Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 593

Search results for: fish

593 The Resistance of Fish Outside of Water Medium

Authors: Febri Ramadhan

Abstract:

Water medium is a vital necessity for the survival of fish. Fish can survive inside/outside of water medium within a certain time. By knowing the level of survival fish at outside of water medium, a person can transport the fish to a place with more efficiently. Transport of live fish from one place to another can be done with wet and dry media system. In this experiment the treatment-given the observed differences in fish species. This experiment aimed to test the degree of resilience of fish out of water media. Based on the ANOVA table is obtained, it can be concluded that the type of fish affects the level of resilience of fish outside the water (Fhit> Ftab).

Keywords: fish, transport, retention rate, fish resiliance

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592 Comparative Analysis of Integrated and Non-Integrated Fish Farming in Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: B. G. Abiona

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This study compared profitability analysis of integrated and non-integrated fish farming in Ogun State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected using interview guide. Random sampling techniques was used to select 133 non-integrated fish farmers (NIFF) and 216 integrated fish farmers (IFF) (n = 349) from the study area. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, T-test and Pearson Product moment correlation. Results showed that 92.5% of NIFF was male compared to IFF (90.7%). Also, 96.8% of IFF and 79.7% of NIFF were married. The mean ages of sampled farmers were 44 years (NIFF) and 46 years (IFF) while the mean fish farming experiences were 4 years (NIFF) and 5 years (IFF). Also, the average net profit per year of integrated fish farmers was ₦162,550 compared to NIFF (₦61,638). The chi-square analyses showed that knowledge of fish farming had significant relationship with respondents sex (χ2 = 9.44, df = 2, p < 0.05), age (r = 0.20, p< 0.05) and farming experience (r = p = 0.05). Significant differences exist between integrated and non-integrated fish farming, considering their knowledge of fish farming (t = 21.5, χ = 43.01, p < 0.05). The study concluded that IFF are more profitable compared to NIFF. It was recommended that private investors and NGOs should sponsor short training and courses which will enhance efficiency of fish farming to boost productivity among fish farmers.

Keywords: profitability analysis, farms, integration

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591 Clove Essential Oil Improves Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Activity in Tilapia Fish Fillet Cooked by Grilling and Microwaving

Authors: E. Oskoueian, E. Maroufyan, Y. M. Goh, E. Ramezani-Fard, M. Ebrahimi

Abstract:

The fish meat plays an important role in the human health as it contains high quality protein. The tilapia fish considered as the third largest group of farmed fish. The oxidative deterioration of fish meat may occur during the cooking process. The proper cooking process and using natural antioxidant to prevent oxidation and enhance the quality of the tilapia fish fillet is necessary. Hence, this research was carried out to evaluate the potential of clove essential oil to prevent lipid peroxidation and enhance the antioxidant activity of tilapia fish fillet cooked using microwave and griller. The results showed that cooking using microwave significantly (p < 0.05) increased the lipid peroxidation and decreased the DPPH and ferric reducing activity power of the fish fillet as compared to grilling. The fortification of fish fillet using clove essential oil prevented from lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidant activity of the fish fillet significantly (p < 0.05). Consequently, fortification of tilapia fish fillet using clove essential oil followed by cooking using griller to have high quality cooked fish meat is recommended.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, fillet, fish, fortification, lipid peroxidation

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590 Higher Freshwater Fish and Sea Fish Intake Is Inversely Associated with Liver Cancer in Patients with Hepatitis B

Authors: Maomao Cao

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Background and aims While the association between higher consumption of fish and lower liver cancer risk has been confirmed, however, the association between specific fish intake and liver cancer risk remains unknown. We aimed to identify the association between specific fish consumption and the risk of liver cancer. Methods: Based on a community-based seropositive hepatitis B cohort involving 18404 individuals, face to face interview was conducted by a standardized questionnaire to acquire baseline information. Three common fish types in this study were analyzed, including freshwater fish, sea fish, and small fish (shrimp, crab, conch, and shell). All participants received liver cancer screening, and possible cases were identified by CT or MRI. Multivariable logistic models were applied to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Multivariate multiple imputations were utilized to impute observations with missing values. Results: 179 liver cancer cases were identified. Consumption of freshwater fish and sea fish at least once a week had a strong inverse association with liver cancer risk compared with the lowest intake level, with an adjusted OR of 0.53 (95% CI, 0.38-0.75) and 0.38 (95% CI, 0.19-0.73), respectively. This inverse association was also observed after the imputation. There was no statistically significant association between intake of small fish and liver cancer risk (OR=0.58, 95%, CI 0.32-1.08). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that consumption of freshwater fish and sea fish at least once a week could reduce liver cancer risk.

