Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 770

Search results for: physiological

770 A Review of Physiological Measures for Cognitive Workload Assessment of Aircrew

Authors: Naveed Tahir, Adnan Maqsood

Abstract:

Cognitive workload is a significant factor affecting user performance, and it has been broadly investigated for its application in ergonomics as well as in designing and optimizing effective human-machine interactions. It is mentally challenging to maneuver an aircraft, and pilots must control the aircraft and adequately communicate to the verbal-auditory stimuli. Several physiological measures have long been researched and used to demonstrate the cognitive workload. In our current study, we have summarized recent findings of the effectiveness, accuracy, and applicability of commonly used physiological measures in evaluating cognitive workload. We have also highlighted on the advancements in physiological measures. The strength and limitations of physiological measures have also been discussed to assess the cognitive workload of people, especially the aircrews in laboratory settings and real-time situations. We have presented the research findings of the physiological measures to base suggestions on the proper applications of the measures and settings demanding the use of single measure or their combinations.

Keywords: aircrew, cognitive workload, subjective measure, physiological measure, performance measure

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
769 Implementation of Clinical Monitoring System of Physiological Parameters

Authors: Abdesselam Babouri, Ahcène Lemzadmi, M Rahmane, B. Belhadi, N. Abouchi

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Medical monitoring aims at monitoring and remotely controlling the vital physiological parameters of the patient. The physiological sensors provide repetitive measurements of these parameters in the form of electrical signals that vary continuously over time. Various measures allow informing us about the health of the person's physiological data (weight, blood pressure, heart rate or specific to a disease), environmental conditions (temperature, humidity, light, noise level) and displacement and movements (physical efforts and the completion of major daily living activities). The collected data will allow monitoring the patient’s condition and alerting in case of modification. They are also used in the diagnosis and decision making on medical treatment and the health of the patient. This work presents the implementation of a monitoring system to be used for the control of physiological parameters.

Keywords: clinical monitoring, physiological parameters, biomedical sensors, personal health

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768 Experimental Verification of the Relationship between Physiological Indexes and the Presence or Absence of an Operation during E-learning

Authors: Masaki Omata, Shumma Hosokawa

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An experiment to verify the relationships between physiological indexes of an e-learner and the presence or absence of an operation during e-learning is described. Electroencephalogram (EEG), hemoencephalography (HEG), skin conductance (SC), and blood volume pulse (BVP) values were measured while participants performed experimental learning tasks. The results show that there are significant differences between the SC values when reading with clicking on learning materials and the SC values when reading without clicking, and between the HEG ratio when reading (with and without clicking) and the HEG ratio when resting for four of five participants. We conclude that the SC signals can be used to estimate whether or not a learner is performing an active task and that the HEG ratios can be used to estimate whether a learner is learning.

Keywords: e-learning, physiological index, physiological signal, state of learning

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767 Investigation of Comfort Properties of Knitted Fabrics

Authors: Mehmet Karahan, Nevin Karahan

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Water and air permeability and thermal resistance of fabrics are the important attributes which strongly influence the thermo-physiological comfort properties of sportswear fabrics in different environmental conditions. In this work, terry and fleece fabrics were developed by varying the fiber content and areal density of fabrics. Further, the thermo-physical properties, including air permeability, water vapor permeability, and thermal resistance, of the developed fabrics were analyzed before and after washing. The multi-response optimization of thermo-physiological comfort properties was done by using principal component analysis (PCA) and Taguchi signal to noise ratio (PCA-S/N ratio) for optimal properties. It was found that the selected parameters resulted in a significant effect on thermo-physiological comfort properties of knitted fabrics. The PCA analysis showed that before wash, 100% cotton fabric with an aerial weight of 220 g.m⁻² gave optimum values of thermo-physiological comfort.

Keywords: thermo-physiological comfort, fleece knitted fabric, air permeability, water vapor transmission, cotton/polyester

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
766 Comparative Study of Mechanical and Physiological Gait Efficiency Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

Authors: Radwa E. Sweif, Amira A. A. Abdallah

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Background: Evaluation of gait efficiency is used to examine energy consumption especially in patients with movement disorders. Hypothesis/Purpose: This study compared the physiological and mechanical measures of gait efficiency between patients with ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and healthy controls and correlated among these measures. Methods: Seventeen patients with ACLR and sixteen healthy controls with mean ± SD age 23.06±4.76 vs 24.85±6.47 years, height 173.93±6.54 vs 175.64±7.37cm, and weight 74.25±12.1 vs 76.52±10.14 kg, respectively, participated in the study. The patients were operated on six months prior to testing. They should have completed their accelerated rehabilitation program during this period. A 3D motion analysis system was used for collecting the mechanical measures (Biomechanical Efficiency Quotient (BEQ), the maximum degree of knee internal rotation during stance phase and speed of walking). The physiological measures (Physiological Cost Index (PCI) and Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE)) were collected after performing the 6- minute walking test. Results: MANOVA showed that the maximum degree of knee internal rotation, PCI, and RPE increased and the speed decreased significantly (p<0.05) in the patients compared with the controls with no significant difference for the BEQ. Finally, there were significant (p<0.05) positive correlations between each of the PCI & RPE and each of the BEQ, speed of walking and the maximum degree of knee internal rotation in each group. Conclusion: It was concluded that there are alterations in both mechanical and physiological measures of gait efficiency in patients with ACLR after being rehabilitated, clarifying the need for performing additional endurance as well as knee stability training programs. Moreover, the positive correlations indicate that using either of the mechanical or physiological measures for evaluating gait efficiency is acceptable.

