Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 57

Search results for: PAHs

57 Effects of PAHs on Blood Thyroidal Hormones of Liza klunzingeri in the Northern Part of Hormuz Strait (Persian Gulf)

Authors: Fateme Afkhami, Mohsen Ehsanpour, Maryam Ehsanpour, Majid Afkhami

Abstract:

This study was conducted to determine the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on thyroidal hormones of Liza klunzingeri and to monitor marine pollution from northern part of Hormuz strait (Persian Gulf). Results showed the highest total PAHs levels (268.56 µg/kg) were in the fish samples and the lowest are obtained from water samples (3.12 µg/kg). Also, highest of PAHs levels in fish, sediment and water were found in St3. There was a positive correlation between T3 and T4, with PAHs results. T4 had a significant positive correlation (P<0.05).

Keywords: PAHs, thyroidal hormones, Liza klunzingeri, Hormuz Strait, Persian Gulf

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56 Investigation of the Effects of Biodiesel Blend on Particulate-Phase Exhaust Emissions from a Light Duty Diesel Vehicle

Authors: B. Wang, W. H. Or, S.C. Lee, Y.C. Leung, B. Organ

Abstract:

This study presents an investigation of diesel vehicle particulate-phase emissions with neat ultralow sulphur diesel (B0, ULSD) and 5% waste cooking oil-based biodiesel blend (B5) in Hong Kong. A Euro VI light duty diesel vehicle was tested under transient (New European Driving Cycle (NEDC)), steady-state and idling on a chassis dynamometer. Chemical analyses including organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), as well as 30 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 10 oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs) were conducted. The OC fuel-based emission factors (EFs) for B0 ranged from 2.86 ± 0.33 to 7.19 ± 1.51 mg/kg, and those for B5 ranged from 4.31 ± 0.64 to 15.36 ± 3.77 mg/kg, respectively. The EFs of EC were low for both fuel blends (0.25 mg/kg or below). With B5, the EFs of total PAHs were decreased as compared to B0. Specifically, B5 reduced total PAH emissions by 50.2%, 30.7%, and 15.2% over NEDC, steady-state and idling, respectively. It was found that when B5 was used, PAHs and oxy-PAHs with lower molecular weight (2 to 3 rings) were reduced whereas PAHs/oxy-PAHs with medium or high molecular weight (4 to 7 rings) were increased. Our study suggests the necessity of taking atmospheric and health factors into account for biodiesel application as an alternative motor fuel.

Keywords: biodiesel, OC/EC, PAHs, vehicular emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
55 Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Rivers, Sediments and Wastewater Effluents in Vhembe District of South Africa Using GC-TOF-MS

Authors: Joshua N. Edokpayi, John O. Odiyo, Titus A. M. Msagati, Elizabeth O. Popoola

Abstract:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are very toxic and persistent environmental contaminants. This study was undertaken to assess the concentrations and possible sources of 16 PAHs classified by the United State Environmental Protection Agency as priority pollutants in Mvudi and Nzhelele Rivers and sediments. Effluents from Thohoyandou wastewater treatment plant and Siloam waste stabilization ponds were also investigated. Diagnostic ratios were used to evaluate the possible sources of PAHs. PAHs in the water samples were extracted using 1:1 dichloromethane and n-hexane mixtures, while those in the sediment samples were extracted with 1:1 acetone and dichloromethane using ultrasonication method. The extracts were purified using SPE technique and reconstituted in n-hexane before analyses with GC-TOF-MS. The results obtained indicate the prevalence of high molecular weight PAHs in all the samples. PAHs concentrations in water and sediment samples from all the sampling sites were in the range of 13.174-26.382 mg/L and 27.10-55.93 mg/kg, respectively. Combustion of biomass was identified as the major possible source of PAHs. Effluents from wastewater treatment facilities were also considered as major anthropogenic contributions to the levels of PAHs determined in both river waters and sediments. Mvudi and Nzhelele Rivers show moderate to high contamination level of PAHs.

Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, rivers, sediments, wastewater effluents

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54 Comparative Correlation Investigation of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soils of Different Land Uses: Sources Evaluation Perspective

Authors: O. Onoriode Emoyan, E. Eyitemi Akporhonor, Charles Otobrise

Abstract:

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed mainly as a result of incomplete combustion of organic materials during industrial, domestic activities or natural occurrence. Their toxicity and contamination of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem have been established. Though with limited validity index, previous research has focused on PAHs isomer pair ratios of variable physicochemical properties in source identification. The objective of this investigation was to determine the empirical validity of Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) and cluster analysis (CA) in PAHs source identification along soil samples of different land uses. Therefore, 16 PAHs grouped as endocrine disruption substances (EDSs) were determined in 10 sample stations in top and sub soils seasonally. PAHs was determined the use of Varian 300 gas chromatograph interfaced with flame ionization detector. Instruments and reagents used are of standard and chromatographic grades respectively. PCC and CA results showed that the classification of PAHs along kinetically and thermodyanamically-favoured and those derived directly from plants product through biologically mediated processes used in source signature is about the predominance PAHs are likely to be. Therefore the observed PAHs in the studied stations have trace quantities of the vast majority of the sixteen un-substituted PAHs which may ultimately inhabit the actual source signature authentication. Type and extent of bacterial metabolism, transformation products/substrates, and environmental factors such as: salinity, pH, oxygen concentration, nutrients, light intensity, temperature, co-substrates and environmental medium are hereby recommended as factors to be considered when evaluating possible sources of PAHs.

Keywords: comparative correlation, kinetically and thermodynamically-favored PAHs, pearson correlation coefficient, cluster analysis, sources evaluation

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53 Removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS) and the Response of Indigenous Bacteria in Highly Contaminated Aged Soil after Persulfate Oxidation

Authors: Yaling Gou, Sucai Yang, Pengwei Qiao

Abstract:

Integrated chemical-biological treatment is an attractive alternative to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soil; wherein indigenous bacteria is the key factor for the biodegradation of residual PAHs concentrations after the application of chemical oxidation. However, the systematical study on the impact of persulfate (PS) oxidation on indigenous bacteria as well as PAHs removal is still scarce. In this study, the influences of different PS dosages (1%, 3%, 6%, and 10% [w/w]), as well as various activation methods (native iron, H2O2, alkaline, ferrous iron, and heat) on PAHs removal and indigenous bacteria in highly contaminated aged soil were investigated. Apparent degradation of PAHs in the soil treated with PS oxidation was observed, and the removal efficiency of total PAHs in the soil ranged from 38.28% to 79.97%. The removal efficiency of total PAHs in the soil increased with increasing consumption of PS. However, the bacterial abundance in soil was negatively affected following oxidation for all of the treatments added with PS, with bacterial abundance in the soil decreased by 0.89~2.88 orders of magnitude compared to the untreated soil. Moreover, the number of total bacteria in the soil decreased as PS consumption increased. Different PS activation methods and PS dosages exhibited different influences on the bacterial community composition. Bacteria capable of degrading PAHs under anoxic conditions were composed predominantly by Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. The total amount of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes also decreased with increasing consumption of PS. The results of this study provide important insight into the design of PAHs contaminated soil remediation projects.

