Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: ferroelectricity

8 Study of the Hysteretic I-V Characteristics in a Polystyrene/ZnO-Nanorods Stack Layer

Authors: You-Lin Wu, Yi-Hsing Sung, Shih-Hung Lin, Jing-Jenn Lin


Performance improvement in optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and photodetectors has been reported when a polymer/ZnO nanorods stack is used. Resistance switching of polymer/ZnO nanocrystals (or nanorods) hybrid has also gained a lot of research interests recently. It has been reported that high- and low-resistance states of a metal/insulator/metal (MIM) structure diode with a polystyrene (PS) and ZnO hybrid as the insulator layer can be switched by applied bias after a high-voltage forming process, while the same device structure merely with a PS layer does not show any forming behavior. In this work, we investigated the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of an MIM device with a PS/ZnO nanorods stack deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate. The ZnO nanorods were grown by a hydrothermal method using a mixture of zinc nitrate, hexamethylenetetramine, and DI water. Following that, a PS layer was deposited by spin coating. Finally, the device with a structure of Ti/ PS/ZnO nanorods/FTO was completed by e-gun evaporated Ti layer on top of the PS layer. Semiconductor parameters analyzer Agilent 4156C was then used to measure the I-V characteristics of the device by applying linear ramp sweep voltage with sweep sequence of 0V → 4V → 0V → 3V → 0V → 2V → 0V → 1V → 0V in both positive and negative directions. It is interesting to find that the I-V characteristics are bias dependent and hysteretic, indicating that the device Ti/PS/ZnO nanorods/FTO structure has ferroelectricity. Our results also show that the maximum hysteresis loop height of the I-V characteristics as well as the voltage at which the maximum hysteresis loop height of each scan occurs increase with increasing maximum sweep voltage. It should be noticed that, although ferroelectricity has been found in ZnO at its melting temperature (1975℃) and in Li- or Co-doped ZnO, neither PS nor ZnO has ferroelectricity at room temperature. Using the same structure but with a PS or ZnO layer only as the insulator does not give and hysteretic I-V characteristics. It is believed that a charge polarization layer is induced near the PS/ZnO nanorods stack interface and thus causes the ferroelectricity in the device with Ti/PS/ZnO nanorods/FTO structure. Our results show that the PS/ZnO stack can find a potential application in a resistive switching memory device with MIM structure.

Keywords: ferroelectricity, hysteresis, polystyrene, resistance switching, ZnO nanorods

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7 Structural, Optical, And Ferroelectric Properties Of BaTiO3 Sintered At Different Temperatures

Authors: Anurag Gaur, Neha Sharma


In this work, we have synthesized BaTiO3 via sol gel method by sintering at different temperatures (600-1000 0C) and studied their structural, optical and ferroelectric properties through X-Ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectrophotometer and PE Loop Tracer. X-Ray diffraction patterns of barium titanate samples show that the peaks of the diffractogram are successfully indexed with the tetragonal structure of BaTiO3 along with some minor impurities of BaCO3. The optical band gap calculated through UV Visible spectrophotometer varies from 4.37 to 3.80 eV for the samples sintered at 600 to 1000 0 C, respectively. The particle size calculated through transmission electron microscopy varies from 20 to 60 nm for the samples sintered at 600 to 1000 0C, respectively. Moreover, it has been observed that the ferroelectricity reduces as we increase the sintering temperature.

Keywords: nanostructures, ferroelectricity, sol-gel method, diffractogram

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6 Ferroelectricity in Nano-Composite Films of Sodium Nitrite: Starch Prepared by Drop Cast Technique

Authors: Navneet Dabra, Baljinder Kaur, Lakhbir Singh, V. Annapu Reddy, R. Nath, Dae-Yong Jeong, Jasbir S. Hundal


Nano-composite films of sodium nitrite (NaNO2): Starch with different proportions of NaNO2 and Starch have been prepared by drop cast technique. The ferroelectric hysteresis loops (P-V) have been traced using modified Sawyar-Tower circuit. The films containing equal proportions of NaNO2 and Starch exhibit optimized ferroelectric properties. The stability of the remanent polarization, Pr in the optimized nano-composite films exhibit improved stability over the pure NaNO2 films. The Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has been employed to investigate the surface morphology. AFM images clearly reveal the nano sized particles of NaNO2 dispersed in starch with small value of surface roughness.

