Search results for: zinc
611 The Leaching Kinetics of Zinc from Industrial Zinc Slag Waste
Authors: Hilary Rutto
Abstract:The investigation was aimed at determining the extent at which the zinc will be extracted from secondary sources generated from galvanising process using dilute sulphuric acid under controlled laboratory conditions of temperature, solid-liquid ratio, and agitation rate. The leaching experiment was conducted for a period of 2 hours and to total zinc extracted calculated in relation to the amount of zinc dissolved at a unit time in comparison to the initial zinc content of the zinc ash. Sulphuric acid was found to be an effective leaching agent with an overall extraction of 91.1% when concentration is at 2M, and solid/liquid ratio kept at 1g/200mL leaching solution and temperature set at 65ᵒC while slurry agitation is at 450rpm. The leaching mechanism of zinc ash with sulphuric acid was conformed well to the shrinking core model.
Keywords: leaching, kinetics, shrinking core model, zinc slagProcedia PDF Downloads 79
610 Sonochemical Zinc Oxide and Layered Hydroxy Zinc Acetate Synthesis in Fenton-Like Reactions
Authors: Durata Haciu, Ozgur Birer
Abstract:Zinc acetate solution is sonicated at high power in water and in ethanol in the absence and presence of various peroxides. In the absence of peroxides, the products are zinc oxide and layered hydroxy zinc acetate in water and in ethanol, respectively. Layered basic zinc acetate are prepared for the first time using sonochemical methods. The addition of peroxides alters the reaction mechanisms. In water, insoluble peroxides produce zinc oxides while the water soluble peroxide, i.e.hydrogen peroxide, completely destroyed the structure and casted a doubt on the accepted peroxide initiated mechanism of reactions. In ethanol,peroxide addition caused the reaction mechanism to change and some oxide formation is observed. The reaction mechanism is sensitive to water/ethanol amounts as well as the peroxide to zinc ion mole ratio.Thin zinc oxide wafers (ca. 30 nm) with band gaps of 3.24 eV were obtained.
Keywords: ultrasound, zinc oxide, hydroxy zinc acetate, fenton, peroxide initiationProcedia PDF Downloads 230
609 A Study on the Vegetative and Osmolyte Accumulation of Capsicum frutescens L. under Zinc Metal Stress
Authors: Ja’afar Umar, Adamu Aliyu Aliero
Abstract:Plant growth, biochemical parameters, zinc metal concentrations were determined for Capsicum frutescens L. in response to varied concentration of zinc metal. The plant exhibited a decline in the vegetative parameters measured. Free proline and glycine betaine content increases with increasing concentration of zinc metal and differ significantly (P<0.05). It can be concluded that the osmolyte (pro and GB) accumulations, and high length of stem and wide leaf expansion are possible indicator of tolerance to heavy metals (Zinc) in Capsicum frutescens.
Keywords: zinc metal, osmolyte, Capsicum frutescens, stressProcedia PDF Downloads 396
608 Facile Fabrication of Nickel/Zinc Oxide Hollow Spheres Nanostructure and Photodegradation of Congo Red
Authors: Seyed Mohsen Mousavi, Ali Reza Mahjoub, Behjat Afshari
Abstract:In this work, Nickel/Zinc Oxide hollow spherical structures with high surface area using the template Fructose was prepared by the hydrothermal method using a ultrasonic bath at room temperature was produced and were identified by FTIR, XRD, FE-SEM. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized hollow spherical Nickel/Zinc Oxide was studied in the destruction of Congo red as Azo dye. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of Nickel/ Zinc Oxide hollow spherical nanostructures is improved compared with zinc oxide hollow sphere and other morphologies.
Keywords: azo dye, hollow spheres, photocatalyst, nickel/zinc oxideProcedia PDF Downloads 382
607 Zinc Borate Synthesis Using Hydrozincite and Boric Acid with Ultrasonic Method
Authors: D. S. Vardar, A. S. Kipcak, F. T. Senberber, E. M. Derun, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul
Abstract:Zinc borate is an important inorganic hydrate borate material, which can be use as a flame retardant agent and corrosion resistance material. This compound can loss its structural water content at higher than 290°C. Due to thermal stability; Zinc Borate can be used as flame reterdant at high temperature process of plastic and gum. In this study, the ultrasonic reaction of zinc borates were studied using hydrozincite (Zn5(CO3)2•(OH)6) and boric acid (H3BO3) raw materials. Before the synthesis raw materials were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Ultrasonic method is a new application on the zinc borate synthesis. The synthesis parameters were set to 90°C reaction temperature and 55 minutes of reaction time, with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 molar ratio of starting materials (Zn5(CO3)2•(OH)6 : H3BO3). After the zinc borate synthesis, the products analyzed by XRD and FT-IR. As a result, optimum molar ratio of 1:5 (Zn5(CO3)2•(OH)6:H3BO3) is determined for the synthesis of zinc borates with ultrasonic method.