Keywords: activation method, chemical oxidation, indigenous bacteria, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

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52 Analytical Tools for Multi-Residue Analysis of Some Oxygenated Metabolites of PAHs (Hydroxylated, Quinones) in Sediments

Authors: I. Berger, N. Machour, F. Portet-Koltalo

Abstract:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic and carcinogenic pollutants produced in majority by incomplete combustion processes in industrialized and urbanized areas. After being emitted in atmosphere, these persistent contaminants are deposited to soils or sediments. Even if persistent, some can be partially degraded (photodegradation, biodegradation, chemical oxidation) and they lead to oxygenated metabolites (oxy-PAHs) which can be more toxic than their parent PAH. Oxy-PAHs are less measured than PAHs in sediments and this study aims to compare different analytical tools in order to extract and quantify a mixture of four hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs) and four carbonyl PAHs (quinones) in sediments. Methodologies: Two analytical systems – HPLC with on-line UV and fluorescence detectors (HPLC-UV-FLD) and GC coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS) – were compared to separate and quantify oxy-PAHs. Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) was optimized to extract oxy-PAHs from sediments. Results: First OH-PAHs and quinones were analyzed in HPLC with on-line UV and fluorimetric detectors. OH-PAHs were detected with the sensitive FLD, but the non-fluorescent quinones were detected with UV. The limits of detection (LOD)s obtained were in the range (2-3)×10-4 mg/L for OH-PAHs and (2-3)×10-3 mg/L for quinones. Second, even if GC-MS is not well adapted to the analysis of the thermodegradable OH-PAHs and quinones without any derivatization step, it was used because of the advantages of the detector in terms of identification and of GC in terms of efficiency. Without derivatization, only two of the four quinones were detected in the range 1-10 mg/L (LODs=0.3-1.2 mg/L) and LODs were neither very satisfying for the four OH-PAHs (0.18-0.6 mg/L). So two derivatization processes were optimized, comparing to literature: one for silylation of OH-PAHs, one for acetylation of quinones. Silylation using BSTFA/TCMS 99/1 was enhanced using a mixture of catalyst solvents (pyridine/ethyle acetate) and finding the appropriate reaction duration (5-60 minutes). Acetylation was optimized at different steps of the process, including the initial volume of compounds to derivatize, the added amounts of Zn (0.1-0.25 g), the nature of the derivatization product (acetic anhydride, heptafluorobutyric acid…) and the liquid/liquid extraction at the end of the process. After derivatization, LODs were decreased by a factor 3 for OH-PAHs and by a factor 4 for quinones, all the quinones being now detected. Thereafter, quinones and OH-PAHs were extracted from spiked sediments using microwave assisted extraction (MAE) followed by GC-MS analysis. Several mixtures of solvents of different volumes (10-25 mL) and using different extraction temperatures (80-120°C) were tested to obtain the best recovery yields. Satisfactory recoveries could be obtained for quinones (70-96%) and for OH-PAHs (70-104%). Temperature was a critical factor which had to be controlled to avoid oxy-PAHs degradation during the MAE extraction process. Conclusion: Even if MAE-GC-MS was satisfactory to analyze these oxy-PAHs, MAE optimization has to be carried on to obtain a most appropriate extraction solvent mixture, allowing a direct injection in the HPLC-UV-FLD system, which is more sensitive than GC-MS and does not necessitate a previous long derivatization step.

Keywords: derivatizations for GC-MS, microwave assisted extraction, on-line HPLC-UV-FLD, oxygenated PAHs, polluted sediments

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51 Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Pollution Effects on Blood Metabolic Factors of Periophthalmus waltoni from Northern Coast of the Persian Gulf

Authors: Majid Afkhami, Maryam Ehsanpour

Abstract:

The present study provides information about the nature of adverse effects on fish and the ecological impact that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollutant are having in the northern coast of Hormuz Strait. The glucose and cholesterol levels were higher in fish from the St3 than in Walton's mudskipper from other stations however St3 samples had lowest total proteins levels. There was a significant positive correlation between glucose and cholesterol with PAHs concentrations in sediment and tissue samples (P<0.05). However, total proteins had adverse significant correlation with PAHs concentrations (P>0.05). The adverse correlation was seen between length and body weight of fish samples with PAHs concentrations. According to the results of this study, the monitoring of contaminants bioaccumulation in the northern part of Hormuz Strait is necessary, because this will give an indication of the temporal and spatial extent of the process, as well as an assessment of the potential impact on aquatic organisms health.

Keywords: PAHs, blood metabolic factors, Periophthalmus waltoni, Hormuz Strait

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50 Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Padina boryana Alga Collected from a Contaminated Site at the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Huda Qari, I. A. Hassan

Abstract:

The brown alga Padina boryanawas was used for bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulation at the seashore of Jeddah city. PAHs were determined in the coastal water and algal tissues by GC-MS. Acenaphthene (Ace) and dibenzo (a,h) anthracene (dB(a,h)An) were the main PAHs in seawater (50.02 and 46.18) and algal tissues (64.67 and 72.45), respectively. The ratios of low molecular weight/high molecular weight hydrocarbons (1.76 – 1.44), fluoranthene/pyrene (1.57 – 1.52) and phenanthrene/anthracene (0.86 – 0.67) in seawater and algal tissues, respectively, indicated the origin of the PAHs to be mainly petrogenic. This study has demonstrated the utility of using Padina boryanawas as a biomonitor of PAH contamination and bioavailability in the coastal waters.

Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Padina boryanawas, bioaccumulation, waste water

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49 Removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Present in Tyre Pyrolytic Oil Using Low Cost Natural Adsorbents

Authors: Neha Budhwani

Abstract:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed during the pyrolysis of scrap tyres to produce tyre pyrolytic oil (TPO). Due to carcinogenic, mutagenic, and toxic properties PAHs are priority pollutants. Hence it is essential to remove PAHs from TPO before utilising TPO as a petroleum fuel alternative (to run the engine). Agricultural wastes have promising future to be utilized as biosorbent due to their cost effectiveness, abundant availability, high biosorption capacity and renewability. Various low cost adsorbents were prepared from natural sources. Uptake of PAHs present in tyre pyrolytic oil was investigated using various low-cost adsor¬bents of natural origin including sawdust (shiham), coconut fiber, neem bark, chitin, activated charcol. Adsorption experiments of different PAHs viz. naphthalene, acenaphthalene, biphenyl and anthracene have been carried out at ambient temperature (25°C) and at pH 7. It was observed that for any given PAH, the adsorption capacity increases with the lignin content. Freundlich constant kf and 1/n have been evaluated and it was found that the adsorption isotherms of PAHs were in agreement with a Freundlich model, while the uptake capacity of PAHs followed the order: activated charcoal> saw dust (shisham) > coconut fiber > chitin. The partition coefficients in acetone-water, and the adsorption constants at equilibrium, could be linearly correlated with octanol–water partition coefficients. It is observed that natural adsorbents are good alternative for PAHs removal. Sawdust of Dalbergia sissoo, a by-product of sawmills was found to be a promising adsorbent for the removal of PAHs present in TPO. It is observed that adsorbents studied were comparable to those of some conventional adsorbents.

Keywords: natural adsorbent, PAHs, TPO, coconut fiber, wood powder (shisham), naphthalene, acenaphthene, biphenyl and anthracene

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48 Enhanced PAHs' Biodegradation by Consortia Developed with Biofilm – Biosurfactant - Producing Microorganisms

Authors: Swapna Guntupalli, Leela Madhuri Chalasani, Kshatri Jyothi, C. V. Rao, Bondili J. S.

Abstract:

The study hypothesizes that enhanced biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) is achievable with an assemblage of microorganisms that are capable of producing biofilm and biosurfactants. Accordingly, PAHs degrading microorganism’s (bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes and yeast) were screened and grouped into different consortia based on their capabilities to produce biofilm and biosurfactants. Among these, Consortium BTSN09 consisting of bacterial fungal cocultures showed highest degradation due to the synergistic action between them. Degradation effiencies were evaluated using HPLC and GC-MS. Within 7days, BTSN09 showed 51% and 50.7% degradation of Phenanthrene (PHE) and Pyrene (PYR) with 200mg/L and 100 mg/L concentrations respectively in a liquid medium. In addition, several degradative enzymes like laccases, 1hydroxy-2-naphthoicacid dioxygenase, 2-carboxybenzaldehyde dehydrogenase, catechol1,2 dioxygenase and catechol2,3 dioxygenase activity was observed during degradation. Degradation metabolites were identified using GC-MS analysis and from the results it was confirmed that the metabolism of degradation proceeds via pthalic acid pathway for both PAHs. Besides, Microbial consortia also demonstrated good biosurfactant production capacity, achieving maximum oil displacement area and emulsification activity of 19.62 cm2, 65.5% in presence of PAHs as sole carbon source. Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis revealed exopolysaccharides (EPS) production, micro and macrocolonies formation with different stages of biofim development in presence of PAHs during degradation.

Keywords: PAHs, biosurfactant, biofilm, biodegradation

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47 Atmospheric Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Rural and Urban of Central Taiwan

Authors: Shih Yu Pan, Pao Chen Hung, Chuan Yao Lin, Charles C.-K. Chou, Yu Chi Lin, Kai Hsien Chi

Abstract:

This study analyzed 16 atmospheric PAHs species which were controlled by USEPA and IARC. To measure the concentration of PAHs, four rural sampling sites and two urban sampling sites were selected in Central Taiwan during spring and summer. In central Taiwan, the rural sampling stations were located in the downstream of Da-An River, Da-Jang River, Wu River and Chuo-shui River. On the other hand, the urban sampling sites were located in Taichung district and close to the roadside. Ambient air samples of both vapor phase and particle phase of PAHs compounds were collected using high volume sampling trains (Analitica). The sampling media were polyurethane foam (PUF) with XAD2 and quartz fiber filters. Diagnostic ratio, Principal component analysis (PCA), Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) models were used to evaluate the apportionment of PAHs in the atmosphere and speculate the relative contribution of various emission sources. Because of the high temperature and low wind speed, high PAHs concentration in the atmosphere was observed. The total PAHs concentration, especially in vapor phase, had significant change during summer. During the sampling periods the total PAHs concentration of atmospheric at four rural and two urban sampling sites in spring and summer were 3.70±0.40 ng/m3,3.40±0.63 ng/m3,5.22±1.24 ng/m3,7.23±0.37 ng/m3,7.46±2.36 ng/m3,6.21±0.55 ng/m3 ; 15.0± 0.14 ng/m3,18.8±8.05 ng/m3,20.2±8.58 ng/m3,16.1±3.75 ng/m3,29.8±10.4 ng/m3,35.3±11.8 ng/m3, respectively. In order to identify PAHs sources, we used diagnostic ratio to classify the emission sources. The potential sources were diesel combustion and gasoline combustion in spring and summer, respectively. According to the principal component analysis (PCA), the PC1 and PC2 had 23.8%, 20.4% variance and 21.3%, 17.1% variance in spring and summer, respectively. Especially high molecular weight PAHs (BaP, IND, BghiP, Flu, Phe, Flt, Pyr) were dominated in spring when low molecular weight PAHs (AcPy, Ant, Acp, Flu) because of the dominating high temperatures were dominated in the summer. Analysis by using PMF model found the sources of PAHs in spring were stationary sources (34%), vehicle emissions (24%), coal combustion (23%) and petrochemical fuel gas (19%), while in summer the emission sources were petrochemical fuel gas (34%), the natural environment of volatile organic compounds (29%), coal combustion (19%) and stationary sources (18%).

Keywords: PAHs, source identification, diagnostic ratio, principal component analysis, positive matrix factorization

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46 Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons-Contaminated Soil by Proxy-Acid Method

Authors: Reza Samsami

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by proxy-acid method. The amounts of PAHs were determined in a silty-clay soil sample of an aged oil refinery field in Abadan, Iran. Proxy-acid treatment method was investigated. The results have shown that the proxy-acid system is an effective method for degradation of PAHs. The results also demonstrated that the number of fused aromatic rings have not significant effects on PAH removal by proxy-acid method. The results also demonstrated that the number of fused aromatic rings have not significant effects on PAH removal by proxy-acid method.