Keywords: ACL reconstruction, mechanical, physiological, gait efficiency

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765 The Estimation of Human Vital Signs Complexity

Authors: L. Bikulciene, E. Venskaityte, G. Jarusevicius

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Non-stationary and nonlinear signals generated by living complex systems defy traditional mechanistic approaches, which are based on homeostasis. Previous our studies have shown that the evaluation of the interactions of physiological signals by using special analysis methods is suitable for observation of physiological processes. It is demonstrated the possibility of using deep physiological model, based interpretation of the changes of the human body’s functional states combined with an application of the analytical method based on matrix theory for the physiological signals analysis, which was applied on high risk cardiac patients. It is shown that evaluation of cardiac signals interactions show peculiar for each individual functional changes at the onset of hemodynamic restoration procedure. Therefore we suggest that the alterations of functional state of the body, after patients overcome surgery can be complemented by the data received from the suggested approach of the evaluation of functional variables interactions.

Keywords: cardiac diseases, complex systems theory, ECG analysis, matrix analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
764 Calculation of Lungs Physiological Lung Motion in External Lung Irradiation

Authors: Yousif Mohamed Y. Abdallah, Khalid H. Eltom

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This is an experimental study deals with measurement of the periodic physiological organ motion during lung external irradiation in order to reduce the exposure of healthy tissue during radiation treatments. The results showed for left lung displacement reading (4.52+1.99 mm) and right lung is (8.21+3.77 mm) which the radiotherapy physician should take suitable countermeasures in case of significant errors. The motion ranged between 2.13 mm and 12.2 mm (low and high). In conclusion, the calculation of tumour mobility can improve the accuracy of target areas definition in patients undergo Sterostatic RT for stage I, II and III lung cancer (NSCLC). Definition of the target volume based on a high resolution CT scan with a margin of 3-5 mm is appropriate.

Keywords: physiological motion, lung, external irradiation, radiation medicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
763 University Students Sport’s Activities Assessment in Harsh Weather Conditions

Authors: Ammar S. M. Moohialdin, Bambang T. Suhariadi, Mohsin Siddiqui

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This paper addresses the application of physiological status monitoring (PSM) for assessing the impact of harsh weather conditions on sports activities in universities in Saudi Arabia. Real sports measurement was conducted during sports activities such that the physiological status (HR and BR) of five students were continuously monitored by using Zephyr BioHarnessTM 3.0 sensors in order to identify the physiological bonds and zones. These bonds and zones were employed as indicators of the associated physiological risks of the performed sports activities. Furthermore, a short yes/no questionnaire was applied to collect information on participants’ health conditions and opinions of the applied PSM sensors. The results show the absence of a warning system as a protective aid for the hazardous levels of extremely hot and humid weather conditions that may cause dangerous and fatal circumstances. The applied formulas for estimating maximum HR provides accurate estimations for Maximum Heart Rate (HRmax). The physiological results reveal that the performed activities by the participants are considered the highest category (90–100%) in terms of activity intensity. This category is associated with higher HR, BR and physiological risks including losing the ability to control human body behaviors. Therefore, there is a need for immediate intervention actions to reduce the intensity of the performed activities to safer zones. The outcomes of this study assist the safety improvement of sports activities inside universities and athletes performing their sports activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to represent a special case of the application of PSM technology for assessing sports activities in universities considering the impacts of harsh weather conditions on students’ health and safety.

Keywords: physiological status monitoring (PSM), heart rate (HR), breathing rate (BR), Arabian Gulf

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762 Dietary Exposure to Pesticide Residues by Various Physiological Groups of Population in Andhra Pradesh, South India

Authors: Padmaja R. Jonnalagadda

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Dietary exposure assessment of fifteen pesticide residues was done in Andhra Pradesh. Twelve commonly consumed foods including water, which were representative of the diet, were collected, processed as table ready and analysed for the presence of various Organochlorines, organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroids. All the samples were contaminated with one or more of the 15 pesticide residues and all of them were within the MRLs. DDT and its isomers, Chlorpyriphos and Cypermethrin were frequently detected in many of the food samples. The mean concentration of the pesticide residues ranged from 0.02 μg kg-1 to 5.1 μg kg-1 (fresh weight) in the analysed foods. When exposure assessments was carried out for different age, sex and physiological groups it was found that the estimates of daily dietary intakes of the analysed pesticide residues in the present study are much lower than the violative levels in all age groups that were computed.