Keywords: borate, ultrasonic method, zinc borate, zinc borate synthesisProcedia PDF Downloads 332
606 Studies on Modified Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles as Potential Drug Carrier
Authors: Jolanta Pulit-Prociak, Olga Dlugosz, Marcin Banach
Abstract:The toxicity of bare zinc oxide nanoparticles used as drug carriers may be the result of releasing zinc ions. Thus, zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with galactose were obtained. The process of their formation was conducted in the microwave field. The physicochemical properties of the obtained products were studied. The size and electrokinetic potential were defined by using dynamic light scattering technique. The crystalline properties were assessed by X-ray diffractometry. In order to confirm the formation of the desired products, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used. The releasing of zinc ions from the prepared products when comparing to the bare oxide was analyzed. It was found out that modification of zinc oxide nanoparticles with galactose limits the releasing of zinc ions which are responsible for the toxic effect of the whole carrier-drug conjugate.
Keywords: nanomaterials, zinc oxide, drug delivery system, toxicityProcedia PDF Downloads 91
605 Zinc (II) Complexes of Nitrogen, Oxygen and Sulfur Coordination Modes: Synthesis, Spectral Studies and Antibacterial Activities
Authors: Ayodele Odularu, Peter Ajibade, Albert Bolhuis
Abstract:This study aimed at assessing the antibacterial activities of four zinc (II) complexes. Zinc (II) complexes of nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur coordination modes were synthesized using direct substitution reaction. The characterization techniques involved physicochemical properties (molar conductivity) and spectroscopic techniques. The molar conductivity gave the non-electrolytic nature of zinc (II) complexes. The spectral studies of zinc (II) complexes were done using electronic spectra (UV-Vis) and Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Spectral data from the spectroscopic studies confirmed the coordination of the mixed ligands with zinc (II) ion. The antibacterial activities of zinc(II) complexes of were all in supportive of Overtone’s concept and Tweedy’s theory of chelation for bacterial strains of S. aureus MRSA252 and E coli MC4100 because the zones of inhibition were greater than the corresponding ligands. In summary, all zinc (II) complexes of ZEPY, ZE1PH, ZE1PY and ZE135PY all have potentials for antibacterial activities.
Keywords: antibacterial activities, spectral studies, syntheses, zinc(II) complexesProcedia PDF Downloads 179
604 A New Approach on the Synthesis of Zinc Borates by Ultrasonic Method and Determination of the Zinc Oxide and Boric Acid Optimum Molar Ratio
Authors: A. Ersan, A. S. Kipcak, M. Yildirim, A. M. Erayvaz, E. M. Derun, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul
Abstract:Zinc borates are used as a multi-functional flame retardant additive for its high dehydration temperature. In this study, a new method of ultrasonic mixing was used in the synthesis of zinc borates. The reactants of zinc oxide (ZnO) and boric acid (H3BO3) were used at the constant reaction parameters of 90°C reaction temperature and 55 min of reaction time. Several molar ratios of ZnO:H3BO3 (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5) were conducted for the determination of the optimum reaction ratio. Prior to the synthesis, the characterization of the synthesized zinc borates were made by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). From the results Zinc Oxide Borate Hydrate [Zn3B6O12.3.5H2O], were synthesized optimum at the molar ratio of 1:3, with a reaction efficiency of 95.2%.
Keywords: zinc borates, ultrasonic mixing, XRD, FT-IR, reaction efficiencyProcedia PDF Downloads 279
603 The Determination of the Zinc Sulfate, Sodium Hydroxide and Boric Acid Molar Ratio on the Production of Zinc Borates
Authors: N. Tugrul, A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin
Abstract:Zinc borate is an important boron compound that can be used as multi-functional flame retardant additive due to its high dehydration temperature property. In this study, the raw materials of ZnSO4.7H2O, NaOH and H3BO3 were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and used in the synthesis of zinc borates. The synthesis parameters were set to 100°C reaction temperature and 120 minutes of reaction time, with different molar ratio of starting materials (ZnSO4.7H2O:NaOH:H3BO3). After the zinc borate synthesis, the identifications of the products were conducted by XRD and FT-IR. As a result, Zinc Oxide Borate Hydrate [Zn3B6O12.3.5H2O], were synthesized at the molar ratios of 1:1:3, 1:1:4, 1:2:5 and 1:2:6. Among these ratios 1:2:6 had the best results.