Keywords: proxy-acid treatment, silty-clay soil, PAHs, degradation

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45 Advantages of Matrix Solid Phase Dispersive (MSPD) Extraction Associated to MIPS versus MAE Liquid Extraction for the Simultaneous Analysis of PAHs, PCBs and Some Hydroxylated PAHs in Sediments

Authors: F. Portet-Koltalo, Y. Tian, I. Berger, C. Boulanger-Lecomte, A. Benamar, N. Machour

Abstract:

Sediments are complex environments which can accumulate a great variety of persistent toxic contaminants such as polychlorobiphenyles (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some of their more toxic degradation metabolites such as hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs). Owing to their composition, fine clayey sediments can be more difficult to extract than soils using conventional solvent extraction processes. So this study aimed to compare the potential of MSPD (matrix solid phase dispersive extraction) to extract PCBs, PAHs and OH-PAHs, in comparison with microwave assisted extraction (MAE). Methodologies: MAE extraction with various solvent mixtures was used to extract PCBs, PAHs and OH-PAHs from sediments in two runs, followed by two GC-MS analyses. MSPD consisted in crushing the dried sediment with dispersive agents, introducing the mixture in cartridges and eluting the target compounds with an appropriate volume of selected solvents. So MSPD combined with cartridges containing MIPs (molecularly imprinted polymers) designed for OH-PAHs was used to extract the three families of target compounds in only one run, followed by parallel analyses in GC-MS for PAHs/PCBs and HPLC-FLD for OH-PAHs. Results: MAE extraction was optimized to extract from clayey sediments, in two runs, PAHs/PCBs in one hand and OH-PAHs in the other hand. Indeed, the best conditions of extractions (mixtures of extracting solvents, temperature) were different if we consider the polarity and the thermodegradability of the different families of target contaminants: PAHs/PCBs were better extracted using an acetone/toluene 50/50 mixture at 130°C whereas OH-PAHs were better extracted using an acetonitrile/toluene 90/10 mixture at 100°C. Moreover, the two consecutive GC-MS analyses contributed to double the total analysis time. A matrix solid phase dispersive (MSPD) extraction procedure was also optimized, with the first objective of increasing the extraction recovery yields of PAHs and PCBs from fine-grained sediment. The crushing time (2-10 min), the nature of the dispersing agents added for purifying and increasing the extraction yields (Florisil, octadecylsilane, 3-chloropropyle, 4-benzylchloride), the nature and the volume of eluting solvents (methylene chloride, hexane, hexane/acetone…) were studied. It appeared that in the best conditions, MSPD was a better extraction method than MAE for PAHs and PCBs, with respectively, mean increases of 8.2% and 71%. This method was also faster, easier and less expensive. But the other advantage of MSPD was that it allowed to introduce easily, just after the first elution process of PAHs/PCBs, a step permitting the selective recovery of OH-PAHs. A cartridge containing MIPs designed for phenols was coupled to the cartridge containing the dispersed sediment, and various eluting solvents, different from those used for PAHs and PCBs, were tested to selectively concentrate and extract OH-PAHs. Thereafter OH-PAHs could be analyzed at the same time than PAHs and PCBs: the OH-PAH extract could be analyzed with HPLC-FLD, whereas the PAHs/PCBs extract was analyzed with GC-MS, adding only few minutes more to the total duration of the analytical process. Conclusion: MSPD associated to MIPs appeared to be an easy, fast and low expensive method, able to extract in one run a complex mixture of toxic apolar and more polar contaminants present in clayey fine-grained sediments, an environmental matrix which is generally difficult to analyze.

Keywords: contaminated fine-grained sediments, matrix solid phase dispersive extraction, microwave assisted extraction, molecularly imprinted polymers, multi-pollutant analysis

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44 Spectroscopic Studies on Solubilization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Structurally Different Gemini Surfactants

Authors: Toshikee Yadav, Deepti Tikariha, Jyotsna Lakra, Kallol K. Ghosh

Abstract:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are potent atmospheric pollutants that consist of two or more benzene rings. PAHs have low solubility in water. Their slow dissolution can contaminate large amounts of ground water for long period. They are hydrophobic, non-polar and neutral in nature and are known to have potential mutagenic or carcinogenic activity. In current scenario their removal from the environment, water and soil is still a great challenge and scientists worldwide are engaged to invent and design novel separation technology and decontaminating systems. Various physical, chemical, biological and their combined technologies have been applied to remediate organic-contaminated soils and groundwater. Surfactants play a vital role in the solubilization of these hydrophobic organic compounds. In the present investigation Solubilization capabilities of structurally different gemini surfactants i.e. butanediyl-1,4-bis(dimethyldodecylammonium bromide) (C12-4-C12,2Br−), 2-butanol-1,4-bis (dimethyldodecylammonium bromide) (C12-4(OH)-C12,2Br−), 2,3-butanediol-1,4-bis (dimethyldodecylammonium bromide) (C12-4(OH)2-C12,2Br−) for three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); phenanthrene (Phe),fluorene (Fluo) and acenaphthene (Ace) have been studied spectrophotometrically at 300 K. The result showed that the solubility of PAHs increases linearly with increasing surfactant concentration, as an implication of association between the PAHs and micelles. Molar solubilization ratio (MSR), micelle–water partition coefficient (Km) and Gibb's free energy of solubilization (ΔG°s) for PAHs have been determined in aqueous medium. (C12-4(OH)2-C12,2Br−) shows the higher solubilization for all PAHs. Findings of the present investigation may be useful to understand the role of appropriate surfactant system for the solubilization of toxic hydrophobic organic compounds.

Keywords: gemini surfactant, molar solubilization ratio, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, solubilization

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43 Parameters of Validation Method of Determining Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Drinking Water by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Jonida Canaj

Abstract:

A simple method of extraction and determination of fifteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from drinking water using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been validated with limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ), method recovery and reproducibility, and other factors. HPLC parameters, such as mobile phase composition and flow standardized for determination of PAHs using fluorescent detector (FLD). PAH was carried out by liquid-liquid extraction using dichloromethane. Linearity of calibration curves was good for all PAH (R², 0.9954-1.0000) in the concentration range 0.1-100 ppb. Analysis of standard spiked water samples resulted in good recoveries between 78.5-150%(0.1ppb) and 93.04-137.47% (10ppb). The estimated LOD and LOQ ranged between 0.0018-0.98 ppb. The method described has been used for determination of the fifteen PAHs contents in drinking water samples.