Keywords: table ready foods, pesticide residues, dietary intake, physiological groups, risk

Procedia PDF Downloads 436
761 High Arousal and Athletic Performance

Authors: Turki Mohammed Al Mohaid

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High arousal may lead to inhibited athletic performance, or high positive arousal may enhance performance is controversial. To evaluate and review this issue, 31 athletes (all male) were induced into high pre-determined goal arousal and high arousal without pre-determined goal motivational states and tested on a standard grip strength task. Paced breathing was used to change psychological and physiological arousal. It was noted that significant increases in grip strength performance occurred when arousal was high and experienced as delighted, happy, and pleasant excitement in those with no pre-determined goal motivational states. Blood pressure, Heart rate, and other indicators of physiological activity were not found to mediate between psychological arousal and performance. In a situation where athletic performance necessitates maximal motorstrength over a short period, performance benefits of high arousal may be enhanced by designing a specific motivational state.

Keywords: high arousal, athletic, performance, physiological

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760 The Role of Arousal in Time Perception: Implications for Emotional Driving

Authors: Ewa Siedlecka

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Emotional stress is an important risk factor in the rate and severity of traffic accidents. Moreover, incorrect time perception is implicated in the increase of traffic violations, such as running red lights or collisions. While the role of emotional arousal on perceived time is well-established, the role of physiological arousal in time perception remains unexamined. Specific emotions can be, however, associated with distinct physiological responses. In the current research, two studies examined the role of physiological arousal in time perception. In the first experiment, 41 participants engaged in a cold pressor task and had their time perception measured throughout the experiment. In the second study, 138 participants engaged in either isometric or deep breathing exercises. These activities were designed to simulate the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, respectively. Participants completed a bisection task to measure time perception in both studies, as well as a physiological response via an Electrocardiography (ECG). Results found that activation of the parasympathetic nervous system is associated with greater time perception. These findings are discussed with reference to models of time perception, as well as implications for emotional driving and misperceptions of speed. It is important to consider the role of physiology in the misperception of time, as these factors can lead to increases in driving accidents.

Keywords: emotions, nervous system, physiology, time perception

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
759 Cardiovascular Modeling Software Tools in Medicine

Authors: J. Fernandez, R. Fernandez de Canete, J. Perea-Paizal, J. C. Ramos-Diaz

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The high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases has provoked a raising interest in the development of mathematical models in order to evaluate the cardiovascular function both under physiological and pathological conditions. In this paper, a physical model of the cardiovascular system with intrinsic regulation is presented and implemented by using the object-oriented Modelica simulation software tools.  For this task, a multi-compartmental system previously validated with physiological data has been built, based on the interconnection of cardiovascular elements such as resistances, capacitances and pumping among others, by following an electrohydraulic analogy. The results obtained under both physiological and pathological scenarios provide an easy interpretative key to analyze the hemodynamic behavior of the patient. The described approach represents a valuable tool in the teaching of physiology for graduate medical and nursing students among others.

Keywords: cardiovascular system, MODELICA simulation software, physical modelling, teaching tool

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758 Phytotoxicity of Lead on the Physiological Parameters of Two Varieties of Broad Bean (Vicia faba)

Authors: El H. Bouziani, H. A. Reguieg Yssaad

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The phytotoxicity of heavy metals can be expressed on roots and visible part of plants and is characterized by molecular and metabolic answers at various levels of organization of the whole plant. The present study was undertaken on two varieties of broad bean Vicia faba (Sidi Aïch and Super Aguadulce). The device was mounted on a substrate prepared by mixing sand, soil and compost, the substrate was artificially contaminated with three doses of lead nitrate [Pb(NO3)2] 0, 500 and 1000 ppm. Our objective is to follow the behavior of plant opposite the stress by evaluating the physiological parameters. The results reveal a reduction in the parameters of the productivity (chlorophyll and proteins production) with an increase in the osmoregulators (soluble sugars and proline).These results show that the production of broad bean is strongly modified by the disturbance of its internal physiology under lead exposure.

Keywords: broad bean, lead, stress, physiological parameters, phytotoxicity

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757 Short-Term Physiological Evaluation of Augmented Reality System for Thanatophobia Psychotherapy

Authors: Kais Siala, Mohamed Kharrat, Mohamed Abid

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Exposure therapies encourage patients to gradually begin facing their painful memories of the trauma in order to reduce fear and anxiety. In this context, virtual reality techniques are widely used for treatment of different kinds of phobia. The particular case of fear of death phobia (thanataphobia) is addressed in this paper. For this purpose, we propose to make a simulation of Near Death Experience (NDE) using augmented reality techniques. We propose in particular to simulate the Out-of-Body experience (OBE) which is the first step of a Near-Death-Experience (NDE). In this paper, we present technical aspects of this simulation as well as short-term impact in terms of physiological measures. The non-linear Poincéré plot is used to describe the difference in Heart Rate Variability between In-Body and Out-Of-Body conditions.