Keywords: cross-sectional study, fish intake, liver cancer, risk factor

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589 Determination of Cr Content in Canned Fish Marketed in Iran

Authors: Soheil Sobhanardakani, Seyed Vali Hosseini, Lima Tayebi

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The presence of heavy metals in the environment could constitute a hazard to food security and public health. These can be accumulated in aquatic animals such as fish. Samples of four popular brands of canned fish in the Iranian market (yellowfin tuna, common Kilka, Kawakawa, and longtail tuna) were analyzed for level of Cr after wet digestion with acids using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean concentrations for Cr in the different brands were: 2.57, 3.24, 3.16, and 1.65 μg/g for brands A, B, C, and D respectively. Significant differences were observed in the Cr levels between all of the different brands of canned fish evaluated in this study. The Cr concentrations for the varieties of canned fishes were generally within the FAO/WHO, U.S. FDA, and U.S. EPA recommended limits for fish.

Keywords: heavy metals, essential metals, canned fish, food security

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588 Characterization of Fish Bone Catalyst for Biodiesel Production

Authors: Sarina Sulaiman, N.Khairudin , P.Jamal, M.Z. Alam, Zaki Zainudin, S. Azmi

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In this study, fish bone waste was used as a new catalyst for biodiesel production. Instead of discarding the fish bone waste, it will be utilized as a source for catalyst that can provide significant benefit to the environment. Also, it can be substitute as a calcium oxide source instead of using eggshell, crab shell and snail shell. The XRD and SEM analysis proved that calcined fish bone contains calcium oxide, calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. The catalyst was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD).

Keywords: calcinations, fish bone, transesterification, waste catalyst

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587 Effect of Chitosan and Ascorbic Acid Coating on the Refrigerated Tilapia Fish Fillet (Oreochromis niliticus)

Authors: Jau-Shya Lee, Rossita Shapawi, Vin Cent Pua

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Tilapia is a popular cultured fresh-water fish in Malaysia. The highly perishable nature of the fish and increasing demand for high-quality ready-to-cook fish has intensified the search for better fish preservation method. Chitosan edible coating has been evident to extend the shelf life of fish fillet. This work was attempted to explore the potential of ascorbic acid in enhancing the shelf life extension ability of chitosan coated Tilapia fillet under refrigeration condition (4 ± 1oC). A 3 2 Factorial Design which comprising of three concentrations of chitosan (1, 1.5 and 2%) and two concentrations of ascorbic acids (2.5 and 5%) was used. The fish fillets were analyzed for total viable count, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, pH, aw and colour changes at 3-day interval over 15-day storage. The shelf life of chitosan coated (1.5% and 2%) fillet was increased to 15 days as compared to uncoated fish fillet which can only last for nine days. The inhibition of microbial growth of fish fillet was enhanced with the addition of 5% of ascorbic acids in 2% of chitosan. The TBA value, pH and aw for chitosan coated samples were found lower than that of uncoated sample (p<0.05). The colour stability of the fish fillet was also improved by the composite coating. Overall, 2% of chitosan and 5% of ascorbic acid formed the most effective coating to enhance the quality and to lengthen the shelf life of refrigerated Tilapia fillet.

Keywords: ascorbic acid, chitosan, edible coating, fish fillet

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586 Northern Westerrn Ghats of India Possess an Indigenous Fish Fauna: A Survey from Kudali River

Authors: R. A. Jamdade, Rokade A. C., Deshpande V. Y.

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The freshwater fish fauna of Kudali River, a northern right bank tributary of the Krishna River Western Ghats of India was studied. It is one of the smallest tributary of Krishna river and never been explored for fish fauna assessment. It extends over 23 Kms having 22 fish species belonging to 15 genera and 7 families, of these 3 species are endemic to Western Ghats, 2 are globaly endangered and 2 near to be threatened. Downstream the Kudal locality, the river is under the influence of anthropogenic activities and over fishing, where conservation action plans are needed to be undertaken for conservation of endangered and near to be threatened fish fauna.

Keywords: freshwater, fish, fauna, western Ghats, anthropogenic activity, conservation

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585 Radionuclide Determination Study for Some Fish Species in Kuwait

Authors: Ahmad Almutairi

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Kuwait lies to the northwest of the Arabian Gulf. The levels of radionuclides are unknown in this area. Radionuclide like ²¹⁰Po, ²²⁶Ra, and ⁹⁰Sr accumulated in certain body tissues and bones, relate primarily to dietary uptake and inhalation. A large fraction of radiation exposure experienced by individuals comes from food chain transfer. In this study, some types of Kuwait fish were studied for radionuclide determination. These fish were taken from the Kuwaiti water territory during May. The study is to determine the radiation exposure for ²¹⁰Po in some fish species in Kuwait the ²¹⁰Po concentration was found to be between 0.089 and 2.544 Bq/kg the highs was in Zubaidy and the lowest was in Hamour.