Keywords: high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC, method validation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, water

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42 Biodegradation Ability of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs) Degrading Bacillus cereus Strain JMG-01 Isolated from PAHs Contaminated Soil

Authors: Momita Das, Sofia Banu, Jibon Kotoky

Abstract:

Environmental contamination of natural resources with persistent organic pollutants is of great world-wide apprehension. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the organic pollutants, released due to various anthropogenic activities. Due to their toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic properties, PAHs are of environmental and human concern. Presently, bioremediation has evolved as the most promising biotechnology for cleanup of such contaminants because of its economical and less cost effectiveness. In the present study, distribution of 16 USEPA priority PAHs was determined in the soil samples collected from fifteen different sites of Guwahati City, the Gateway of the North East Region of India. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs (Σ16 PAHs) ranged from 42.7-742.3 µg/g. Higher concentration of total PAHs was found more in the Industrial areas compared to all the sites (742.3 µg/g and 628 µg/g). It is noted that among all the PAHs, Naphthalene, Acenaphthylene, Anthracene, Fluoranthene, Chrysene and Benzo(a)Pyrene were the most available and contain the higher concentration of all the PAHs. Since microbial activity has been deemed the most influential and significant cause of PAH removal; further, twenty-three bacteria were isolated from the most contaminated sites using the enrichment process. These strains were acclimatized to utilize naphthalene and anthracene, each at 100 µg/g concentration as sole carbon source. Among them, one Gram-positive strain (JMG-01) was selected, and biodegradation ability and initial catabolic genes of PAHs degradation were investigated. Based on 16S rDNA analysis, the isolate was identified as Bacillus cereus strain JMG-01. Topographic images obtained using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) at scheduled time intervals of 7, 14 and 21 days, determined the variation in cell morphology during the period of degradation. AFM and SEM micrograph of biomass showed high filamentous growth leading to aggregation of cells in the form of biofilm with reference to the incubation period. The percentage degradation analysis using gas chromatography and mass analyses (GC-MS) suggested that more than 95% of the PAHs degraded when the concentration was at 500 µg/g. Naphthalene, naphthalene-2-methy, benzaldehyde-4-propyl, 1, 2, benzene di-carboxylic acid and benzene acetic acid were the major metabolites produced after degradation. Moreover, PCR experiments with specific primers for catabolic genes, ndo B and Cat A suggested that JMG-01 possess genes for PAHs degradation. Thus, the study concludes that Bacillus cereus strain JMG-01 has efficient biodegrading ability and can trigger the clean-up of PAHs contaminated soil.

Keywords: AFM, Bacillus cereus strain JMG-01, degradation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, SEM

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41 Measuring the Effect of Co-Composting Oil Sludge with Pig, Cow, Horse And Poultry Manures on the Degradation in Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Concentrations

Authors: Ubani Onyedikachi, Atagana Harrison Ifeanyichukwu, Thantsha Mapitsi Silvester

Abstract:

Components of oil sludge (PAHs) are known cytotoxic, mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic compounds also bacteria and fungi have been found to degrade PAHs to innocuous compounds. This study is aimed at measuring the effect of pig, cow, horse and poultry manures on the degradation in selected PAHs present in oil sludge. Soil spiked with oil sludge was co-composted differently with each manure in a ratio of 2:1 (w/w) spiked soil: manure and wood-chips in a ratio of 2:1 (w/v) spiked soil: wood-chips. Control was set up similar as the one above but without manure. The mixtures were incubated for 10 months at room temperature. Compost piles were turned weekly and moisture level was maintained at between 50% and 70%. Moisture level, pH, temperature, CO2 evolution and oxygen consumption were measured monthly and the ash content at the end of experimentation. Highest temperature reached was 27.5 °C in all compost heaps, pH ranged from 5.5 to 7.8 and CO2 evolution was highest in poultry manure at 18.78μg/dwt/day. Microbial growth and activities were enhanced; bacteria identified were Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Staphylococcus species. Percentage reduction in PAHs was measured using automated soxhlet extractor with Dichloromethane coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Results from PAH measurements showed reduction between 77% and 99%. Co-composting of spiked soils with animal manures enhanced the reduction in PAHs.

Keywords: animal manures, bioremediation, co-composting, oil refinery sludge, PAHs

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40 Evaluation of the Physico-Chemical and Microbial Properties of the Compost Leachate (CL) to Assess Its Role in the Bioremediation of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

Authors: Omaima A. Sharaf, Tarek A. Moussa, Said M. Badr El-Din, H. Moawad

Abstract:

Background: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pose great environmental and human health concerns for their widespread occurrence, persistence, and carcinogenic properties. PAHs releases due to anthropogenic activities to the wider environment have led to higher concentrations of these contaminants than would be expected from natural processes alone. This may result in a wide range of environmental problems that can accumulate in agricultural ecosystems, which threatened to become a negative impact on sustainable agricultural development. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the physico-chemical, and microbial properties of the compost leachate (CL) to assess its role as nutrient and microbial source (biostimulation/bioaugmentation) for developing a cost-effective bioremediation technology for PAHs contaminated sites. Material and Methods: PAHs-degrading bacteria were isolated from CL that was collected from a composting site located in central Scotland, UK. Isolation was carried out by enrichment using phenanthrene (PHR), pyrene (PYR) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as the sole source of carbon and energy. The isolates were characterized using a variety of phenotypic and molecular properties. Six different isolates were identified based on the difference in morphological and biochemical tests. The efficiency of these isolates in PAHs utilization was assessed. Further analysis was performed to define taxonomical status and phylogenic relation between the most potent PAHs-utilizing bacterial strains and other standard strains, using molecular approach by partial 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Results indicated that the 16S rDNA sequence analysis confirmed the results of biochemical identification, as both of biochemical and molecular identification of the isolates assigned them to Bacillus licheniformis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Alcaligenes faecalis, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae and Providenicia which were identified as the prominent PAHs-utilizers isolated from CL. Conclusion: This study indicates that the CL samples contain a diverse population of PAHs-degrading bacteria and the use of CL may have a potential for bioremediation of PAHs contaminated sites.

Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, physico-chemical analyses, compost leachate, microbial and biochemical analyses, phylogenic relations, 16S rDNA sequence analysis

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39 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Pollution and Ecological Risk Assessment in Surface Soil of the Tezpur Town, on the North Bank of the Brahmaputra River, Assam, India

Authors: Kali Prasad Sarma, Nibedita Baul, Jinu Deka

Abstract:

In the present study, pollution level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in surface soil of historic Tezpur town located in the north bank of the River Brahmaputra were evaluated. In order to determine the seasonal distribution and concentration level of 16 USEPA priority PAHs surface soil samples were collected from 12 different sampling sites with various land use type. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs (∑16 PAHs) varied from 242.68µgkg-1to 7901.89µgkg-1. Concentration of total probable carcinogenic PAH ranged between 7.285µgkg-1 and 479.184 µgkg-1 in different seasons. However, the concentration of BaP, the most carcinogenic PAH, was found in the range of BDL to 50.01 µgkg-1. The composition profiles of PAHs in 3 different seasons were characterized by following two different types of ring: (1) 4-ring PAHs, contributed to highest percentage of total PAHs (43.75%) (2) while in pre- and post- monsoon season 3- ring compounds dominated the PAH profile, contributing 65.58% and 74.41% respectively. A high PAHs concentration with significant seasonality and high abundance of LMWPAHs was observed in Tezpur town. Soil PAHs toxicity was evaluated taking toxic equivalency factors (TEFs), which quantify the carcinogenic potential of other PAHs relative to BaP and estimate benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent concentration (BaPeq). The calculated BaPeq value signifies considerable risk to contact with soil PAHs. We applied cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) with multivariate linear regression (MLR) to apportion sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface soil of Tezpur town, based on the measured PAH concentrations. The results indicate that petrogenic and pyrogenic sources are the important sources of PAHs. A combination of chemometric and molecular indices were used to identify the sources of PAHs, which could be attributed to vehicle emissions, a mixed source input, natural gas combustion, wood or biomass burning and coal combustion. Source apportionment using absolute principle component scores–multiple linear regression showed that the main sources of PAHs are 22.3% mix sources comprising of diesel and biomass combustion and petroleum spill,13.55% from vehicle emission, 9.15% from diesel and natural gas burning, 38.05% from wood and biomass burning and 16.95% contribute coal combustion. Pyrogenic input was found to dominate source of PAHs origin with more contribution from vehicular exhaust. PAHs have often been found to co-emit with other environmental pollutants like heavy metals due to similar source of origin. A positive correlation was observed between PAH with Cr and Pb (r2 = 0.54 and 0.55 respectively) in monsoon season and PAH with Cd and Pb (r2 = 0.54 and 0.61 respectively) indicating their common source. Strong correlation was observed between PAH and OC during pre- and post- monsoon (r2=0.46 and r2=0.65 respectively) whereas during monsoon season no significant correlation was observed (r2=0.24).

Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Tezpur town, chemometric analysis, ecological risk assessment, pollution

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38 Biogeochemical Study of Polycuclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Its Physiological Response in Mudskippre (B. dussumieri) along the North western Coasts of the Persian Gulf

Authors: Ali Mashinchian Moradi, Mahmood Sinaei

Abstract:

Study on the biomarkers to assess health status of marine ecosystems has an important value in biomonitoring of marine environment. Accordingly, accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment, water and tissues (liver and gill) of mudskipper (Boleophthalmus dussmieri) and some physiological responses like lysosomal membrane change in haemocytes and the Glutathione-S Transferase (GST) activity in the liver were measured in mudskippers. Samples were collected from five sites along the noth western cost of the Persian Gulf. PAHs concentration was measured by HPLC method. The activity of GST enzyme was analysed by spectrophotometric method. Total PAH concentration in coastal seawater, sediments, liver and gill tissues ranged between 0.80-18.34 ug/L, 113.550-3384.34 ng/g dw, 3.99-46.64 ng/g dw and 3.11-17.This study showed that PAH concentrations in this region are not higher than available standards. The findings revile that lysosomal membrane destabilization and liver GST activities are highly sensitive to PAHs in mudskipper, B. dussumieri. Sediment PAH concentrations were strongly correlated with biomarkers, indicating PAHs were biologically available to fish. Thus, mudskipper perceived to be good sentinel organism for PAH pollution biomonitoring.

Keywords: PAHs, biomarker, mudskipper, Persian Gulf

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37 Evaluation of Automated Analyzers of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Black Carbon in a Coke Oven Plant by Comparison with Analytical Methods

Authors: L. Angiuli, L. Trizio, R. Giua, A. Digilio, M. Tutino, P. Dambruoso, F. Mazzone, C. M. Placentino

Abstract:

In the winter of 2014 a series of measurements were performed to evaluate the behavior of real-time PAHs and black carbon analyzers in a coke oven plant located in Taranto, a city of Southern Italy. Data were collected both insides than outside the plant, at air quality monitoring sites. Contemporary measures of PM2.5 and PM1 were performed. Particle-bound PAHs were measured by two methods: (1) aerosol photoionization using an Ecochem PAS 2000 analyzer, (2) PM2.5 and PM1 quartz filter collection and analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Black carbon was determined both in real-time by Magee Aethalometer AE22 analyzer than by semi-continuous Sunset Lab EC/OC instrument. Detected PM2.5 and PM1 levels were higher inside than outside the plant while PAHs real-time values were higher outside than inside. As regards PAHs, inside the plant Ecochem PAS 2000 revealed concentrations not significantly different from those determined on the filter during low polluted days, but at increasing concentrations the automated instrument underestimated PAHs levels. At the external site, Ecochem PAS 2000 real-time concentrations were steadily higher than those on the filter. In the same way, real-time black carbon values were constantly lower than EC concentrations obtained by Sunset EC/OC in the inner site, while outside the plant real-time values were comparable to Sunset EC values. Results showed that in a coke plant real-time analyzers of PAHs and black carbon in the factory configuration provide qualitative information, with no accuracy and leading to the underestimation of the concentration. A site specific calibration is needed for these instruments before their installation in high polluted sites.

Keywords: black carbon, coke oven plant, PAH, PAS, aethalometer

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36 The Impact of Ship Traffic and Harbor Activities on the Atmospheric Pollution in Two Northern Adriatic Ports: Venice and Rijeka

Authors: Elena Barbaro, Elena Gregoris, Rossano Piazza, Boris Mifka, Tatjana Ivošević, Ivo Orlić, Ana Alebić-Juretić, Andrea Gambaro, Daniele Contini

Abstract:

The aim of the POSEIDON project is to quantify the relative contribution of maritime traffic and harbor activities to atmospheric pollutants concentration in four port-cities of the Adriatic Sea. This study focuses on the harbors of Venice and Rijeka. In order to investigate the main pollution sources, emission inventories were used as input for receptor models: PMF (positive matrix factorization) and PCA (principal components analysis); moreover source identification was also conducted using PAHs diagnostic ratios. The ship traffic impact was quantified: i) on gaseous and particulate PAHs, collected using a new method which consisted in a double simultaneous sampling, in different wind sectors; ii) applying PMF to data of metals, PAHs and ions in PM10; iii) using the vanadium concentration according to the Agrawal methodology.