Keywords: Out-of-Body simulation, physiological measure, augmented reality, phobia psychotherapy, HRV, Poincaré plot

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756 Physiological Normoxia and Cellular Adhesion of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Primary Cells: Real-Time PCR and Immunohistochemistry Study

Authors: Kamila Duś-Szachniewicz, Kinga M. Walaszek, Paweł Skiba, Paweł Kołodziej, Piotr Ziółkowski

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Cell adhesion is of fundamental importance in the cell communication, signaling, and motility, and its dysfunction occurs prevalently during cancer progression. The knowledge of the molecular and cellular processes involved in abnormalities in cancer cells adhesion has greatly increased, and it has been focused mainly on cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) and tumor microenvironment. Unfortunately, most of the data regarding CAMs expression relates to study on cells maintained in standard oxygen condition of 21%, while the emerging evidence suggests that culturing cells in ambient air is far from physiological. In fact, oxygen in human tissues ranges from 1 to 11%. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of physiological lymph node normoxia (5% O2), and hyperoxia (21% O2) on the expression of cellular adhesion molecules of primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells (DLBCL) isolated from 10 lymphoma patients. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to confirm the differential expression of several CAMs, including ICAM, CD83, CD81, CD44, depending on the level of oxygen. Our findings also suggest that DLBCL cells maintained at ambient O2 (21%) exhibit reduced growth rate and migration ability compared to the cells growing in normoxia conditions. Taking into account all the observations, we emphasize the need to identify the optimal human cell culture conditions mimicking the physiological aspects of tumor growth and differentiation.

Keywords: adhesion molecules, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, physiological normoxia, quantitative RT-PCR

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755 Study of Salinity Stress and Calcium Interaction on Morphological and Physiological Traits of Vicia villosa under Hydroponic Condition

Authors: Raheleh Khademian, Roghayeh Aminian

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For the study of salinity stress on Vicia villosa and calcium effect for modulation of that, an experiment was conducted under hydroponic condition, and some important morphological and physiological characteristics were evaluated. This experiment was conducted as a factorial based on randomized complete design with three replications. The treatments include salinity stress in three levels (0, 50, and 100 mM NaCl) and calcium in two levels (content in Hoagland solution and double content). The results showed that all morphological and physiological traits include root and shoot length, root and shoot wet and dry weight, leaf area, leaf chlorophyll content, RWC, CMS, and biological yield was significantly different from the control and is affected by the salinity stress severely. But, calcium effect on them was not significant despite of decreasing salinity effect.

Keywords: Vicia villossa, salinity stress, calcium, hydroponic

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754 Physiological Roles of Relaxin on Prefertilizing Activities of Spermatozoa

Authors: A. G. Miah, U. Salma, K. Schellander

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Relaxin was first described in 1926 by Frederick Hisaw. Previously it was considered as only the hormone of pregnant mammals due to its important roles in pregnancy and parturition. From the last decade, the physiological role of relaxin in male reproduction has been given experimental attention, and the results have made it clear that relaxin can no longer be considered strictly as only the hormone of female reproduction. The accessory glands (specially, the prostate glands) of the male reproductive system are the source of seminal relaxin, which is secreted into the seminal plasma and saturated with spermatozoa just after ejaculation. Several studies have reported that relaxin has important roles in improving motility in human sperm. Thereafter, the growing interest on relaxin has intensified efforts to investigate the role of relaxin in other sperm physiological phenomena like, capacitation, acrosome reaction, and their mediating factors associated with successful fertilization. Therefore, this review aims to provide up-to-date information about the physiological roles of relaxin in sperm motility, capacitation, acrosome reaction, and their mediating factors, such as, utilization of glucose, cholesterol efflux, Ca2+-influx, intracellular cAMP and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Some studies have shown relaxin to increase the percentage of progressive motility and induce capacitation and acrosome reaction through increasing the utilization of glucose and mediating the cholesterol efflux, Ca2+-influx, intracellular cAMP and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Thus, the review suggests that the supplementation of relaxin into the capacitating medium may contribute the possible beneficial roles in fresh and cryopreserved spermatozoal prefertilization events.

Keywords: relaxin, physiological roles, prefertilizing activities, spermatozoa

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753 Human-Centric Sensor Networks for Comfort and Productivity in Offices: Integrating Environmental, Body Area Network, and Participatory Sensing

Authors: Chenlu Zhang, Wanni Zhang, Florian Schaule

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Indoor environment in office buildings directly affects comfort, productivity, health, and well-being of building occupants. Wireless environmental sensor networks have been deployed in many modern offices to monitor and control the indoor environments. However, indoor environmental variables are not strong enough predictors of comfort and productivity levels of every occupant due to personal differences, both physiologically and psychologically. This study proposes human-centric sensor networks that integrate wireless environmental sensors, body area network sensors and participatory sensing technologies to collect data from both environment and human and support building operations. The sensor networks have been tested in one small-size and one medium-size office rooms with 22 participants for five months. Indoor environmental data (e.g., air temperature and relative humidity), physiological data (e.g., skin temperature and Galvani skin response), and physiological responses (e.g., comfort and self-reported productivity levels) were obtained from each participant and his/her workplace. The data results show that: (1) participants have different physiological and physiological responses in the same environmental conditions; (2) physiological variables are more effective predictors of comfort and productivity levels than environmental variables. These results indicate that the human-centric sensor networks can support human-centric building control and improve comfort and productivity in offices.