Keywords: Zinc borate, ZnSO4.7H2O, NaOH, H3BO3, XRD, FT-IRProcedia PDF Downloads 302
602 Some Observations on the Preparation of Zinc Hydroxide Nitrate Nanoparticles
Authors: Krasimir Ivanov, Elitsa Kolentsova, Nguyen Nguyen, Alexander Peltekov, Violina Angelova
Abstract:The nanosized zinc hydroxide nitrate has been recently estimated as perspective foliar fertilizer, which has improved zinc solubility, but low phytotoxicity, in comparison with ZnO and other Zn containing compounds. The main problem is obtaining of stable particles with dimensions less than 100 nm. This work studies the effect of preparation conditions on the chemical compositions and particle size of the zinc hydroxide nitrates, prepared by precipitation. Zn(NO3)2.6H2O and NaOH with concentrations, ranged from 0.2 to 3.2M and the initial OH/Zn ratio from 0.5 to 1.6 were used at temperatures from 20 to 60 °C. All samples were characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, differential thermal analysis and ICP. Stability and distribution of the zinc hydroxide nitrate particles were estimated too.
Keywords: zinc hydroxide nitrate, nanoparticles, preparation, foliar fertilizerProcedia PDF Downloads 274
601 A Possible Connection Between Taste Change and Zinc Deficiency after Bariatric Surgery: A Literature Review
Authors: Boshra Mozaffar, Iskandar Idris
Abstract:Taste change is a common complication after Bariatric surgery (BS). However, the cause of this is still not clear. Since zinc is important fortaste perception, zinc deficiency, which is common after BS, may play an important role for taste change after BS. In this review, we aimto collate evidence relating to taste change and zinc deficiencyin relation to BS; effects of zinc replacement on taste perception in general and thereafter discuss the possible role of zinc deficiency to induce taste change after BS. A literature search was conducted, using four electronic bibliographical databases—EMBASE, PubMed, AMED and MEDLINE. We identified all available and relevant articles published before 30th February 2021.In total, 33 studies were included. The total number of participants analysed was N= 3264. We showed that taste change is a frequent complication after BS, especially after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass RYGBP comparing to other types of procedures. Patients' taste sensitivity differs among studies, but the most important decline in taste preference was observed for sweet food. Twelve studies investigating zinc deficiency following BS showed a significant decrease in zinc levels at six months after surgery. Supplementation with 45–50 mg of zinc sulphate was effective in improving taste, except in cancer patients, who showed no improvement in taste following zinc supplementation. Zinc deficiency appears to be associated with taste change after BS. Supplementation with much higher levels of zinc, at 45–50 mg, was effective in taste change treatment for many cases of taste disorder. The currently recommended levels of zinc replacements currently prescribed to patients following BS were not effective for avoiding zinc deficiency after BS—and thus not effective for averting taste change. It is therefore suggested that taste change following BS is closely related to zinc deficiency induced by the surgery.
Keywords: taste change, taste disorder, bariatric surgery, zinc, zinc sulphate or Zn, deficiency, supplementation, and micro-nutrient deficienciesProcedia PDF Downloads 44
600 Vitamin C Supplementation Modulates Zinc Levels and Antioxidant Values in Blood and Tissues of Diabetic Rats Fed Zinc-Deficient Diet
Authors: W. Fatmi, F. Kriba, Z. Kechrid
Abstract:The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin C on blood biochemical parameters, tissue zinc, and antioxidants enzymes in diabetic rats fed a zinc-deficient diet. For that purpose, Alloxan-induced diabetic rats were divided into four groups. The first group was fed a zinc-sufficient diet while the second group was fed a zinc-deficient diet. The third and fourth groups received zinc-sufficient or zinc-deficient diets plus oral vitamin C (1mg/l) for 27 days. Body weight and food intake were recorded regularly during 27 days. On day 28, animals were killed and glucose, total lipids, triglycerides, protein, urea, serum zinc , tissues zinc concentrations, liver glycogen, GSH, TBARS concentrations and serum GOT, GPT, ALP and LDH, liver GSH-Px, GST and Catalase activities were determined. Body weight gain and food intake of zinc deficient diabetic animals at the end of experimental period was significantly lower than that of zinc adequate diabetic animals. Dietary zinc intake significantly increased glucose, lipids, triglycerides, urea, and liver TBARS levels of zinc deficient diabetic rats. In contrast, serum zinc, tissues zinc, protein, liver glycogen and GSH levels were decreased. The consumption of zinc deficient diet led also to an increase in serum GOT, GPT and liver GST accompanied with a decrease in serum ALP, LDH and liver GSH-Px, CAT activities. Meanwhile, vitamin C treatment was ameliorated all the previous parameters approximately to their normal levels. Vitamin C supplementation presumably acting as an antioxidant, and it probably led to an improvement of insulin activity, which significantly reduced the severity of zinc deficiency in diabetes.
