response. The result expresses that the best impact strength of the mild steel cladding weld metal geometry is 115.419 Joules. However, it was observed that the result of the input factors is; current 180.4 amp, voltage 23.99 volt, welding speed 142.7 mm.s and gas flow rate 10.8 lit/min as the optimum of the input process parameters. The optimal solution gives a guide for optimal impact strength of the weldment when welding with tungsten inert gas (TIG) under study.

Keywords: mild steel, impact strength, response surface, bead geometry, welding

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2486 Operational Advantages of Tungsten Inert Gas over Metal Inert Gas Welding Process

Authors: Emmanuel Ogundimu, Esther Akinlabi, Mutiu Erinosho

Abstract:

In this research, studies were done on the material characterization of type 304 austenitic stainless steel weld produced by TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) and MIG (Metal Inert Gas) welding processes. This research is aimed to establish optimized process parameters that will result in a defect-free weld joint, homogenous distribution of the iron (Fe), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) was observed at the welded joint of all the six samples. The welded sample produced at the current of 170 A by TIG welding process had the highest ultimate tensile strength (UTS) value of 621 MPa at the welds zone, and the welded sample produced by MIG process at the welding current of 150 A had the lowest UTS value of 568 MPa. However, it was established that TIG welding process is more appropriate for the welding of type 304 austenitic stainless steel compared to the MIG welding process.

Keywords: microhardness, microstructure, tensile, MIG welding, process, tensile, shear stress TIG welding, TIG-MIG welding

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2485 Advantages of Vibration in the GMAW Process for Improving the Quality and Mechanical Properties

Authors: C. A. C. Castro, D. C. Urashima, E. P. Silva, P. M. L. Silva

Abstract:

Since 1920, the industry has almost completely changed the rivets production techniques for the manufacture of permanent welding join production of structures and manufacture of other products. The welding arc is the process more widely used in industries. This is accomplished by the heat of an electric arc which melts the base metal while the molten metal droplets are transferred through the arc to the welding pool, protected from the atmosphere by a gas curtain. The GMAW (Gas metal arc welding) process is influenced by variables such as: Current, polarity, welding speed, electrode, extension, position, moving direction; type of joint, welder's ability, among others. It is remarkable that the knowledge and control of these variables are essential for obtaining satisfactory quality welds, knowing that are interconnected so that changes in one of them requiring changes in one or more of the other to produce the desired results. The optimum values are affected by the type of base metal, the electrode composition, the welding position and the quality requirements. Thus, this paper proposes a new methodology, adding the variable vibration through a mechanism developed for GMAW welding, in order to improve the mechanical and metallurgical properties which does not affect the ability of the welder and enables repeatability of the welds made. For confirmation metallographic analysis and mechanical tests were made.

Keywords: vibration, joining, weldability, GMAW

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2484 Study of Microstructure of Weldment Obtained by Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) on IS 2062 Grade B Mild Steel Plate at Zero Degree Celsius

Authors: Ajay Biswas, Swapan Bhaumik, Abhijit Bhowmik

Abstract:

Present experiment has been carried out to study the microstructure of weldment obtained by submerged arc welding on mild steel plate at zero degree Celsius. To study this, bead on plate welding is done by submerged arc welding on the sample plate of heavy duty mild steel of designation IS 2062 grade B, fitted on the special fixture ensuring the plate temperature at zero degree Celsius. Sixteen numbers of such samples are welded by varying the most influencing parameters viz. travel speed, voltage, wire feed rate and electrode stick-out at four different levels. Taguchi’s design of experiment is applied by selecting Taguchi's L16 orthogonal array to restrict the number of experimental runs. Cross sectioned samples are polished and etched to view the weldment. Finally, different zone of the weldment is observed by optical microscope. From the type of microstructure of weldment it is concluded that submerged arc welding is feasible at zero degree Celsius on mild steel plate.

Keywords: Submerged Arc Welding, zero degree Celsius, Taguchi’s design of experiment, microstructure of weldment

Procedia PDF Downloads 323