Keywords: body area network, comfort and productivity, human-centric sensors, internet of things, participatory sensing

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752 Moved by Music: The Impact of Music on Fatigue, Arousal and Motivation During Conditioning for High to Elite Level Female Artistic Gymnasts

Authors: Chante J. De Klerk

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The potential of music to facilitate superior performance during high to elite level gymnastics conditioning instigated this research. A team of seven gymnasts completed a fixed conditioning programme eight times, alternating the two variable conditions. Four sessions of each condition were conducted: without music (session 1), with music (session 2), without music (3), with music (4), without music (5), and so forth. Quantitative data were collected in both conditions through physiological monitoring of the gymnasts, and administration of the Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS). Statistical analysis of the physiological data made it possible to quantify the presence as well as the magnitude of the musical intervention’s impact on various aspects of the gymnasts' physiological functioning during conditioning. The SIMS questionnaire results were used to evaluate if their motivation towards conditioning was altered by the intervention. Thematic analysis of qualitative data collected through semi-structured interviews revealed themes reflecting the gymnasts’ sentiments towards the data collection process. Gymnast-specific descriptions and experiences of the team as a whole were integrated with the quantitative data to facilitate greater dimension in establishing the impact of the intervention. The results showed positive physiological, motivational, and emotional effects. In the presence of music, superior sympathetic nervous activation, and energy efficiency, with more economic breathing, dominated the physiological data. Fatigue and arousal levels (emotional and physiological) were also conducive to improved conditioning outcomes compared to conventional conditioning (without music). Greater levels of positive affect and motivation emerged in analysis of both the SIMS and interview data sets. Overall, the intervention was found to promote psychophysiological coherence during the physical activity. In conclusion, a strategically constructed musical intervention, designed to accompany a gymnastics conditioning session for high to elite level gymnasts, has ergogenic potential.

Keywords: arousal, fatigue, gymnastics conditioning, motivation, musical intervention, psychophysiological coherence

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751 Algorithm Development of Individual Lumped Parameter Modelling for Blood Circulatory System: An Optimization Study

Authors: Bao Li, Aike Qiao, Gaoyang Li, Youjun Liu

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Background: Lumped parameter model (LPM) is a common numerical model for hemodynamic calculation. LPM uses circuit elements to simulate the human blood circulatory system. Physiological indicators and characteristics can be acquired through the model. However, due to the different physiological indicators of each individual, parameters in LPM should be personalized in order for convincing calculated results, which can reflect the individual physiological information. This study aimed to develop an automatic and effective optimization method to personalize the parameters in LPM of the blood circulatory system, which is of great significance to the numerical simulation of individual hemodynamics. Methods: A closed-loop LPM of the human blood circulatory system that is applicable for most persons were established based on the anatomical structures and physiological parameters. The patient-specific physiological data of 5 volunteers were non-invasively collected as personalized objectives of individual LPM. In this study, the blood pressure and flow rate of heart, brain, and limbs were the main concerns. The collected systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, cardiac output, and heart rate were set as objective data, and the waveforms of carotid artery flow and ankle pressure were set as objective waveforms. Aiming at the collected data and waveforms, sensitivity analysis of each parameter in LPM was conducted to determine the sensitive parameters that have an obvious influence on the objectives. Simulated annealing was adopted to iteratively optimize the sensitive parameters, and the objective function during optimization was the root mean square error between the collected waveforms and data and simulated waveforms and data. Each parameter in LPM was optimized 500 times. Results: In this study, the sensitive parameters in LPM were optimized according to the collected data of 5 individuals. Results show a slight error between collected and simulated data. The average relative root mean square error of all optimization objectives of 5 samples were 2.21%, 3.59%, 4.75%, 4.24%, and 3.56%, respectively. Conclusions: Slight error demonstrated good effects of optimization. The individual modeling algorithm developed in this study can effectively achieve the individualization of LPM for the blood circulatory system. LPM with individual parameters can output the individual physiological indicators after optimization, which are applicable for the numerical simulation of patient-specific hemodynamics.