Keywords: ferroelectricity, nano-composite films, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), nano composite film

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5 Direct Measurements of the Electrocaloric Effect in Solid Ferroelectric Materials via Thermoreflectance

Authors: Layla Farhat, Mathieu Bardoux, Stéphane Longuemart, Ziad Herro, Abdelhak Hadj Sahraoui


Electrocaloric (EC) effect refers to the isothermal entropy or adiabatic temperature changes of a dielectric material induced by an external electric field. This phenomenon has been largely ignored for application because only modest EC effects (2.6

Keywords: electrocaloric effect, thermoreflectance, ferroelectricity, cooling system

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4 Si Doped HfO₂ Anti-Ferroelectric Thin Films for Energy Storage and Solid State Cooling Applications

Authors: Faizan Ali, Dayu Zhou, Xiaohua Liu, Tony Schenk, Johannes Muller, Uwe Schroeder


Recently, the ferroelectricity (FE) and anti-ferroelectricity (AFE) introduced in so-called 'high-k dielectric' HfO₂ material incorporated with various dopants (Si, Gd, Y, Sr, Gd, Al, and La, etc.), HfO₂-ZrO₂ solid-solution, Al or Si-doped Hf₀.₅Zr₀.₅O₂ and even undoped HfO₂ thin films. The origin of FE property was attributed to the formation of a non-centrosymmetric orthorhombic (o) phase of space group Pbc2₁. To the author’s best knowledge, AFE property was observed only in HfO₂ doped with a certain amount of Si, Al, HfₓZr₁₋ₓO₂ (0 ≤ x < 0.5), and in Si or Al-doped Hf₀.₅Zr₀.₅O₂. The origin of the anti-ferroelectric behavior is an electric field induced phase transition between the non-polar tetragonal (t) and the polar ferroelectric orthorhombic (o) phase. Compared with the significant amount of studies for the FE properties in the context of non-volatile memories, AFE properties of HfO₂-based and HfₓZr₁₋ₓO₂ (HZO) thin films have just received attention recently for energy-related applications such as electrocaloric cooling, pyroelectric energy harvesting, and electrostatic energy storage. In this work, energy storage and solid state cooling properties of Si-doped HfO₂ AFE thin films are investigated. Owing to the high field-induced polarization and slim double hysteresis, an extremely large Energy storage density (ESD) value of 61.2 J cm⁻³ is achieved at 4.5 MV cm⁻¹ with high efficiency of ~65%. In addition, the ESD and efficiency exhibit robust thermal stability in 210-400 K temperature range and excellent endurance up to 10⁹ times of charge/discharge cycling at a very high electric field of 4.0 MV cm⁻¹. Similarly, for solid-state cooling, the maximum adiabatic temperature change (

Keywords: thin films, energy storage, endurance, solid state cooling, anti-ferroelectric

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3 Ferroelectricity in Fused Potassium Nitrate-Polymer Composite Films

Authors: Navneet Dabra, Baljinder Kaur, Lakhbir Singh, V. Annapu Reddy, R. Nath, Dae-Yong Jeong, Jasbir S. Hundal


The ferroelectric properties of fused potassium nitrate (KNO3)- polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite films have been investigated. The composite films of KNO3-PVA have been prepared by solvant cast technique and then fused over the brass substrate. The ferroelectric hysteresis loops (P-E) have been obtained at room temperature using modified Sawyer-Tower circuit. Percentage of back switching and differential dielectric constant has been derived from P-V loops. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies confirm the formation of ferroelectric phase (phase III) in these composite films. The AFM and FE-SEM studies have been used to study the surface morphology of these composite films. The values of remanemt polarization, coercive field, back switching, crystallite size, lattice parameters, and surface roughness have been estimated and correlated.

