Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 367

Search results for: abundance

367 The Abundance and Distribution of Locally Important Species Along Different Altitude: The Case of Mountain Damota, Wolaita South Ethiopia

Authors: Tamirat Solomon, Tadesse Faltamo, Belete Limani

Abstract:

This study was conducted on the mountain Damota of Wolaita to assess the abundance and spatial distribution of two locally important indigenous medicinal plants on the mountain landscape. A total of 130 plots measuring 20x20m were established along eight systematically laid transect lines. In each plot, the abundance and distribution of Hagenia abyssinica (tree) and Pentas schiperiana Vatke (shrub) were evaluated. The abundance and distribution of H. abyssinica were evaluated by measuring height and DBH for mature trees and counting seedlings and saplings, whereas the P. schiperiana Vatke was assessed for its abundance and distribution by counting in each plot. In the entire study plots, a total of 485 H. abyssinica and 760 P. schiperiana vatake were recorded. It was observed that the distribution of the species increased while the altitude increased and the highest abundance of the species was recorded at an altitude range between 2332 and 2661m.a.s.l. However, at the altitudes below 2320 m.a.s.l., the species distributions and abundance was decreased, indicating either the ecological preference of the species or the extraction of the local community surrounding the mountain influenced the species. On average, only 28 seedlings/ha of H. abyssinica and 146/ha of P. schiperiana vatke were recorded in the study areas showing the tendency of decline in the abundance and distribution of both species. Finally, we recommend management intervention for the socially important species which are under threat on the mountain landscape.

Keywords: indigenous medicinal plants, H.abyssinic, P. schiperiana, distribution, abundance, socio-economic importance

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366 Major Sucking Pests of Rose and Their Seasonal Abundance in Bangladesh

Authors: Md Ruhul Amin

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This study was conducted in the experimental field of the Department of Entomology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh during November 2017 to May 2018 with a view to understanding the seasonal abundance of the major sucking pests namely thrips, aphid and red spider mite on rose. The findings showed that the thrips started to build up their population from the middle of January with abundance 1.0 leaf⁻¹, increased continuously, reached to the peak level (2.6 leaf⁻¹) in the middle of February and then declined. Aphid started to build up their population from the second week of November with abundance 6.0 leaf⁻¹, increased continuously, reached to the peak level (8.4 leaf⁻¹) in the last week of December and then declined. Mite started to build up their population from the first week of December with abundance 0.8 leaf⁻¹, increased continuously, reached to the peak level (8.2 leaf⁻¹) in the second week of March and then declined. Thrips and mite prevailed until the last week of April, and aphid showed their abundance till last week of May. The daily mean temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall had an insignificant negative correlation with thrips and significant negative correlation with aphid abundance. The daily mean temperature had significant positive, relative humidity had an insignificant positive, and rainfall had an insignificant negative correlation with mite abundance. The multiple linear regression analysis showed that the weather parameters together contributed 38.1, 41.0 and 8.9% abundance on thrips, aphid and mite on rose, respectively and the equations were insignificant.

Keywords: aphid, mite, thrips, weather factors

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365 Examining the Role of Soil pH on the Composition and Abundance of Nitrite Oxidising Bacteria

Authors: Mansur Abdulrasheed, Hussein I. Ibrahim, Ahmed F. Umar

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Nitrification, the microbial oxidation of ammonia to nitrate (NO3-) via nitrite (NO2-) is a vital process in the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle and is performed by two distinct functional groups; ammonia oxidisers (comprised of ammonia oxidising bacteria (AOB) and ammonia oxidising archaea (AOA)) and nitrite oxidising bacteria. Autotrophic nitrification is said to occur in acidic soils, even though most laboratory cultures of isolated ammonia and nitrite oxidising bacteria fail to grow below neutral pH. Published studies revealed that soil pH is a major driver for determining the distribution and abundance of AOB and AOA. To determine whether distinct populations of nitrite oxidising bacteria within the lineages of Nitrospira and Nitrobacter are adapted to a particular range of pH as observed in ammonia oxidising organisms, the community structure of Nitrospira-like and Nitrobacter-like NOB were examined across a pH gradient (4.5–7.5) by amplifying nitrite oxido-reductase (nxrA) and 16S rRNA genes followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The community structure of both Nitrospira and Nitrobacter changed with soil pH, with distinct populations observed in acidic and neutral soils. The abundance of Nitrospira-like 16S rRNA and Nitrobacter-like nxrA gene copies contrasted across the pH gradient. Nitrobacter-like nxrA gene abundance decreased with increasing soil pH, whereas Nitrospira-like 16S rRNA gene abundance increased with increasing pH. Findings indicated that abundance and distributions of soil NOB is influence by soil pH.

Keywords: nitrospira, nitrobacter, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, nitrification, pH, soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
364 Influence of Physicochemical Water Quality Parameters on Abundance of Aquatic Insects in Rivers of Perak, Malaysia

Authors: Nur Atirah Hasmi, Nadia Nisha Musa, Hasnun Nita Ismail, Zulfadli Mahfodz

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The effect of water quality parameters on the abundance of aquatic insects has been studied in Batu Berangkai, Dipang, Kuala Woh and Lata Kinjang Rivers, Perak, northern peninsular Malaysia. The focuses are to compare the abundance of aquatic insects in each sampling areas and to investigate the physical and chemical factors (water temperature, depth of water, canopy, water velocity, pH value, and dissolved oxygen) on the abundance of aquatic insects. The samples and data were collected by using aquatic net and multi-probe parameter. Physical parameters; water velocity, water temperature, depth, canopy cover, and two chemical parameters; pH value and dissolved oxygen have been measured in situ and recorded. A total of 631 individuals classified into 6 orders and 18 families of aquatic insects were identified from four sampling sites. The largest percentage of samples collected is from order Plecoptera 35.8%, followed by Ephemeroptera 32.6%, Trichoptera 17.0%, Hemiptera 8.1%, Coleoptera 4.8%, and the least is Odonata 1.7%. The aquatic insects collected from Dipang River have the highest abundance of 273 individuals from 6 orders and 13 families and the least insects trapped at Lata Kinjang which only have 64 individuals from 5 orders and 6 families. There is significant association between different sampling areas and abundance of aquatic insects (p<0.05). High abundance of aquatic insects was found in higher water temperature, low water velocity, deeper water, low pH, high amount of dissolved oxygen, and the area that is not covered by canopy.