Keywords: ship traffic, PMF, harbor, POSEIDON

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35 Investigating the Effect of Plant Root Exudates and of Saponin on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Solubilization in Brownfield Contaminated Soils

Authors: Marie Davin, Marie-Laure Fauconnier, Gilles Colinet

Abstract:

In Wallonia, there are 6,000 estimated brownfields (rising to over 3.5 million in Europe) that require remediation. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of recalcitrant carcinogenic/mutagenic organic compounds of major concern as they accumulate in the environment and represent 17% of all encountered pollutants. As an alternative to environmentally aggressive, expensive and often disruptive soil remediation strategies, a lot of research has been directed to developing techniques targeting organic pollutants. The following experiment, based on the observation that PAHs soil content decreases in the presence of plants, aimed at improving our understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in phytoremediation. It focusses on plant root exudates and whether they improve PAHs solubilization, which would make them more available for bioremediation by soil microorganisms. The effect of saponin, a natural surfactant found in some plant roots such as members of the Fabaceae family, on PAHs solubilization was also investigated as part of the implementation of the experimental protocol. The experiments were conducted on soil collected from a brownfield in Saint-Ghislain (Belgium) and presenting weathered PAHs contamination. Samples of soil were extracted with different solutions containing either plant root exudates or commercial saponin. Extracted PAHs were determined in the different aqueous solutions using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Fluorimetric Detection (HPLC-FLD). Both root exudates of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) or red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and commercial saponin were tested in different concentrations. Distilled water was used as a control. First of all, results show that PAHs are more extracted using saponin solutions than distilled water and that the amounts generally rise with the saponin concentration. However, the amount of each extracted compound diminishes as its molecular weight rises. Also, it appears that passed a certain surfactant concentration, PAHs are less extracted. This suggests that saponin might be investigated as a washing agent in polluted soil remediation techniques, either for ex-situ or in-situ treatments, as an alternative to synthetic surfactants. On the other hand, preliminary results on experiments using plant root exudates also show differences in PAHs solubilization compared to the control solution. Further results will allow discussion as to whether or not there are differences according to the exudates provenance and concentrations.

Keywords: brownfield, Medicago sativa, phytoremediation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, root exudates, saponin, solubilization, Trifolium pratense

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34 Seasonal Variation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Associated with PM10 in Győr, Hungary

Authors: Andrea Szabó Nagy, János Szabó, Zsófia Csanádi, József Erdős

Abstract:

The main objective of this study was to assess the seasonal variation of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations associated with PM10 in an urban site of Győr, Hungary. A total of 112 PM10 aerosol samples were collected in the years of 2012 and 2013 and analyzed for PAHs by gas chromatography method. The total PAH concentrations (sum of the concentrations of 19 individual PAH compounds) ranged from 0.19 to 70.16 ng/m3 with the mean value of 12.29 ng/m3. Higher concentrations of both total PAHs and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were detected in samples collected in the heating seasons. Using BaP-equivalent potency index on the carcinogenic PAH concentration data, the local population appears to be exposed to significantly higher cancer risk in the heating seasons. However, the comparison of the BaP and total PAH concentrations observed for Győr with other cities it was found that the PAH levels in Győr generally corresponded to the EU average.

Keywords: air quality, benzo[a]pyrene, PAHs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

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33 Distribution and Historical Trends of PAHs Deposition in Recent Sediment Cores of the Imo River, SE Nigeria

Authors: Miranda I. Dosunmu, Orok E. Oyo-Ita, Inyang O. Oyo-Ita

Abstract:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of priority listed organic pollutants due to their carcinogenicity, mutagenity, acute toxicity and persistency in the environment. The distribution and historical changes of PAHs contamination in recent sediment cores from the Imo River were investigated using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. The concentrations of total PAHs (TPAHs) ranging from 402.37 ng/g dry weight (dw) at the surface layer of the Estuary zone (ESC6; 0-5 cm) to 92,388.59 ng/g dw at the near surface layer of the Afam zone (ASC5; 5-10 cm) indicate that PAHs contamination was localized not only between sample sites but also within the same cores. Sediment-depth profiles for the four (Afam, Mangrove, Estuary and illegal Petroleum refinery) cores revealed irregular distribution patterns in the TPAH concentrations except the fact that these levels became maximized at the near surface layers (5-10 cm) corresponding to a geological time-frame of about 1996-2004. This time scale coincided with the period of intensive bunkering and oil pipeline vandalization by the Niger Delta militant groups. Also a general slight decline was found in the TPAHs levels from near the surface layers (5-10 cm) to the most recent top layers (0-5 cm) of the cores, attributable to the recent effort by the Nigerian government in clamping down the illegal activity of the economic saboteurs. Therefore, the recent amnesty period granted to the militant groups should be extended. Although mechanism of perylene formation still remains enigmatic, examination of its distributions down cores indicates natural biogenic, pyrogenic and petrogenic origins for the compound at different zones. Thus, the characteristic features of the Imo River environment provide a means of tracing diverse origins for perylene.

Keywords: perylene, historical trend, distribution, origin, Imo River

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32 Characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ambient Air PM2.5 in an Urban Site of Győr, Hungary

Authors: A. Szabó Nagy, J. Szabó, Zs. Csanádi, J. Erdős

Abstract:

In Hungary, the measurement of ambient PM10-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations is great importance for a number of reasons related to human health, the environment and compliance with European Union legislation. However, the monitoring of PAHs associated with PM2.5 aerosol fraction is still incomplete. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate the concentration levels of PAHs in PM2.5 urban aerosol fraction. PM2.5 and associated PAHs were monitored in November 2014 in an urban site of Győr (Northwest Hungary). The aerosol samples were collected every day for 24-hours over two weeks with a high volume air sampler provided with a PM2.5 cut-off inlet. The levels of 19 PAH compounds associated with PM2.5 aerosol fraction were quantified by a gas chromatographic method. Polluted air quality for PM2.5 (>25 g/m3) was indicated in 50% of the collected samples. The total PAHs concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 37.3 ng/m3 with the mean value of 12.4 ng/m3. Indeno(123-cd)pyrene (IND) and sum of three benzofluoranthene isomers were the most dominant PAH species followed by benzo(ghi)perylene and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Using BaP-equivalent approach on the concentration data of carcinogenic PAH species, BaP, and IND contributed the highest carcinogenic exposure equivalent (1.50 and 0.24 ng/m3 on average). A selected number of concentration ratios of specific PAH compounds were calculated to evaluate the possible sources of PAH contamination. The ratios reflected that the major source of PAH compounds in the PM2.5 aerosol fraction of Győr during the study period was fossil fuel combustion from automobiles.

Keywords: air, PM2.5, benzo(a)pyrene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

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31 An Assessment of Water and Sediment Quality of the Danube River: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Trace Metals

Authors: A. Szabó Nagy, J. Szabó, I. Vass

Abstract:

Water and sediment samples from the Danube River and Moson Danube Arm (Hungary) have been collected and analyzed for contamination by 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and eight trace metal(loid)s (As, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd, Hg and Zn) in the period of 2014-2015. Moreover, the trace metal(loid) concentrations were measured in the Rába and Marcal rivers (parts of the tributary system feeding the Danube). Total PAH contents in water were found to vary from 0.016 to 0.133 µg/L and concentrations in sediments varied in the range of 0.118 mg/kg and 0.283 mg/kg. Source analysis of PAHs using diagnostic concentration ratios indicated that PAHs found in sediments were of pyrolytic origins. The dissolved trace metal and arsenic concentrations were relatively low in the surface waters. However, higher concentrations were detected in the water samples of Rába (Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb) and Marcal (As, Cu, Ni, Pb) compared to the Danube and Moson Danube. The concentrations of trace metals in sediments were higher than those found in water samples.