Keywords: antioxidant, experimental diabetes, liver enzymes, vitamin c, zinc deficiencyProcedia PDF Downloads 304
599 The Effects of NaF Concentration on the Zinc Coating Electroplated in Supercritical CO2 Mixed Zinc Chloride Bath
Authors: Chun-Ying Lee, Mei-Wen Wu, Li-Yi Cheng, Chiang-Ho Cheng
Abstract:This research studies the electroplating of zinc coating in the zinc chloride bath mixed with supercritical CO2. The sodium fluoride (NaF) was used as the bath additive to change the structure and property of the coating, and therefore the roughness and corrosion resistance of the zinc coating was investigated. The surface characterization was performed using optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and α-step profilometer. Moreover, the potentiodynamic polarization measurement in 3% NaCl solution was employed in the corrosion resistance evaluation. Because of the emulsification of the electrolyte mixed in Sc-CO2, the electroplated zinc produced the coating with smoother surface, smaller grain, better throwing power and higher corrosion resistance. The main role played by the NaF was to reduce the coating’s roughness and grain size. In other words, the CO2 mixed with the electrolyte under the supercritical condition performed the similar function as brighter and leveler in zinc electroplating to enhance the throwing power and corrosion resistance of the coating.
Keywords: supercritical CO2, zinc-electroplating, sodium fluoride, electroplatingProcedia PDF Downloads 449
598 Impact of Foliar Application of Zinc on Micro and Macro Elements Distribution in Phyllanthus amarus
Authors: Nguyen Cao Nguyen, Krasimir I. Ivanov, Penka S. Zapryanova
Abstract:The present study was carried out to investigate the interaction of foliar applied zinc with other elements in Phyllanthus amarus plants. The plant samples for our experiment were collected from Lam Dong province, Vietnam. Seven suspension solutions of nanosized zinc hydroxide nitrate (Zn5(OH)8(NO3)2·2H2O) with different Zn concentration were used. Fertilization and irrigation were the same for all variants. The Zn content and the content of selected micro (Cu, Fe, Mn) and macro (Ca, Mg, P and K) nutrients in plant roots, and stems and leaves were determined. It was concluded that the zinc content of plant roots varies narrowly, with no significant impact of ZnHN fertilization. The same trend can be seen in the content of Cu, Mn, and macronutrients. The zinc content of plant stems and leaves varies within wide limits, with the significant impact of ZnHN fertilization. The trends in the content of Cu, Mn, and macronutrients are kept the same as in the root, whereas the iron trends to increase its content at increasing the zinc content.
Keywords: Phyllanthus amarus, Zinc, Micro and macro elements, foliar fertilizerProcedia PDF Downloads 82
597 Research and Innovation Centre
Authors: Krasimir Ivanov, Tonyo Tonev, Nguyen Nguyen, Alexander Peltekov, Anyo Mitkov
Abstract:Maize is among the most economically important crops and at the same time one of the most sensitive to soil deficiency in zinc. In this paper, the impact of the foliar zinc application in the form of zinc hydroxy nitrate suspension on the micro and macro elements partitioning in maize leaves and grain was studied during spring maize season, 2017. The impact of the foliar zinc fertilization on the grain yield and quality was estimated too. The experiment was performed by the randomized block design with 8 variants in 3 replications. Seven suspension solutions whit different Zn concentration were used, including ZnO suspension and zinc hydroxyl nitrate alone or nixed with other nutrients. Fertilization and irrigation were the same for all variants. The Zn content and the content of selected micro (Cu, Fe) and macro (Ca, Mg, P and K) elements in maize leaves were determined two weeks after the first spraying (5-6 sheets), two weeks after the second spraying (9-10 sheets) and after harvesting. It was concluded that the synthesized zinc hydroxy nitrate demonstrates potential as the long-term foliar fertilizer. A significant (p < 0.05) effect of zinc accumulation in maize leaves by foliar zinc application during the first growth stage was found, followed by its reutilization to other plants organs during the second growth stage. Significant export of Cu, P, and K from lower and middle leaves was observed. The content of Ca and Mg remains constant in the whole longevity period, while the content of Fe decreases sharply.
Keywords: foliar fertilization, zinc hydroxy nitrate, maize, zincProcedia PDF Downloads 97
596 The Influence of Zinc Applications from Soil and Foliar at Different Levels on Some Quality Characteristics of Sultana Raisins
Authors: Harun Çoban, Aydın Akın
Abstract:In this study, the effects of different dose zinc application from soil and foliar on drying yield and some quality characters of raisins ‘Sultana’ were investigated. The experiment was conducted in randomized blocks with four replications, zinc treatment was used at one time (before pre- bloom) and from foliar in three times (pre-bloom, fruit set, and veraison). At harvest, both soil and foliar zinc sulphate applications increased the amount of fresh grapes per vine. Fresh grapes were dried on the drying place. However, the most efficient applications for drying yield and quality of raisins were observed from foliar. Therefore, it was preferred that foliar application dosage level at 0.10 %.