Keywords: aquatic insect, physicochemical parameter, river, water quality

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363 Alterations in the Abundance of Ruminal Microbial Species during the Peripartal Period in Dairy Cows

Authors: S. Alqarni, J. C. McCann, A. Palladino, J. J. Loor

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Seven fistulated Holstein cows were used from 3 weeks prepartum to 4 weeks postpartum to determine the relative abundance of 7 different species of ruminal microorganisms. The prepartum diet was based on corn silage. In the postpartum, diet included ground corn, grain by-products, and alfalfa haylage. Ruminal digesta were collected at five times: -14, -7, 10, 20, and 28 days around parturition. Total DNA from ruminal digesta was isolated and real-time quantitative PCR was used to determine the relative abundance of bacterial species. Eubacterium ruminantium and Selenomonas ruminantium were not affected by time (P>0.05). Megasphaera elsdenii and Prevotella bryantii increased significantly postpartum (P<0.001). Conversely, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus decreased gradually from -14 through 28 days (P<0.001). Fibrobacter succinogenes was affected by time being lowest at day 10 (P=0.02) while Anaerovibrio lipolytica recorded the lowest abundance at -7 d followed by an increase by 20 days postpartum (P<0.001). Overall, these results indicate that changes in diet after parturition affect the abundance of ruminal bacteria, particularly M. elsdenii (a lactate-utilizing bacteria) and P. bryantii (a starch-degrading bacteria) which increased markedly after parturition likely as a consequence of a higher concentrate intake.

Keywords: rumen bacteria, transition cows, rumen metabolism, peripartal period

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362 Diversity and Distribution of Benthic Invertebrates in the West Port, Malaysia

Authors: Seyedeh Belin Tavakoly Sany, Rosli Hashim, Majid Rezayi, Aishah Salleh, Omid Safari

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The purpose of this paper is to describe the main characteristics of macroinvertebrate species in response to environmental forcing factors. Overall, 23 species of Mollusca, 4 species of Arthropods, 3 species of Echinodermata and 3 species of Annelida were identified at the 9 sampling stations during four sampling periods. Individual species of Mollusca constituted 36.4% of the total abundance, followed by Arthropods (27.01%), Annelida (34.3%) and Echinodermata (2.4%). The results of Kruskal-Wallis test indicated that a significant difference (p <0.05) in the abundance, richness and diversity of the macro-benthic community in different stations. The correlation analysis revealed that anthropogenic pollution and natural variability caused by these variations in spatial scales.

Keywords: benthic invertebrates, diversity, abundance, West Port

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
361 Insects and Meteorological Inventories in a Mango-Based Agroforestry System in Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Ruhul Amin, Shakura Namni, Md. Ramiz Uddin Miah, Md. Giashuddin Miah, Mohammad Zakaria, Sang Jae Suh, Yong Jung Kwon

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Insect species abundance and diversity associated with meteorological factors during January to June 2013 at a mango-based agroforestry research field in Bangladesh, and the effects of pests and pollinator species on mango are presented in this study. Among the collected and identified insects, nine species belong to 3 orders were found as pollinator, 11 species in 5 orders as pest, and 13 species in 6 orders as predator. The mango hopper, fruit fly and stone weevil appeared as major pest because of their high levels of abundance and infestation. The hoppers caused 100% inflorescence damage followed by fruit fly (51.7% fruit) and stone weevil (31.0% mature fruit). The major pests exerted significantly higher abundance compared to pollinator, predator and minor pests. Hemipteroid insects were most abundant (60%) followed by Diptera (21%), Hymenoptera (10%), Lepidoptera (5%), and Coleoptera (4%). Insect population increased with increasing trend of temperature and humidity, and revealed peak abundance during April-May. The flower visiting insects differed in their landing duration and showed preference to forage with time of a day. Their foraging activity was found to be peaked between 11.00 am to 01.00 pm. The activity of the pollinators led to higher level of fruit set. This study provides baseline information about the phenological patterns of insect abundance in an agroforestry research field which could be an indication to incorporate some aspects of pest management.

Keywords: agroforestry, abundance, abiotic factors, insects, mango

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360 A Faunistic Study of Syrphidae Flowerflies in Alfalfa Fields of North of Khouzestan, Iran

Authors: Zahra Safaeian, Shila Goldasteh, Rouhollah Radjabi

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Flowerflies of Syrphidae family is one of the largest families among the Diptera order that due to predatory habit of some species in larva stage has an important role for controlling aphids of the fields. In the present study, flowerflies fauna in the alfalfa fields of the north of Khouzestan were studied during 2012-2013. The species of the family were collected using appropriate methods including insect collecting sweeping net and Malaise traps. According to the fact that the shape of male genitalia in the male insect is important in identification of these species the male genitalia was separated from the body and microscopical slide was prepared then species identification was done considering the male genitalia, the patterns and figures on the abdomen and using available keys. Based on the finding four species of Sphaerophoria scripta, Sphaerophoria turkmenica, Melanostoma mellinu, Sphaerophoria ruppelli were collected and according to the abundance frequency of the collected species the most abundance was related to Sphaerophoria scripta, then Sphaerophoria turkmenica had the most abundance and the least abundance was related to Sphaerophoria ruppelli.