Keywords: ferroelectric polymer composite, remanemt polarization, back switching, crystallite size, lattice parameters and surface roughness

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2 Characterization of Electrical Transport across Ultra-Thin SrTiO₃ and BaTiO₃ Barriers in Tunnel Junctions

Authors: Henry Navarro, Martin Sirena, Nestor Haberkorn


We report the electrical transport through voltage-current curves (I-V) in tunnels junction GdBa₂Cu₃O₇-d/ insulator/ GdBa₂Cu₃O₇-d, and Nb/insulator/ GdBa₂Cu₃O₇-d is analyzed using a conducting atomic force microscope (CAFM) at room temperature. The measurements were obtained on tunnel junctions with different areas (900 μm², 400 μm² and 100 μm²). Trilayers with GdBa₂Cu₃O₇-d (GBCO) as the bottom electrode, SrTiO₃ (STO) or BaTiO₃ (BTO) as the insulator barrier (thicknesses between 1.6 nm and 4 nm), and GBCO or Nb as the top electrode were grown by DC sputtering on (100) SrTiO₃ substrates. For STO and BTO barriers, asymmetric IV curves at positive and negative polarization can be obtained using electrodes with different work function. The main difference is that the BTO is a ferroelectric material, while in the STO the ferroelectricity can be produced by stress or deformation at the interfaces. In addition, hysteretic IV curves are obtained for BTO barriers, which can be ascribed to a combined effect of the FE reversal switching polarization and an oxygen vacancy migration. For GBCO/ BTO/ GBCO heterostructures, the IV curves correspond to that expected for asymmetric interfaces, which indicates that the disorder affects differently the properties at the bottom and top interfaces. Our results show the role of the interface disorder on the electrical transport of conducting/ insulator/ conduction heterostructures, which is relevant for different applications, going from resistive switching memories (at room temperature) to Josephson junctions (at low temperatures). The superconducting transition of the GBCO electrode was characterized by electrical transport using the 4-prong configuration with low density of topological defects and with Tc over liquid N₂ can be obtained for thicknesses of 16 nm, our results demonstrate that GBCO films with an average root-mean-square (RMS) smaller than 1 nm and areas (up 100 um²) free of 3-D topological defects can be obtained.

Keywords: thin film, sputtering, conductive atomic force microscopy, tunnel junctions

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1 Oxide Based Memristor and Its Potential Application in Analog-Digital Electronics

Authors: P. Michael Preetam Raj, Souri Banerjee, Souvik Kundu


Oxide based memristors were fabricated in order to establish its potential applications in analog/digital electronics. BaTiO₃-BiFeO₃ (BT-BFO) was employed as an active material, whereas platinum (Pt) and Nb-doped SrTiO₃ (Nb:STO) were served as a top and bottom electrodes, respectively. Piezoelectric force microscopy (PFM) was utilized to present the ferroelectricity and repeatable polarization inversion in the BT-BFO, demonstrating its effectiveness for resistive switching. The fabricated memristors exhibited excellent electrical characteristics, such as hysteresis current-voltage (I-V), high on/off ratio, high retention time, cyclic endurance, and low operating voltages. The band-alignment between the active material BT-BFO and the substrate Nb:STO was experimentally investigated using X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and it attributed to staggered heterojunction alignment. An energy band diagram was proposed in order to understand the electrical transport in BT-BFO/Nb:STO heterojunction. It was identified that the I-V curves of these memristors have several discontinuities. Curve fitting technique was utilized to analyse the I-V characteristic, and the obtained I-V equations were found to be parabolic. Utilizing this analysis, a non-linear BT-BFO memristors equivalent circuit model was developed. Interestingly, the obtained equivalent circuit of the BT-BFO memristors mimics the identical electrical performance, those obtained in the fabricated devices. Based on the developed equivalent circuit, a finite state machine (FSM) design was proposed. Efforts were devoted to fabricate the same FSM, and the results were well matched with those in the simulated FSM devices. Its multilevel noise filtering and immunity to external noise characteristics were also studied. Further, the feature of variable negative resistance was established by controlling the current through the memristor.

Keywords: band alignment, finite state machine, polarization inversion, resistive switching

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