Keywords: blood circulatory system, individual physiological indicators, lumped parameter model, optimization algorithm

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750 Evaluation of P300 and CNV Changes in Patients with Essential Tremor

Authors: Sehur Sibel Ozkaynak, Zakir Koc, Ebru Barcın

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Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common movement disorders and has long been considered a monosymptomatic disorder. While ET has traditionally been categorized as a pure motor disease, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of cognition in ET have been demonstrated that these patients may have cognitive dysfunction. We investigated the neuro physiological aspects of cognition in ET, using event-related potentials (ERPs).Twenty patients with ET and 20 age-education and sex matched healthy controls underwent a neuro physiological evaluation. P300 components and Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) were recorded. The latencies and amplitudes of the P300 and CNV were evaluated. P200-N200 amplitude was significantly smaller in the ET group, while no differences emerged between patients and controls in P300 latencies. CNV amplitude was significantly smaller at Cz electrode site in the ET group. No differences were observed between in the two groups in CNV latencies. As a result, P300 and CNV parameters did not show significant differences between in the two groups, does not mean that there aren't mild cognitive changes in ET patients. In this regard, there is a need to further studies using electro physiological tests related to cognitive changes in ET patients.

Keywords: cognition, essential tremor, event related potentials

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749 Emotional and Physiological Reaction While Listening the Speech of Adults Who Stutter

Authors: Xharavina V., Gallopeni F., Ahmeti K.

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Stuttered speech is filled with intermittent sound prolongations and/or rapid part word repetitions. Oftentimes, these aberrant acoustic behaviors are associated with intermittent physical tension and struggle behaviors such as head jerks, arm jerks, finger tapping, excessive eye-blinks, etc. Additionally, the jarring nature of acoustic and physical manifestations that often accompanies moderate-severe stuttering may induce negative emotional responses in listeners, which alters communication between the person who stutters and their listeners. However, researches for the influence of negative emotions in the communication and for physical reaction are limited. Therefore, to compare psycho-physiological responses of fluent adults, while listening the speech of adults who speak fluency and adults who stutter, are necessary. This study comprises the experimental method, with total of 104 participants (average age-20 years old, SD=2.1), divided into 3 groups. All participants self-reported no impairments in speech, language, or hearing. Exploring the responses of the participants, there were used two records speeches; a voice who speaks fluently and the voice who stutters. Heartbeats and the pulse were measured by the digital blood pressure monitor called 'Tensoval', as a physiological response to the fluent and stuttering sample. Meanwhile, the emotional responses of participants were measured by the self-reporting questionnaire (Steenbarger, 2001). Results showed an increase in heartbeats during the stuttering speech compared with the fluent sample (p < 0.5). The listeners also self-reported themselves as more alive, unhappy, nervous, repulsive, sad, tense, distracted and upset when listening the stuttering words versus the words of the fluent adult (where it was reported to experience positive emotions). These data support the notions that speech with stuttering can bring a psycho-physical reaction to the listeners. Speech pathologists should be aware that listeners show intolerable physiological reactions to stuttering that remain visible over time.

Keywords: emotional, physiological, stuttering, fluent speech

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748 Assessing the Physiological, Psychological Stressors and Coping Strategies among Hemodialysis Patients in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: A. Seham A. Elgamal, Reham H. Saleh

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Chronic kidney disease became a global health problem worldwide. Therefore, in order to maintain a patient’s life and improve the survival rate, hemodialysis is essential to replace the function of their kidneys. However, those patients may complain about multiple physical and psychological stressors due to the nature of the disease and the need for frequent hemodialysis sessions. So, those patients use various strategies to cope with the stressors related to their disease and the treatment procedures. Cross-sectional, descriptive study was carried out to achieve the aim of the study. A convenient sample including all adult patients was recruited for this study. Hemodialysis Stressors Scale (HSS) and Jalowiec Coping Scale (JCS) were used to investigate the stressors and coping strategies of 89 hemodialysis patients, at a governmental hospital (King Khalid Hospital-Jeddah). Results of the study revealed that 50.7% experienced physiological stressors and 38% experienced psychosocial stressors. Also, optimistic, fatalistic, and supportive coping strategies were the most common coping strategies used by the patients with mean scores (2.88 + 0.75, 2.87 + 0.75, and 1.82 + 0.71), respectively. In conclusion, being familiar with the types of stressors and the effective coping strategies of hemodialysis patients and their families are important in order to enhance their adaptation with chronic kidney diseases.

Keywords: copying strategies, hemodialysis, physiological stressors, psychological stressors

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747 A Study from Language and Culture Perspective of Human Needs in Chinese and Vietnamese Euphemism Languages