Keywords: zinc, raisins, soil application, foliar application, sultana, expertise valueProcedia PDF Downloads 224
595 Modeling and Prediction of Zinc Extraction Efficiency from Concentrate by Operating Condition and Using Artificial Neural Networks
Authors: S. Mousavian, D. Ashouri, F. Mousavian, V. Nikkhah Rashidabad, N. Ghazinia
Abstract:PH, temperature, and time of extraction of each stage, agitation speed, and delay time between stages effect on efficiency of zinc extraction from concentrate. In this research, efficiency of zinc extraction was predicted as a function of mentioned variable by artificial neural networks (ANN). ANN with different layer was employed and the result show that the networks with 8 neurons in hidden layer has good agreement with experimental data.
Keywords: zinc extraction, efficiency, neural networks, operating conditionProcedia PDF Downloads 475
594 The Antioxidant Effect of Vitamin C against Oxidative Stress Generate by Dietary Zn-Deficiency in Diabetic Rats
Authors: Zine Kechrid
Abstract:This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant effect of vitamin C on oxidative stress induced by dietary Zn-deficiency in albino diabetic rats. Thirty two males alloxan-diabetic rats divided into two groups of 16 individuals each; the first group was fed a zinc adequate diet (54 mg zinc/kg). The second group had given low zinc diet (1 mg zinc/kg). Then, half of each group was treated with vitamin C (1 g/l) in drinking water. After four weeks, animals were sacrificed and different parameters were determined. The findings showed that dietary deficiency zinc intake significantly increased serum glucose. Zn-deficiency was also led to an increase in oxidative stress, which was indicated by an increase of MDA level and glutathione-S-transferase activity. Meanwhile it was result in a decrease of reduced glutathione (GSH) content, glutathione peroxidase GSH-Px and catalase activities in liver. However, the administration of vitamin C restored all the previous parameters approximately to their normal values. In conclusion, vitamin C probably played a key role strong as antioxidant factor against oxidative stress provoked by dietary zinc inadequate. Therefore, it might be contributed in reduction diabetes complications.
Keywords: vitamin C, oxidative stress, zinc, experimental diabetes, ratsProcedia PDF Downloads 351
593 Zinc Contaminate on Urban Roadside in Rush Hour, Bangkok, Thailand
Authors: Sivapan Choo-In
Abstract:This research aims to study the Zinc (Zn) concentration in fine particulate matter on Rajchawithee roadside in rush hour. 30 Samples were collected in Jun to August 2013 by 8 stage non-avaible cascade impactor. Each samples (filter paper) were digest with nitric acid and analyed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer for Zinc determination. The highest value for the mean fraction (18.00 ± 9.28 %) is the size 9.0 – 110.0 micron follow by the range 3.3 – 4.7 micron (14.77 ± 14.66 %) and 1.1 – 2.1 micron (14.01 ± 11.77 %) .The concentration of Zn in the particulate matter of range 0.43 – 0.7 μm, 0.7 – 1.1 μm, 1.1 – 2.1 μm, 2.1 – 3.3 μm, 3.3 – 4.7 μm, 4.7 – 5.8 μm, 5.8 – 9.0 μm, 9.0 – 10.0 μm, were 41.56 – 217.62 μg/m3 (175.86 ± 32.25 μg/m3), 152.60 – 217.24 μg/m3 (187.71 ± 17.42 μg/m3), 142.90 – 214.67 μg/m3 (180.95 ± 18.71 μg/m3), 155.48 – 218.19 μg/m3 (183.22 ± 19.94 μg/m3), 151.72 – 217.39 μg/m3 (181.85 ± 17.57 μg/m3), 133.86 – 220.17 μg/m3 (178.78 ± 23.45 μg/m3), 160.00 – 220.35 μg/m3 (182.58 ± 18.08 μg/m3), 153.30 – 226.70 μg/m3 (181.52 ± 20.05 μg/m3), repectively. The Zn concentration in each size of particulate matter was not statistically significant different (p > .005)
Keywords: air pollution, particulate matter, size distribution, zincProcedia PDF Downloads 250
592 Efficiency of an Algae-Zinc Complex Compared to Inorganic Zinc Sulfate on Broilers Performance
Authors: R. Boulmane, C. Alleno, D. Marzin
Abstract:Trace minerals play an essential role in vital processes and are essential to many biological and physiological functions of the animal. They are usually incorporated in the form of inorganic salts such as sulfates and oxides. Most of these inorganic salts are excreted undigested by the animal causing economic losses as well as environmental pollution. In this context, the use of alternative organic trace minerals with higher bioavailability is emerging. This study was set up to evaluate the effect of using an algae-zinc complex in replacement of zinc sulfate in the feed, on growth performance of broiler chickens. One-thousand-two-hundred 1-day-old chicks were randomly distributed to 30 pens, allocated to 1 of 3 groups receiving different diets: the standard diet containing 35ppm of inorganic zinc sulfate (C+), a test diet containing 35ppm of algae-based zinc (T+), and a test diet containing half dose (16ppm) of algae-based zinc (T-). Three different feeds were distributed from D0-D11, D11-D21 and D21-D35. Individual weighing of the animals (D21 and D35), feed consumption (D11, D21 and D35) and pododermatitis occurrence (D35) were monitored. Data were submitted to analysis of variance. Results show that in finishing period the ADWG of the T+ and T- groups are significantly higher than the control C+ (+6%, P = 0.03). On the other hand, the FCR for the total period is lower for both the T+ and T- groups than the control C+ (-1.2%, P = 0.04). Pododermatitis scoring also shows less lesions for the test groups with algae-based zinc compared to the control group receiving inorganic one. In the end, this study shows a positive effect of the algae zinc-complex on growth performance of broilers compared to inorganic zinc, both when using full dose (35 ppm) or half dose (16 ppm). The use of algae-zinc complex in the premix shows to be a good alternative to reduce zinc excretion while maintaining performance.