Keywords: surface water, sediment, PAH, trace metal

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30 Compost Bioremediation of Oil Refinery Sludge by Using Different Manures in a Laboratory Condition

Authors: O. Ubani, H. I. Atagana, M. S. Thantsha

Abstract:

This study was conducted to measure the reduction in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content in oil sludge by co-composting the sludge with pig, cow, horse and poultry manures under laboratory conditions. Four kilograms of soil spiked with 800 g of oil sludge was co-composted differently with each manure in a ratio of 2:1 (w/w) spiked soil:manure and wood-chips in a ratio of 2:1 (w/v) spiked soil:wood-chips. Control was set up similar as the one above but without manure. Mixtures were incubated for 10 months at room temperature. Compost piles were turned weekly and moisture level was maintained at between 50% and 70%. Moisture level, pH, temperature, CO2 evolution and oxygen consumption were measured monthly and the ash content at the end of experimentation. Bacteria capable of utilizing PAHs were isolated, purified and characterized by molecular techniques using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), amplification of the 16S rDNA gene using the specific primers (16S-P1 PCR and 16S-P2 PCR) and the amplicons were sequenced. Extent of reduction of PAHs was measured using automated soxhlet extractor with dichloromethane as the extraction solvent coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Temperature did not exceed 27.5O°C in all compost heaps, pH ranged from 5.5 to 7.8 and CO2 evolution was highest in poultry manure at 18.78 µg/dwt/day. Microbial growth and activities were enhanced. Bacteria identified were Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Staphylococcus species. Results from PAH measurements showed reduction between 77 and 99%. The results from the control experiments may be because it was invaded by fungi. Co-composting of spiked soils with animal manures enhanced the reduction in PAHs. Interestingly, all bacteria isolated and identified in this study were present in all treatments, including the control.

Keywords: bioremediation, co-composting, oil refinery sludge, PAHs, bacteria spp, animal manures, molecular techniques

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29 Identification and Characterisation of Oil Sludge Degrading Bacteria Isolated from Compost

Authors: O. Ubani, H. I. Atagana, M. S. Thantsha, R. Adeleke

Abstract:

The oil sludge components (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) have been found to be cytotoxic, mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic and microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi can degrade the oil sludge to less toxic compounds such as carbon dioxide, water and salts. In the present study, we isolated different bacteria with PAH-degrading potentials from the co-composting of oil sludge and different animal manure. These bacteria were isolated on the mineral base medium and mineral salt agar plates as a growth control. A total of 31 morphologically distinct isolates were carefully selected from 5 different compost treatments for identification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the 16S rDNA gene with specific primers (16S-P1 PCR and 16S-P2 PCR). The amplicons were sequenced and sequences were compared with the known nucleotides from the gene bank database. The phylogenetical analyses of the isolates showed that they belong to 3 different clades namely Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. These bacteria identified were closely related to genera Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Staphylococcus, Brevibacterium, Variovorax, Paenibacillus, Ralstonia and Geobacillus species. The results showed that Bacillus species were more dominant in all treated compost piles. Based on their characteristics these bacterial isolates have high potential to utilise PAHs of different molecular weights as carbon and energy sources. These identified bacteria are of special significance in their capacity to emulsify the PAHs and their ability to utilize them. Thus, they could be potentially useful for bioremediation of oil sludge and composting processes.

Keywords: bioaugmentation, biodegradation, bioremediation, composting, oil sludge, PAHs, animal manures

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28 Long-Term Exposure Assessments for Cooking Workers Exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Aldehydes Containing in Cooking Fumes

Authors: Chun-Yu Chen, Kua-Rong Wu, Yu-Cheng Chen, Perng-Jy Tsai

Abstract:

Cooking fumes are known containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aldehydes, and some of them have been proven carcinogenic or possibly carcinogenic to humans. Considering their chronic health effects, long-term exposure data is required for assessing cooking workers’ lifetime health risks. Previous exposure assessment studies, due to both time and cost constraints, mostly were based on the cross-sectional data. Therefore, establishing a long-term exposure data has become an important issue for conducting health risk assessment for cooking workers. An approach was proposed in this study. Here, the generation rates of both PAHs and aldehydes from a cooking process were determined by placing a sampling train exactly under the under the exhaust fan under the both the total enclosure condition and normal operating condition, respectively. Subtracting the concentration collected by the former (representing the total emitted concentration) from that of the latter (representing the hood collected concentration), the fugitive emitted concentration was determined. The above data was further converted to determine the generation rates based on the flow rates specified for the exhaust fan. The determinations of the above generation rates were conducted in a testing chamber with a selected cooking process (deep-frying chicken nuggets under 3 L peanut oil at 200°C). The sampling train installed under the exhaust fan consisted respectively an IOM inhalable sampler with a glass fiber filter for collecting particle-phase PAHs, followed by a XAD-2 tube for gas-phase PAHs. The above was also used to sample aldehydes, however, installed with a filter pre-coated with DNPH, and followed by a 2,4-DNPH-cartridge for collecting particle-phase and gas-phase aldehydes, respectively. PAHs and aldehydes samples were analyzed by GC/MS-MS (Agilent 7890B), and HPLC-UV (HITACHI L-7100), respectively. The obtained generation rates of both PAHs and aldehydes were applied to the near-field/ far-field exposure model to estimate the exposures of cooks (the estimated near-field concentration), and helpers (the estimated far-field concentration). For validating purposes, both PAHs and aldehydes samplings were conducted simultaneously using the same sampling train at both near-field and far-field sites of the testing chamber. The sampling results, together with the use of the mixed-effect model, were used to calibrate the estimated near-field/ far-field exposures. In the present study, the obtained emission rates were further converted to emission factor of both PAHs and aldehydes according to the amount of food oil consumed. Applying the long-term food oil consumption records, the emission rates for both PAHs and aldehydes were determined, and the long-term exposure databanks for cooks (the estimated near-field concentration), and helpers (the estimated far-field concentration) were then determined. Results show that the proposed approach was adequate to determine the generation rates of both PAHs and aldehydes under various fan exhaust flow rate conditions. The estimated near-field/ far-field exposures, though were significantly different from that obtained from the field, can be calibrated using the mixed effect model. Finally, the established long-term data bank could provide a useful basis for conducting long-term exposure assessments for cooking workers exposed to PAHs and aldehydes.

Keywords: aldehydes, cooking oil fumes, long-term exposure assessment, modeling, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

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