Keywords: syrphidae, fauna, alfalfa, Iran

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359 Spatial Interactions Between Earthworm Abundance and Tree Growth Characteristics in Western Niger Delta

Authors: Olatunde Sunday Eludoyin, Charles Obiechina Olisa

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The study examined the spatial interactions between earthworm abundance (EA) and tree growth characteristics in ecological belts of Western Niger Delta, Nigeria. Eight 20m x 20m quadrat were delimited in the natural vegetation in each of the rainforest (RF), mangrove (M), fresh water swamp (FWS), and guinea savanna (GS) ecological belts to gather data about the tree species (TS) characteristics which included individual number of tree species (IN), diversity (Di), density (De) and richness (Ri). Three quadrats of 1m x 1m were delineated in each of the 20m x 20m quadrats to collect earthworm species the topsoil (0-15cm), and subsoil (15-30cm) and were taken to laboratory for further analysis. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Findings showed that a total of 19 earthworm species was found, with 58.5% individual species recorded in the topsoil and 41.5% recorded in the subsoil. The total population ofEudriliuseugeniae was predominantly highest in both topsoil (38.4%) and subsoil (27.1%). The total population of individual species of earthworm was least in GS in the topsoil (11.9%) and subsoil (8.4%). A total of 40 different species of TS was recorded, of which 55.5% were recorded in FWS, while RF was significantly highest in the species diversity(0.5971). Regression analysis revealed that Ri, IN, DBH, Di, and De of trees explained 65.9% of the variability of EA in the topsoil, while 46.9 % of the variability of earthworm abundance was explained by the floristic parameters in the subsoil.Similarly, correlation statistics revealed that in the topsoil, EA is positively and significantly correlated with Ri (r=0.35; p<0.05), IN (r=0.523; p<0.05) and De (r=0.469; p<0.05) while DBH was negatively and significantly correlated with earthworm abundance (r=-0.437; p<0.05). In the subsoil, only Ri and DBH correlated significantly with EA. The study concluded that EA in the study locations was highly influenced by tree growth species especially Ri, IN, DBH, Di, and De. The study recommended that the TSabundance should be improved in the study locations to ensure the survival of earthworms for ecosystem functions.

Keywords: interactions, earthworm abundance, tree growth, ecological zones, western niger delta

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358 The Fate of Plastic Debris and Microplastic Particles in Mangroves in the Sultanate of Oman

Authors: Muna Al-tarshi

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The distribution and accumulation dynamics of anthropogenic marine debris (AMD) and microplastic particles in mangrove habitats in the region are poorly understood. The abundance, sorting, and diversity aspects of AMD and microplastics were investigated in three types of mangroves creeks ( Natural mangrove, afforested mangrove, and non-planted). Abundance, concentration, and particles form of microplastics have been illustrated in three substrate in mangrove habitats e.g. sediment, water, and aquatic organisms. Density separation method by using highly saturated solution was implemented to extract the plastic particles from the sediment samples. The average size of particles in each transect was done using image software, and the polymer type was determined via FTIR. There was variability in abundance of microplastics and marine debris between the habitats and within the substrates in the habitats.Biomonitoring program was developed to detect the pollution of microplastics in mangrove habitats in Sultanate of Oman. Sediment dwelling species were the best choice. Testing whether the zooplankton (Artemia) eating the microplastics via FlowCam technique have been studied. The zooplanktons (Artemia) were eating the microplastics as mistaken food.

Keywords: microplastics, marine debris, flowcam, FTIR, polymer, artemia

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357 Diversity and Structure of Trichoptera Communities and Water Quality Variables in Streams, Northern Thailand

Authors: T. Prommi, P. Thamsenanupap

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The influence of physicochemical water quality parameters on the abundance and diversity of caddisfly larvae was studied in seven sampling stations in Mae Tao and Mae Ku watersheds, Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northern Thailand. The streams: MK2 and MK8 as reference site, and impacted streams (MT1-MT5) were sampled bi-monthly during July 2011 to May 2012. A total of 4,584 individual of caddisfly larvae belonging to 10 family and 17 genera were found. The larvae of family Hydropsychidae were the most abundance, followed by Philopotamidae, Odontoceridae, and Leptoceridae, respectively. The genus Cheumatopsyche, Hydropsyche, and Chimarra were the most abundance genera in this study. Results of CCA ordination showed the total dissolved solids, sulfate, water temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH were the most important physicochemical factors to affect distribution of caddisflies communities. Changes in the caddisfly fauna may indicate changes in physicochemical factors owing to agricultural pollution, urbanization, or other human activities. Results revealed that the order Trichoptera, identified to species or genus, can be potentially used to assess environmental water quality status in freshwater ecosystems.