Authors: Quoc Hung Le Pham

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Human beings are motivated to satisfy the physiological needs and psychological needs. In the fundamental needs, bodily excretion is the most basic one, while physiological excretion refers to the final products produced in the process of discharging the body. This physiological process is a common human phenomenon. For instance, bodily secretion is totally natural, but people of various nationalities through the times avoid saying it directly. Terms like ‘shit’ are often negatively regarded as dirty, smelly and vulgar; it will lead people to negative thinking. In fact, it is in the psychology of human beings to avoid such unsightly terms. Especially in social situations where you have to take care of your image, and you have to release. The best way to solve this is to approach the use of euphemism. People prefer to say it as ‘answering nature's call’ or ‘to pass a motion’ instead. Chinese and Vietnamese nations are referring to use euphemisms to replace bodily secretions, so this research will take this phenomenon as the object aims to explore the similarities and dissimilarities between two languages euphemism. The basic of the niche of this paper is human physiological phenomenon excretion. As the preliminary results show, in expressing bodily secretions the deeply impacting factor is language and cultural factors. On language factor terms, two languages are using assonance to replace human nature discharge, whilst the dissimilarities are metonymy, loan word and personification. On culture factor terms, the convergences are metonymy and application of the semantically-contrary-word-euphemism, whilst the difference is Chinese euphemism using allusion but Vietnamese euphemism does not.

Keywords: cultural factors, euphemism, human needs, language factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
746 Object-Oriented Programming for Modeling and Simulation of Systems in Physiology

Authors: J. Fernandez de Canete

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Object-oriented modeling is spreading in the current simulation of physiological systems through the use of the individual components of the model and its interconnections to define the underlying dynamic equations. In this paper, we describe the use of both the SIMSCAPE and MODELICA simulation environments in the object-oriented modeling of the closed-loop cardiovascular system. The performance of the controlled system was analyzed by simulation in light of the existing hypothesis and validation tests previously performed with physiological data. The described approach represents a valuable tool in the teaching of physiology for graduate medical students.

Keywords: object-oriented modeling, SIMSCAPE simulation language, MODELICA simulation language, cardiovascular system

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745 Dilution of Saline Irrigation Based on Plant's Physiological Responses to Salt Stress Following by Re-Watering

Authors: Qaiser Javed, Ahmad Azeem

Abstract:

Salinity and water scarcity are major environmental problems which are limiting the agricultural production. This research was conducted to construct a model to find out appropriate regime to dilute saline water based on physiological and electrophysiological properties of Brassica napus L., and Orychophragmus violaceus (L.). Plants were treated under salt-stressed concentrations of NaCl (NL₁: 2.5, NL₂: 5, NL₃: 10; gL⁻¹), Na₂SO₄ (NO₁: 2.5, NO₂: 5, NO₃: 10; gL⁻¹), and mixed salt concentration (MX₁: NL₁+ NO₃; MX₂: NL₃+ NO₁; MX₃: NL₂+ NO₂; gL⁻¹) and 0 as control, followed by re-watering. Growth, physiological and electrophysiology traits were highly restricted under high salt concentration levels at NL₃, NO₃, MX₁, and MX₂, respectively. However, during the rewatering phase, growth, electrophysiological, and physiological parameters were recovered well. Consequently, the increase in net photosynthetic rate was noted under moderate stress condition which was 44.13, 37.07, and 43.01%, respectively in Orychophragmus violaceus (L.) and 44.94%, 53.45%, and 63.04%, respectively were found in Brassica napus L. According to the results, the best dilution point was 5–2.5% for NaCl and Na₂SO₄ alternatively, whereas it was 10–0.0% for the mixture of salts. Therefore, the effect of salinity in O. violaceus and B. napus may also be reduced effectively by dilution of saline irrigation. It would be a better approach to utilize dilute saline water for irrigation instead of applies direct saline water to plant. This study provides new insight in the field of agricultural engineering to plan irrigation scheduling considering the crop ability to salt tolerance and irrigation water use efficiency by apply specific quantity of irrigation calculated based on the salt dilution point. It would be helpful to balance between irrigation amount and optimum crop water consumption in salt-affected regions and to utilize saline water in order to safe freshwater resources.

Keywords: dilution model, plant growth traits, re-watering, salt stress

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744 Grain Yield, Morpho-Physiological Parameters and Growth Indices of Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Varieties Exposed to High Temperature under Late Sown Condition

Authors: Shital Bangar, Chetana Mandavia

Abstract:

A field experiment was carried out in Factorial Randomized Block Design (FRBD) with three replications at Instructional Farm Krushigadh, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, India to assess the biochemical parameters of wheat in order to assess the thermotolerance. Nine different wheat varieties GW 433, GW 431, HI 1571, GW 432, RAJ 3765, HD 2864, HI 1563, HD 3091 and PBW 670 sown in timely and late sown conditions (i.e., 22 Nov and 6 Dec 2012) were analysed. All the varieties differed significantly with respect to grain yield morpho-physiological parameters and growth indices for time of sowing, varieties and varieties x time of sowing interactions. The observations on morpho-physiological parameters viz., germination percentage, canopy temperature depression and growth indices viz., leaf area index (LAI), leaf area ratio (LAR) were recorded. Almost all the morpho-physiological parameters, growth indices and grain yield studied were affected adversely by late sowing, registering reduction in their magnitude. Germination percentage was reduced under late sown condition but variety PBW 670 was the best. Varieties GW 432 performed better with respect to canopy temperature depression while sown late. Under late sown condition, variety GW 431 recorded higher LAI while HI 1563 had maximum LAR. Considering yield performance, HD 2864 was best under timely sown condition, while GW 433 was best under late sown condition. Varieties HI 1571, GW 433 and GW 431 could be labelled as thermo-tolerant because there was least reduction in grain yield under late sown condition (1.75 %, 7.90 % and13.8 % respectively). Considering correlation coefficient, grain yield showed very strong significant positive association with germination percentage. Leaf area ratio was strongly and significantly correlated with grain yield but in negative direction. Canopy temperature depression and leaf area index also had positive correlation with grain yield but were non-significant.