Keywords: algae-zinc complex, broiler performance, organic trace minerals, zinc sulfateProcedia PDF Downloads 171
591 Effect of Zinc Additions on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Mg-3Al Alloy
Authors: Erkan Koç, Mehmet Ünal, Ercan Candan
Abstract:In this study, the effect of zinc content (0.5-3.0 wt.%) in as-cast Mg-3Al alloy which were fabricated with high-purity raw materials towards the microstructure and mechanical properties was studied. Microstructure results showed that increase in zinc content changed the secondary phase distribution of the alloys. Mechanical test results demonstrate that with the increasing Zn addition the enhancement of the hardness value by 29%, ultimate tensile strength by 16% and yield strength by 15% can be achieved as well as decreasing of elongation by 33%. The improvement in mechanical properties for Mg-Al–Zn alloys with increasing Zn content up to 3% of weight may be ascribed to second phase strengthening.
Keywords: magnesium, zinc, mechanical properties, Mg17Al12Procedia PDF Downloads 346
590 The Effect of Aging of ZnO, AZO, and GZO films on the Microstructure and Photoelectric Property
Authors: Zue-Chin Chang
Abstract:RF magnetron sputtering is used on the ceramic targets, each of which contains zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide doped with aluminum (AZO) and zinc oxide doped with gallium (GZO). The XRD analysis showed a preferred orientation along the (002) plane for ZnO, AZO, and GZO films. The AZO film had the best electrical properties; it had the lowest resistivity of 6.6 × 10-4 cm, the best sheet resistance of 2.2 × 10-1 Ω/square, and the highest carrier concentration of 4.3 × 1020 cm-3, as compared to the ZnO and GZO films.
Keywords: aging, films, microstructure, photoelectric propertyProcedia PDF Downloads 386
589 Reduction of Content of Lead and Zinc from Wastewater by Using of Metallurgical Waste
Authors: L. Rozumová, J. Seidlerová
Abstract:The aim of this paper was to study the sorption properties of a blast furnace sludge used as the sorbent. The sorbent was utilized for reduction of content of lead and zinc ions. Sorbent utilized in this work was obtained from metallurgical industry from process of wet gas treatment in iron production. The blast furnace sludge was characterized by X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and XRFS spectroscopy. Sorption experiments were conducted in batch mode. The sorption of metal ions in the sludge was determined by correlation of adsorption isotherm models. The adsorption of lead and zinc ions was best fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacity of lead and zinc ions was 53.8 mg.g-1 and 10.7 mg.g-1, respectively. The results indicated that blast furnace sludge could be effectively used as secondary material and could be also employed as a low-cost alternative for the removal of heavy metals ions from wastewater.
Keywords: blast furnace sludge, lead, zinc, sorptionProcedia PDF Downloads 224
588 The Microstructure of Aging ZnO, AZO, and GZO Films
Authors: Zue Chin Chang, Shih-Chang Liang
Abstract:RF magnetron sputtering is used on the ceramic targets, each of which contains zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide doped with aluminum (AZO) and zinc oxide doped with gallium (GZO). The electric conduction mechanism of the AZO and GZO films came mainly from the Al and Ga, the oxygen vacancies, Zn interstitial atoms, and Al and/or Ga interstitial atoms. AZO and GZO films achieved higher conduction than did ZnO film, it being ion vacant and nonstoichiometric. The XRD analysis showed a preferred orientation along the (002) plane for ZnO, AZO, and GZO films.