Keywords: Caddisfly larvae, environmental variables, diversity, streams

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356 Using Hierarchical Modelling to Understand the Role of Plantations in the Abundance of Koalas, Phascolarctos cinereus

Authors: Kita R. Ashman, Anthony R. Rendall, Matthew R. E. Symonds, Desley A. Whisson

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Forest cover is decreasing globally, chiefly due to the conversion of forest to agricultural landscapes. In contrast, the area under plantation forestry is increasing significantly. For wildlife occupying landscapes where native forest is the dominant land cover, plantations generally represent a lower value habitat; however, plantations established on land formerly used for pasture may benefit wildlife by providing temporary forest habitat and increasing connectivity. This study investigates the influence of landscape, site, and climatic factors on koala population density in far south-west Victoria where there has been extensive plantation establishment. We conducted koala surveys and habitat characteristic assessments at 72 sites across three habitat types: plantation, native vegetation blocks, and native vegetation strips. We employed a hierarchical modeling framework for estimating abundance and constructed candidate multinomial N-mixture models to identify factors influencing the abundance of koalas. We detected higher mean koala density in plantation sites (0.85 per ha) than in either native block (0.68 per ha) or native strip sites (0.66 per ha). We found five covariates of koala density and using these variables, we spatially modeled koala abundance and discuss factors that are key in determining large-scale distribution and density of koala populations. We provide a distribution map that can be used to identify high priority areas for population management as well as the habitat of high conservation significance for koalas. This information facilitates the linkage of ecological theory with the on-ground implementation of management actions and may guide conservation planning and resource management actions to consider overall landscape configuration as well as the spatial arrangement of plantations adjacent to the remnant forest.

Keywords: abundance modelling, arboreal mammals plantations, wildlife conservation

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
355 Comparative Study of the Abundance of Winter Nests of the Pine Processionary Caterpillar in Different Forests of Pinus Halepensis, pinus Pinaster, Pinus Pinea and Cedrus Atlantica, in Algeria

Authors: Boudjahem Ibtissem, Aouati Amel

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Thaumetopoea pityocampa is one of the major insect pests of pine forests in Algeria, the Mediterranean region, and central Europe. This pest is responsible for several natural and human damages these last years. The caterpillar can feed itself during the larval stage on several species of pine or cedar. The forests attack by the insect can reduce their resistance against other forest enemies, fires, or drought conditions. In this case, the tree becomes more vulnerable to other pests. To understand the eating behavior of the insect in its ecological conditions, and its nutritional preference, we realized a study of the abundance of winter nests of the pine processionary caterpillar in four different forests: Pinus halepensis; Pinus pinaster; Pinus pinea, and Cedrus atlantica. A count of the sites affected by the processionary caterpillar was carried out on a hundred trees from the forests in different regions in Algeria; Alkala region, Mila region, Annaba region, and Blida region; the total rate and average abundance are calculated for each forest. Ecological parameters are also estimated for each infestation. The results indicated a higher rate of infestation in Pinus halepensis trees (85%) followed by Cedrus atlantica (66%) and Pinus pinaster (50%) trees. The Pinus pinea forest is the least attacked region by the pine processionary caterpillar (23%). The abundance of the pine processionary caterpillar can be influenced by the height of the trees, the climate of the region, the age of the forest but also the quality of needles.

Keywords: Thaumetopoea pityocampa, Pinus halepensis, needles, winter nests

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354 Spacio-Temporal Variation of the Zooplanktonic Community of Esa-Odo Reservoir, Esa-Odo, Osun State, Nigeria

Authors: Helen Yetunde Omoboye, Adebukola Adenike Adedeji, Israel Funso Adeniyi

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This study of the biodiversity, community structure, and production capacity of the zooplankton community is an aspect of bio-monitoring of the aquatic ecosystem. Samples were selected horizontally and vertically from Esa-Odo Reservoir using improvised Meyer’s water sampler. Planktonic samples were collected at two months intervals for two years. Net and total plankton were sampled by filtration and sedimentation methods. Planktonic samples were preserved as 5% formalin and 1% Lugol’s solution. Measurement, enumeration, and scaled pictures of the recorded zooplankton were taken using a photomicrograph. The taxonomic composition of zooplankton biota was determined using identification keys. Eighty three (83) species of zooplankton recorded in this study belong to 4 groups: Rotifera, Cladocera, Copepoda, and Insecta. Rotifera was the most represented group (61.21%). Horizontally, 24 species with the highest mean abundance characterized the lacustrine; while 12 species and 10 species were unique to the transition and riverine zones, respectively. Vertically, most species had their mean abundance decreased from the surface to the bottom of the reservoir. A total of nine (9), two (2), and one (1) species were peculiar to the surface, bottom and mid-depth, respectively. Zooplankton was most abundant during the dry season. In conclusion, Esa-Odo Reservoir comprised highly diversified zooplankton fauna with great potential to support a rich aquatic community and fishery production. The reservoir can be classified as fairly clean based on the abundance of the rotifer group. However, the lake should be subjected to regular proper monitoring because of the presence of some pollution tolerant copepod species identified among the zooplankton fauna.

Keywords: zooplankton, spatial, temporal, abundance, biodiversity, reservoir

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353 Spatial Patterns and Temporal Evolution of Octopus Abundance in the Mauritanian Zone

Authors: Dedah Ahmed Babou, Nicolas Bez

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The Min-Max autocorrelation factor (MAF) approach makes it possible to express in a space formed by spatially independent factors, spatiotemporal observations. These factors are ordered in decreasing order of spatial autocorrelation. The starting observations are thus expressed in the space formed by these factors according to temporal coordinates. Each vector of temporal coefficients expresses the temporal evolution of the weight of the corresponding factor. Applying this approach has enabled us to achieve the following results: (i) Define a spatially orthogonal space in which the projections of the raw data are determined; (ii) Define a limit threshold for the factors with the strongest structures in order to analyze the weight, and the temporal evolution of these different structures (iii) Study the correlation between the temporal evolution of the persistent spatial structures and that of the observed average abundance (iv) Propose prototypes of campaigns reflecting a high vs. low abundance (v) Propose a classification of campaigns that highlights seasonal and/or temporal similarities. These results were obtained by analyzing the octopus yield during the scientific campaigns of the oceanographic vessel Al Awam during the period 1989-2017 in the Mauritanian exclusive economic zone.