Keywords: growth indices, morpho-physiological parametrs, thermo-tolerance, wheat

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
743 Design and Characterization of a Smart Composite Fabric for Knee Brace

Authors: Rohith J. K., Amir Nazemi, Abbas S. Milani

Abstract:

In Paralympic sports, athletes often depend on some form of equipment to enable competitive sporting, where most of this equipment would only allow passive physiological supports and discrete physiological measurements. Active feedback physiological support and continuous detection of performance indicators, without time or space constraints, would be beneficial in more effective training and performance measures of Paralympic athletes. Moreover, occasionally the athletes suffer from fatigue and muscular stains due to improper monitoring systems. The latter challenges can be overcome by using Smart Composites technology when manufacturing, e.g., knee brace and other sports wearables utilities, where the sensors can be fused together into the fabric and an assisted system actively support the athlete. This paper shows how different sensing functionality may be created by intrinsic and extrinsic modifications onto different types of composite fabrics, depending on the level of integration and the employed functional elements. Results demonstrate that fabric sensors can be well-tailored to measure muscular strain and be used in the fabrication of a smart knee brace as a sample potential application. Materials, connectors, fabric circuits, interconnects, encapsulation and fabrication methods associated with such smart fabric technologies prove to be customizable and versatile.

Keywords: smart composites, sensors, smart fabrics, knee brace

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
742 Effects of Nitroxin Fertilizer on Physiological Characters Forage Millet under Drought Stress Conditions

Authors: Mohammad Darbani, Jafar Masoud Sinaki, Armaghan Abedzadeh Neyshaburi

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted as split plot factorial design using randomized complete block design in Damghan in 2012-2013 in order to investigate the effects of irrigation cut off (based on the Phenological stages of plants) on physiological properties of forage millet cultivars. The treatments included three irrigation levels (control with full irrigation, irrigation cut off when flowering started, and irrigation cut off when flowering ended) in the main plots, and applying nitroxin biofertilizer (+), not applying nitroxin biofertilizer (control), and Iranian forage millet cultivars (Bastan, Pishahang, and Isfahan) in the subplots. The highest rate of ashes and water-soluble carbohydrates content were observed in the cultivar Bastan (8.22 and 8.91%, respectively), the highest content of fiber and water (74.17 and 48.83%, respectively) in the treatment of irrigation cut off when flowering started, and the largest proline concentration (μmol/gfw-1) was seen in the treatment of irrigation cut off when flowering started. very rapid growth of millet, its short growing season, drought tolerance, its unique feature regarding harvest time, and its response to nitroxin biofertilizer can help expanding its cultivation in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran.

Keywords: irrigation cut off, forage millet, Nitroxin fertilizer, physiological properties

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741 Bioelectronic System for Continuous Monitoring of Cardiac Activity of Benthic Invertebrates for the Assessment of a Surface Water Quality

Authors: Sergey Kholodkevich, Tatiana Kuznetsova

Abstract:

The objective assessment of ecological state of water ecosystems is impossible without the use of biological methods of the environmental monitoring capable in the integrated look to reveal negative for biota changes of quality of water as habitats. Considerable interest for the development of such methods of environmental quality control represents biomarker approach. Measuring systems, by means of which register cardiac activity characteristics, received the name of bioelectronic. Bioelectronic systems are information and measuring systems in which animals (namely, benthic invertebrates) are directly included in structure of primary converters, being an integral part of electronic system of registration of these or those physiological or behavioural biomarkers. As physiological biomarkers various characteristics of cardiac activity of selected invertebrates have been used in bioelectronic system.lChanges in cardiac activity are considered as integrative measures of the physiological condition of organisms, which reflect the state of the environment of their dwelling. Greatest successes in the development of tools of biological methods and technologies of an assessment of surface water quality in real time. Essential advantage of bioindication of water quality by such tool is a possibility of an integrated assessment of biological effects of pollution on biota and also the expressness of such method and used approaches. In the report the practical experience of authors in biomonitoring and bioindication of an ecological condition of sea, brackish- and freshwater areas is discussed. Authors note that the method of non-invasive cardiac activity monitoring of selected invertebrates can be used not only for the advancement of biomonitoring, but also is useful in decision of general problems of comparative physiology of the invertebrates.

Keywords: benthic invertebrates, physiological state, heart rate monitoring, water quality assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 618