Keywords: ZnO, AZO, GZO, doped, sputteringProcedia PDF Downloads 308
587 The Effects of Organic or Inorganic Zinc and Microbial Phytase, Alone or in Combination, on the Performance, Biochemical Parameters and Nutrient Utilization of Broilers Fed a Diet Low in Available Phosphorus
Authors: Mustafa Midilli, Mustafa Salman, Omer Hakan Muglali, Tülay Ögretmen, Sena Cenesiz, Neslihan Ormanci
Abstract:This study examined the effects of zinc (Zn) from different sources and microbial phytase on the broiler performance, biochemical parameters and digestibility of nutrients when they were added to broiler diets containing low available phosphorus. A total of 875, 1-day-old male broilers of the Ross 308 strain were randomly separated into two control groups (positive and negative) and five treatment groups each containing 125 birds; each group was divided into 5 replicates of 25 birds. The positive control (PC) group was fed a diet containing adequate concentration (0.45%) of available phosphorus due to mineral premix (except zinc) and feeds. The negative control (NC) group was fed a basal diet including low concentration (0.30%) of available phosphorus due to mineral premix (except zinc) and feeds. The basal diet was supplemented with 0.30% phosphorus and 500 FTU phytase (PH); 0.30% phosphorus and organic zinc (OZ; 75mg/kg of Zn from Zn-proteinate); 0.30% phosphorus and inorganic zinc (IZ; 75 mg/kg of Zn from ZnSO4); 0.30% phosphorus, organic zinc and 500 FTU phytase (OZ + PH); and 0.30% phosphorus, inorganic zinc and 500 FTU phytase (IZ + PH) in the treatment groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. The lowest value for mean body weight was in the negative control group on a diet containing low available phosphorus. The use of supplementation with organic and inorganic zinc alone or in combination with microbial phytase significantly (P<0.05) increased the digestibility of Zn in the male broilers. Supplementation of those diets with OZ + PH or IZ + PH was very effective for increasing the body weight, body weight gain and the feed conversion ratio. In conclusion, the effects on broilers of diets with low phosphorus levels may be overcome by the addition of inorganic or organic zinc compounds in combination with microbial phytase.
Keywords: broiler, performance, phytase, phosphorus, zincProcedia PDF Downloads 369
586 Zinc Oxid Nanotubes Modified by SiO2 as a Recyclable Catalyst for the Synthesis of 2,3-Dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-Ones
Authors: Rakhshan Hakimelahi
Abstract:In recent years, zinc oxid nano tubes have attracted much attention. The direct use of zinc oxid nano tubes modified by SiO2 as recoverable catalysts for organic reactions is very rare. The catalysts were characterized by XRD. The average particle size of ZnO catalysts is 57 nm and there are high density defects on nano tubes surfaces. A simple and efficient method for the quinazolin derivatives synthesis from the condensation isatoic anhydride and an aromatic aldehyde with ammonium acetate in the presence of a catalytic amount zinc oxid nano tubes modified by SiO2 is described. The reason proposed for higher catalytic activity of zinc oxid nano tubes modified by SiO2 is a combination effect of the small particle size and high-density surface defects. The practical and simple method led to excellent yields of the 2,3-Di hydro quinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives under mild conditions and within short times.
Keywords: 2, 3-Dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives, reusable catalyst, SiO2, zinc oxid nanotubesProcedia PDF Downloads 321
585 Effect of Doping on Band Gap of Zinc Oxide and Degradation of Methylene Blue and Industrial Effluent
Authors: V. P. Borker, K. S. Rane, A. J. Bhobe, R. S. Karmali
Abstract:Effluent of dye industries contains chemicals and organic dyes. Sometimes they are thrown in the water bodies without any treatment. This leads to environmental pollution and is detrimental to flora and fauna. Semiconducting oxide zinc oxide with wide bandgap 3.37 eV is used as a photocatalyst in degrading organic dyes using UV radiations. It generates electron-hole pair on exposure to UV light. If degradation is aimed at solar radiations, bandgap of zinc oxide is to be reduced so as to utilize visible radiation. Thus, in present study, zinc oxide, ZnO is synthesized from zinc oxalate, N doped zinc oxide, ZnO₁₋ₓNₓ from hydrazinated zinc oxalate, cadmium doped zinc oxide Zn₀.₉Cd₀.₁₀ and magnesium-doped zinc oxide Zn₀.₉Mg₀.₁₀ from mixed metal oxalate and hydrazinated mixed metal oxalate. The precursors were characterized by FTIR. They were decomposed to form oxides and XRD were recorded. The compounds were monophasic. Bandgap was calculated using Diffuse Reflectance Spectrum. The bandgap of ZnO was reduced to 3.24 because of precursor method of synthesis leading large surface area. The bandgap of Zn₀.₉Cd₀.₁₀ was 3.11 eV and that of Zn₀.₉Mg₀.₁₀ 3.41 eV. The lowest value was of ZnO₁₋ₓNₓ 3.09 eV. These oxides were used to degrade methylene blue, a model dye in sunlight. ZnO₁₋ₓNₓ was also used to degrade effluent of industry manufacturing colours, crayons and markers. It was observed that ZnO₁₋ₓNₓ acts as a good photocatalyst for degradation of methylene blue. It can degrade the solution within 120 minutes. Similarly, diluted effluent was decolourised using this oxide. Some colours were degraded using ZnO. Thus, the use of these two oxides could mineralize effluent. Lesser bandgap leads to more electro hole pair thus helps in the formation of hydroxyl ion radicals. These radicals attack the dye molecule, fragmentation takes place and it is mineralised.