Keywords: spatiotemporal , autocorrelation, kriging, variogram, Octopus vulgaris

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352 Composition, Abundance and Diversity of Zooplankton in Sarangani Bay, Sarangani Province, Philippines

Authors: Jeter Canete, Noreen Joyce Estrella, Yedda Sachi Patrice Madelo

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Zooplankton plays a crucial role in aquatic ecosystems and a number of water parameters involved in it. Despite their relevance, there is inadequate information about zooplankton communities in Sarangani Bay, Sarangani Province: one of the most essential waterbodies in Mindanao. The aim of the present study was to determine the composition, abundance, and diversity of zooplankton as well as to provide more recent data about the physico-chemical characteristics of Sarangani Bay. Zooplankton samples were collected by vertical hauls using a zooplankton net (mouth diameter: 0.5m; mesh size opening: round, 350μm) in three stations in the coastal waters of Alabel, Malapatan, and Maasim during November 2018. A total of 74 species of zooplankton belonging mainly to Kingdom Protozoa, Phylum Arthropoda, Chaetognatha, and Chordata were identified. Results showed a total zooplankton abundance of 1,984,166 ind/m³ with the highest count recorded at Malapatan (717,169 ind/m³) and the lowest at Maasim (624,411 ind/m³). Among 22 zooplankton groups identified, subclass Copepoda was found to be the most dominant (73.10%), followed by Appendicularia (12.18%) and Vertebrata (3.54%). Diversity analysis revealed an even distribution of species and a diverse ecosystem in all stations sampled. Correlation analysis indicated a strong relationship between zooplankton abundance and physico-chemical parameters. Overall, the physico-chemical profile of Sarangani Bay did not differ from the standards set by DENR, and analysis of the zooplankton communities revealed that Sarangani Bay favorably supports marine organisms to flourish. The findings of this study provide useful knowledge on zooplankton communities and can be used to create management strategies to protect the aquatic biodiversity in Sarangani Bay.

Keywords: aquatic biomonitoring, biodiversity, physicochemical analysis, population survey, Sarangani Bay, Sarangani Province, zooplankton

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351 Bird Diversity along Boat Touring Routes in Tha Ka Sub-District, Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand

Authors: N. Charoenpokaraj, P. Chitman

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This research aims to study species, abundance, status of birds, the similarities and activity characteristics of birds which reap benefits from the research area in boat touring routes in Tha Ka sub-district, Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand. from October 2012 – September 2013. The data was analyzed to find the abundance, and similarity index of the birds. The results from the survey of birds on all three routes found that there are 33 families and 63 species. Route 3 (traditional coconut sugar making kiln – resort) had the most species; 56 species. There were 18 species of commonly found birds with an abundance level of 5, which calculates to 28.57% of all bird species. In August, 46 species are found, being the greatest number of bird species benefiting from this route. As for the status of the birds, there are 51 resident birds, 7 resident and migratory birds, and 5 migratory birds. On Route 2 and Route 3, the similarity index value is equal to 0.881. The birds are classified by their activity characteristics i.e. insectivore, piscivore, granivore, nectrivore and aquatic invertebrate feeder birds. Some birds also use the area for nesting.

Keywords: bird diversity, boat touring routes, Samut Songkram, similarity index

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350 Temporal Variation of Shorebirds Population in Two Different Mudflats Areas

Authors: N. Norazlimi, R. Ramli

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A study was conducted to determine the diversity and abundance of shorebird species habituating the mudflat area of Jeram Beach and Remis Beach, Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. Direct observation technique (using binoculars and video camera) was applied to record the presence of bird species in the sampling sites from August 2013 until July 2014. A total of 32 species of shorebird were recorded during both migratory and non-migratory seasons. Of these, eleven species (47.8%) are migrants, six species (26.1%) have both migrant and resident populations, four species (17.4%) are vagrants and two species (8.7%) are residents. The compositions of the birds differed significantly in all months (χ2=84.35, p<0.001). There is a significant difference in avian abundance between migratory and non-migratory seasons (Mann-Whitney, t=2.39, p=0.036). The avian abundance were differed significantly in Jeram and Remis Beaches during migratory periods (t=4.39, p=0.001) but not during non-migratory periods (t=0.78, p=0.456). Shorebird diversity was also affected by tidal cycle. There is a significance difference between high tide and low tide (Mann-Whitney, t=78.0, p<0.005). Frequency of disturbance also affected the shorebird distribution (Mann-Whitney, t=57.0, p= 0.0134). Therefore, this study concluded that tides and disturbances are two factors that affecting temporal distribution of shorebird in mudflats area.

Keywords: biodiversity, distribution, migratory birds, direct observation

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349 TAXAPRO, A Streamlined Pipeline to Analyze Shotgun Metagenomes

Authors: Sofia Sehli, Zainab El Ouafi, Casey Eddington, Soumaya Jbara, Kasambula Arthur Shem, Islam El Jaddaoui, Ayorinde Afolayan, Olaitan I. Awe, Allissa Dillman, Hassan Ghazal

Abstract:

The ability to promptly sequence whole genomes at a relatively low cost has revolutionized the way we study the microbiome. Microbiologists are no longer limited to studying what can be grown in a laboratory and instead are given the opportunity to rapidly identify the makeup of microbial communities in a wide variety of environments. Analyzing whole genome sequencing (WGS) data is a complex process that involves multiple moving parts and might be rather unintuitive for scientists that don’t typically work with this type of data. Thus, to help lower the barrier for less-computationally inclined individuals, TAXAPRO was developed at the first Omics Codeathon held virtually by the African Society for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (ASBCB) in June 2021. TAXAPRO is an advanced metagenomics pipeline that accurately assembles organelle genomes from whole-genome sequencing data. TAXAPRO seamlessly combines WGS analysis tools to create a pipeline that automatically processes raw WGS data and presents organism abundance information in both a tabular and graphical format. TAXAPRO was evaluated using COVID-19 patient gut microbiome data. Analysis performed by TAXAPRO demonstrated a high abundance of Clostridia and Bacteroidia genera and a low abundance of Proteobacteria genera relative to others in the gut microbiome of patients hospitalized with COVID-19, consistent with the original findings derived using a different analysis methodology. This provides crucial evidence that the TAXAPRO workflow dispenses reliable organism abundance information overnight without the hassle of performing the analysis manually.

Keywords: metagenomics, shotgun metagenomic sequence analysis, COVID-19, pipeline, bioinformatics

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348 Microplastic Accumulation in Native and Invasive Sea Urchin Populations on Lipsi Island (Aegean Sea)

Authors: Ella Zahra

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Sea urchins are keystone species in many global benthic ecosystems. The concentration of microplastics (MPs) in sea urchin organs was quantified in 120 individuals of 2 different species and from 4 sites across the Greek island Lipsi, with special interest in the differences between the native Arbacia lixula and the invasive Diadema setosum. Over 93% of MPs observed in both species were fibrous. MP abundance was found to correlate with exposure to open sea and harsh prevailing winds, irrespective of proximity to urban activities. The MP abundance in the invasive species was not found to be significantly dependent on site. Interestingly, the smaller native species contained significantly larger sized MPs than the invasive, possibly as a result of a greater feeding rate in A. lixula individuals. Sexually immature urchins may also have a higher feeding rate, giving rise to the negative correlation between gonad index and MPs per individual. The size of MPs ranged from 10µm to 24210µm, heavily skewed towards smaller particles. Few differences in colour were noted between the species and sites. MPs were detected in 100% of the samples with abundance ranging from 19.27 ± 6.77 to 26.83 ± 8.15 items per individual, or 3.55 ± 3.73 to 7.34 ± 10.51 items per gram of wet organ weight. This high value could lead to health risks in East Asia and the Mediterranean, where sea urchin is widely consumed, due to toxins adsorbed to the MPs.

Keywords: microplastics, plastic pollution, invertebrate ecology, invasive marine species

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347 Land Use and Natal Multimammate Mouse Abundance in Lassa Fever Endemic Villages of Eastern Sierra Leone

Authors: J. T. Koininga, J. E. Teigen, A. Wilkinson, D. Kanneh, F. Kanneh, M. Foday, D. S. Grant, M. Leach, L. M. Moses

Abstract:

Lassa fever (LF) is a severe febrile illness endemic to West Africa. While human-to-human transmission occurs, evidence suggests most LF cases originate from exposure to rodents, particularly the Natal multimammate mouse, Mastomys natalensis. Within West Africa, LF occurs primarily in rural communities where agriculture is the main economic activity. Seasonality of LF has also been linked to agricultural cycles, with peak incidence occurring in the dry season when fields are burned and plowed. To investigate this pattern of seasonality, four agricultural communities were selected for this two-year longitudinal study. Each community was to be sampled four times each year, but this was interrupted by the Ebola virus disease outbreak. Agricultural land use, forested, and fallow areas were identified through participatory mapping. Transects were plotted in each area and Sherman traps were set for four nights. Captured small mammals were identified, ear tagged, and released. Mastomys natalensis abundance was found to be highest in areas of converted fallow land and rice swamps in the dry season and upland mixed crop areas toward the onset of the rainy season. All peak times were associated with heavy perturbation of soil. All ages and genders were present during these time points. These results suggest that peak abundance of the Mastomys natalensis in agricultural areas coincides with peak incidence of LF reported in this region. Although contact with rodents may be higher in villages, our study suggests human behaviors in agricultural areas may increase risk of transmission of Lassa virus.

Keywords: agriculture, land use, Lassa Fever, rodent abundance

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346 Virtual Dimension Analysis of Hyperspectral Imaging to Characterize a Mining Sample

Authors: L. Chevez, A. Apaza, J. Rodriguez, R. Puga, H. Loro, Juan Z. Davalos

Abstract:

Virtual Dimension (VD) procedure is used to analyze Hyperspectral Image (HIS) treatment-data in order to estimate the abundance of mineral components of a mining sample. Hyperspectral images coming from reflectance spectra (NIR region) are pre-treated using Standard Normal Variance (SNV) and Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) methodologies. The endmember components are identified by the Simplex Growing Algorithm (SVG) and after adjusted to the reflectance spectra of reference-databases using Simulated Annealing (SA) methodology. The obtained abundance of minerals of the sample studied is very near to the ones obtained using XRD with a total relative error of 2%.

Keywords: hyperspectral imaging, minimum noise fraction, MNF, simplex growing algorithm, SGA, standard normal variance, SNV, virtual dimension, XRD

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345 Study of Frequency and Distribution of Skin Ionocytes in Caspian Sea Zander Larvae during Acclimation to Different Salinity

Authors: Mohaddeseh Ahmadnezhad, Shahrbano Oryan, Mahmoud Bahmani, Mohammadd Sayad Bourani

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Changes in abundance and size of skin ionocytes were investigated in two larval stage of Caspian sea zander, Sander lucioperca, before and after yolk sac absorption, at 96h after transfer from fresh water (FW; <0.5‰) to 7‰ (estuary) and 12‰ (Caspian sea water=CW) salinity. Survival rate in the stage of after yolk sac absorption were more than larval pre-absorbed yolk sac in condition of salinity (p<0.05). Ionocyte abundance increased significantly in 7 and 12‰ salinity (p<0.05), but not about ionocyte size. The results of this study suggest that development of skin Ionocyte osmoregulatory function and osmoregulation capability of Caspian Sea zander larvae increased with growth of the larvae.