Keywords: cadmium doped zinc oxide, dye degradation, dye effluent degradation, N doped zinc oxide, zinc oxideProcedia PDF Downloads 99
584 Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles along with Sodium Hydroxide on Self-Cleaning and Antibacterial Properties of Polyethylene Terephthalate
Authors: Mohammad Mirjalili, Maryam Mohammdi, Loghman Karimi
Abstract:In this study, synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles was carried out along with the hydrolysis of Polyethylene terephthalate using sodium hydroxide to increase the surface activity and enhance the nanoparticles adsorption. The polyester fabrics were treated with zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide at ultrasound bath, resulting in the formation of ZnO nanospheres. The presence of zinc oxide on the surface of the polyethylene terephthalate was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The self-cleaning property of treated polyethylene terephthalate was evaluated through discoloring methylene blue stain under sunlight irradiation. The antibacterial activities of the samples against two common pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were also assessed. The results indicated that the photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of the ultrasound treated polyethylene terephthalate improved significantly.
Keywords: zinc oxide, polyethylene terephthalate, self-cleaning, antibacterialProcedia PDF Downloads 254
583 Ferrites of the MeFe2O4 System (Me – Zn, Cu, Cd) and Their Two Faces
Authors: B. S. Boyanov, A. B. Peltekov, K. I. Ivanov
Abstract:The ferrites of Zn, Cd, Cu, and mixed ferrites with NiO, MnO, MgO, CoO, ZnO, BaO combine the properties of dielectrics, semiconductors, ferro-magnets, catalysts, etc. The ferrites are used in an impressive range of applications due to their remarkable properties. A specific disadvantage of ferrites is that they are undesirably obtained in a lot of processes connected with metal production. They are very stable and poorly soluble compounds. The obtained ZnFe2O4 in zinc production connecting about 15% of the total zinc remains practically insoluble in dilute solutions of sulfuric acid. This decreases the degree of recovery of zinc and necessitates to further process the zinc-containing cake. In this context, the ferrites; ZnFe2O4, CdFe2O4, and CuFe2O4 are synthesized in laboratory conditions using ceramic technology. Their homogeneity and structure are proven by X-Ray diffraction analysis and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The synthesized ferrites are subjected to strong acid and high temperature leaching with solutions of H2SO4, HCl, and HNO3 (7, 10 and 15 %). The results indicate that the highest degree of leaching of Zn, Cd, and Cu from the ferrites is achieved by use of HCl. The resulting values for the degree of leaching of metals using H2SO4 are lower, but still remain significantly higher for all of the experimental conditions compared to the values obtained using HNO3. Five zinc sulfide concentrates are characterized for iron content by chemical analysis, Web-based Information System, and iron phases by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The charging was optimized using the criterion of minimal amount of zinc ferrite produced when roasting the concentrates in a fluidized bed. The results obtained are interpreted in terms of the hydrometallurgical zinc production and maximum recovery of zinc, copper and cadmium from initial zinc sulfide concentrates after their roasting.
Keywords: hydrometallurgy, inorganic acids, solubility, zinc ferriteProcedia PDF Downloads 383
582 Investigation of Zinc Corrosion in Tropical Soil Solution
Authors: M. Lebrini, L. Salhi, C. Deyrat, C. Roos, O. Nait-Rabah
Abstract:The paper presents a large experimental study on the corrosion of zinc in tropical soil and in the ground water at the various depths. Through this study, the corrosion rate prediction was done on the basis of two methods the electrochemical method and the gravimetric. The electrochemical results showed that the corrosion rate is more important at the depth levels 0 m to 0.5 m and 0.5 m to 1 m and beyond these depth levels, the corrosion rate is less important. The electrochemical results indicated also that a passive layer is formed on the zinc surface. The found SEM and EDX micrographs displayed that the surface is extremely attacked and confirmed that a zinc oxide layer is present on the surface whose thickness and relief increase as the contact with soil increases.
Keywords: soil corrosion, galvanized steel, electrochemical technique, SEM and EDXProcedia PDF Downloads 52