Keywords: Caspian Sea, larvae, Sander lucioperca, salinity, skin ionocyte

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344 In silico Statistical Prediction Models for Identifying the Microbial Diversity and Interactions Due to Fixed Periodontal Appliances

Authors: Suganya Chandrababu, Dhundy Bastola

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Like in the gut, the subgingival microbiota plays a crucial role in oral hygiene, health, and cariogenic diseases. Human activities like diet, antibiotics, and periodontal treatments alter the bacterial communities, metabolism, and functions in the oral cavity, leading to a dysbiotic state and changes in the plaques of orthodontic patients. Fixed periodontal appliances hinder oral hygiene and cause changes in the dental plaques influencing the subgingival microbiota. However, the microbial species’ diversity and complexity pose a great challenge in understanding the taxa’s community distribution patterns and their role in oral health. In this research, we analyze the subgingival microbial samples from individuals with fixed dental appliances (metal/clear) using an in silico approach. We employ exploratory hypothesis-driven multivariate and regression analysis to shed light on the microbial community and its functional fluctuations due to dental appliances used and identify risks associated with complex disease phenotypes. Our findings confirm the changes in oral microbiota composition due to the presence and type of fixed orthodontal devices. We identified seven main periodontic pathogens, including Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, and Firmicutes, whose abundances were significantly altered due to the presence and type of fixed appliances used. In the case of metal braces, the abundances of Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Candidatus saccharibacteria, and Spirochaetes significantly increased, while the abundance of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria decreased. However, in individuals With clear braces, the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Candidatus saccharibacteria increased. The highest abundance value (P-value=0.004 < 0.05) was observed with Bacteroidetes in individuals with the metal appliance, which is associated with gingivitis, periodontitis, endodontic infections, and odontogenic abscesses. Overall, the bacterial abundances decrease with clear type and increase with metal type of braces. Regression analysis further validated the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) results, supporting the hypothesis that the presence and type of the fixed oral appliances significantly alter the bacterial abundance and composition.

Keywords: oral microbiota, statistical analysis, fixed or-thodontal appliances, bacterial abundance, multivariate analysis, regression analysis

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343 Preliminary Study of Sponge Spicule to Understand Paleobathymetry, Sentolo Formation, Kulon Progo, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

Authors: Akmaluddin, Aulia Agus Patria, Adniwan Shubhi Banuzaki, Lucia Hardiana Kurnia Pratiwi

Abstract:

The phylum Porifera, commonly known as sponges, is a group of primitive animals living since Paleozoic-recent, currently have over 8300 described species, where the majority lives in the marine environment and sessile or in situ. Sponge spicule is one part of the body that secreted by sponge; this spicule can be well preserved because it composed of silicate material. Sponge spicule was identified based on morphological form, which was classified into two main classes, Megasclere and Microsclere. Any form of spicule morphology will indicate a particular sponge species, and it also related to the sponge living environment. Therefore, understanding the paleobathymetry using spicules can be done and more detailed because of sponge living in situ. The methods used in this paper are stratigraphic measurement, continuous sampling, and sieve preparation to dissolve calcareous and siliciclastics materials. Then, each spicule was picked by picking method for every 100 grams of each sample and identified the morphological form to determine the order and abundance of spicule. 10 samples have analyzed, 1489 spicules were identified, there were two classes of Porifera, Demospongiae, and Hexactinellida. Five orders of Porifera also identified in the research area, Haplosclerida, Hadromerida, Agelasida, Lithistids, and Lyssacinosida. The results from descriptive analysis and spicule abundance can be understood that the paleobathymetry of research area was in intertidal zone. Furthermore, the variation and abundance of sponge spicule can be used to understand the paleobathymetry and depositional environment.

Keywords: paleobathymetry, Sentolo formation, sponge, spicule

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342 Effect of Sowing Dates on Incidence of Sorghum Head Bug Eurystylus Sp (Hemiptera; Miridae) at Rainfed Sector, Blue Nile State, Sudan

Authors: Eisa Y. Adam, Anas A. Fadlelmula, Ali E. Ali

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Sorghum head bug is a key insect pest of sorghum, and it is important to pay attention to the peak time of the pest abundance. The objective of this study was to study the effect of planting date on head bugs population. Field experiment was conducted during 2007/08 – 2008/09 and 2013/14 - 2014/15 cropping seasons at the Damazine Research Station Farm, Blue Nile State to determine sorghum head bugs incidence and abundance through the sowing date. Different sowing dates (early, mid and late sowing) and a susceptible sorghum variety known as Wad Ahmed variety were used the experiment. The experimental design used was randomized complete block design (RCBD). Data were collected on the number of head bug adults and nymphs/panicle, damage percent, coloration and a puncture due to bug feeding and oviposition, 1000 seeds weight and yield. The results showed that significantly (P<0.05) higher number of bugs and damage percent were recorded on the late sowing date for the four seasons followed by the mid sowing, while the early sowing gave low number of bugs, damage percent and high1000 weight. There were significant differences between protected and unprotected heads. The late sowing (August) is a critical sorghum planting time because it coincided with highest numbers of the head bugs.

Keywords: abundance, damage, headbugs, panicle

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
341 The History of Sambipitu Formation Temperature during the Early Miocene Epooch at Kali Ngalang, Nglipar, Gunung Kidul Regency

Authors: R. Harman Dwi, Ryan Avirsa, P. Abraham Ivan

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Understanding of temperatures in the past, present, and future temperatures can be possible to do by analysis abundance of fossil foraminifera. This research was conducted in Sambipitu Formation, Ngalang River, Nglipar, Gunung Kidul Regency. The research method is divided into 3 stages: 1) study of literature, research based on previous researchers, 2) spatial, observation and sampling every 5-10 meters, 3) descriptive, analyzing samples consisting of a 10-gram sample weight, washing sample using 30% peroxide, biostratigraphy analysis, paleotemperature analysis using abundance of fossil, diversity analysis using Simpson diversity index method, and comparing current temperature data. There are two phases based on the appearance of Globorotalia menardii and Pulleniatina obliqueculata pointed to Phase Tropical Area, and the appearance of fossil Globigerinoides ruber and Orbulina universa fossil shows the phase of Subtropical Area. Paleotemperatur based on the appearance of Globorotalia menardii, Globigerinoides trilobus, Globigerinoides ruber, Orbulina universa, and Pulleniatina obliqueculata pointed to Warm Water Area and Warm Water Area (average surface water approximate 25°C).

Keywords: abundance, biostratigraphy, Simpson diversity index method, paleotemperature

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340 Assessing Functional Structure in European Marine Ecosystems Using a Vector-Autoregressive Spatio-Temporal Model

Authors: Katyana A. Vert-Pre, James T. Thorson, Thomas Trancart, Eric Feunteun

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In marine ecosystems, spatial and temporal species structure is an important component of ecosystems’ response to anthropological and environmental factors. Although spatial distribution patterns and fish temporal series of abundance have been studied in the past, little research has been allocated to the joint dynamic spatio-temporal functional patterns in marine ecosystems and their use in multispecies management and conservation. Each species represents a function to the ecosystem, and the distribution of these species might not be random. A heterogeneous functional distribution will lead to a more resilient ecosystem to external factors. Applying a Vector-Autoregressive Spatio-Temporal (VAST) model for count data, we estimate the spatio-temporal distribution, shift in time, and abundance of 140 species of the Eastern English Chanel, Bay of Biscay and Mediterranean Sea. From the model outputs, we determined spatio-temporal clusters, calculating p-values for hierarchical clustering via multiscale bootstrap resampling. Then, we designed a functional map given the defined cluster. We found that the species distribution within the ecosystem was not random. Indeed, species evolved in space and time in clusters. Moreover, these clusters remained similar over time deriving from the fact that species of a same cluster often shifted in sync, keeping the overall structure of the ecosystem similar overtime. Knowing the co-existing species within these clusters could help with predicting data-poor species distribution and abundance. Further analysis is being performed to assess the ecological functions represented in each cluster.

Keywords: cluster distribution shift, European marine ecosystems, functional distribution, spatio-temporal model

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339 Environmental Impact of Cysts of Some Dinoflagellates Species in the Bizerta Lagoon

Authors: M. Bellakhal, M. Bellakhal, L. Aleya

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The specific composition and abundance of dinoflagellate resistance cysts in relation to environmental factors were studied from the superficial sediment at 123 stations in the Bizerte lagoon. 48 morphotypes of dinoflagellate cysts were identified, mainly dominated by Brigantidinium simplex, Votadinum spinosum, Alexandrium pacificum, Alexandrium pseudogonyaulax, and Lingulodinum machaerophorum. The density of cysts ranged from 1276 to 20126 cysts g⁻¹ dry sediment. Significant differences in the distribution pattern of the cysts were recorded, which allowed us to distinguish two areas; thus the inner areas of the lagoon have an abundance of cysts greater than the areas with marine influence. Ballast water discharges and shellfish culture may be incriminated as potential sources of introduction of species, particularly potentially toxic ones such as A. pacificum and Polysphaeridium zoharyi, without neglecting the role of currents in cyst distribution. Cyst mapping can be used as an indicator of potential foci of future toxic species blooms in this ecosystem.

Keywords: Bizerta Lagoon, cysts, dinoflagellates, mapping

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338 Counting Fishes in Aquaculture Ponds: Application of Imaging Sonars

Authors: Juan C. Gutierrez-Estrada, Inmaculada Pulido-Calvo, Ignacio De La Rosa, Antonio Peregrin, Fernando Gomez-Bravo, Samuel Lopez-Dominguez, Alejandro Garrocho-Cruz, Jairo Castro-Gutierrez

Abstract:

The semi-intensive aquaculture in traditional earth ponds is the main rearing system in Southern Spain. These fish rearing systems are approximately two thirds of aquatic production in this area which has made a significant contribution to the regional economy in recent years. In this type of rearing system, a crucial aspect is the correct quantification and control of the fish abundance in the ponds because the fish farmer knows how many fishes he puts in the ponds but doesn’t know how many fishes will harvest at the end of the rear period. This is a consequence of the mortality induced by different causes as pathogen agents as parasites, viruses and bacteria and other factors as predation of fish-eating birds and poaching. Track the fish abundance in these installations is very difficult because usually the ponds take up a large area of land and the management of the water flow is not automatized. Therefore, there is a very high degree of uncertainty on the abundance fishes which strongly hinders the management and planning of the sales. A novel and non-invasive procedure to count fishes in the ponds is by the means of imaging sonars, particularly fixed systems and/or linked to aquatic vehicles as Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs). In this work, a method based on census stations procedures is proposed to evaluate the fish abundance estimation accuracy using images obtained of multibeam sonars. The results indicate that it is possible to obtain a realistic approach about the number of fishes, sizes and therefore the biomass contained in the ponds. This research is included in the framework of the KTTSeaDrones Project (‘Conocimiento y transferencia de tecnología sobre vehículos aéreos y acuáticos para el desarrollo transfronterizo de ciencias marinas y pesqueras 0622-KTTSEADRONES-5-E’) financed by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) through the Interreg V-A Spain-Portugal Programme (POCTEP) 2014-2020.

Keywords: census station procedure, fish biomass, semi-intensive aquaculture, multibeam sonars

Procedia PDF Downloads 135