Keywords: the radionuclide, radiation exposure, fish species, Zubaida, Hamour

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584 Sorting Fish by Hu Moments

Authors: J. M. Hernández-Ontiveros, E. E. García-Guerrero, E. Inzunza-González, O. R. López-Bonilla

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This paper presents the implementation of an algorithm that identifies and accounts different fish species: Catfish, Sea bream, Sawfish, Tilapia, and Totoaba. The main contribution of the method is the fusion of the characteristics of invariance to the position, rotation and scale of the Hu moments, with the proper counting of fish. The identification and counting is performed, from an image under different noise conditions. From the experimental results obtained, it is inferred the potentiality of the proposed algorithm to be applied in different scenarios of aquaculture production.

Keywords: counting fish, digital image processing, invariant moments, pattern recognition

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583 Counter-Current Extraction of Fish Oil and Toxic Elements from Fish Waste Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Authors: Parvaneh Hajeb, Shahram Shakibazadeh, Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker

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High-quality fish oil for human consumption requires low levels of toxic elements. The aim of this study was to develop a method to extract oil from fish wastes with the least toxic elements contamination. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was applied to detoxify fish oils from toxic elements. The SFE unit used consisted of an intelligent HPLC pump equipped with a cooling jacket to deliver CO2. The freeze-dried fish waste sample was extracted by heating in a column oven. Under supercritical conditions, the oil dissolved in CO2 was separated from the supercritical phase using pressure reduction. The SFE parameters (pressure, temperature, CO2 flow rate, and extraction time) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) to extract the highest levels of toxic elements. The results showed that toxic elements in fish oil can be reduced using supercritical CO2 at optimum pressure 40 MPa, temperature 61 ºC, CO2 flow rate 3.8 MPa, and extraction time 4.25 hr. There were significant reductions in the mercury (98.2%), cadmium (98.9%), arsenic (96%), and lead contents (99.2%) of the fish oil. The fish oil extracted using this method contained elements at levels that were much lower than the accepted limits of 0.1 μg/g. The reduction of toxic elements using the SFE method was more efficient than that of the conventional methods due to the high selectivity of supercritical CO2 for non-polar compounds.

Keywords: food safety, toxic elements, fish oil, supercritical carbon dioxide

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582 Modulation of Fish Allergenicity towards the Production of a Low Allergen Farmed Fish

Authors: Denise Schrama, Claudia Raposo, Pedro Rodrigues

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Background: Food allergies are conducted by a hypersensitive response of the immune system. These allergies are a global concern for the public health. Consumption of fish is increasing worldwide as it is a healthy meat with high nutritional value. Unfortunately, fish can cause adverse immune-mediate reactions, affecting part of the population with higher incidence in children. β-parvalbumin, a small, highly conserved stable, calcium or magnesium binding muscle protein is the main fish allergen. In fish-allergic patients, cross-reactivity between different fish species exist due to recognition of highly identical protein regions. Enolases, aldolases, or fish gelatin are other identified fish allergens in some fish species. With no available cure for fish allergies, clinical management is only based on an avoidance diet aiming at the total exclusion of offending food. Methods: Mediterranean fish (S. aurata and D. labrax) were fed specifically designed diets, enriched in components that target the expression or inactivation of parvalbumin (creatine and EDTA, respectively). After 90 days fish were sampled and biological tissues were excised. Proteomics was used to access fish allergens characterization and expression in muscle while IgE assays to confirm the lower allergenic potential are conducted in patients with history of fish allergies. Fish welfare and quality of flesh were established with biochemical, texture and sensorial analysis. Results: Fish welfare shows no major impact between diets. In case of creatine supplementation in D. labrax proteomic analysis show a slight decrease in parvalbumin expression. No accumulation of this compound was found in muscle. For EDTA supplementation in S. aurata IgE assay show a slight decrease in allergenicity when using sera of fish allergic patients. Conclusion: Supplementation with these two compounds seems to change slightly the allergenicity of the two mean Mediterranean species.

Keywords: fish allergies, fish nutrition, proteomics, aquaculture

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581 Fermented Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiacal) Peel Meal as a Replacement for Maize in the Diet of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fingerlings

Authors: N. A. Bamidele, S. O. Obasa, I. O. Taiwo, I. Abdulraheem, O. C. Odebiyi, A. A. Adeoye, O. E. Babalola, O. V. Uzamere

Abstract:

A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of fermented unripe plantain peel meal (FUP) on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and economic indices of production of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings. Fingerlings (150) of Nile tilapia (1.70±0.1g) were stocked at 10 per plastic tank. Five iso-nitrogenous diets containing 40% crude protein in which maize meal was replaced by fermented unripe plantain peel meal at 0% (FUP0), 25% (FUP25), 50% (FUP50), 75% (FUP75) and 100% (FUP100) were formulated and prepared. The fingerlings were fed at 5% body weight per day for 56 days. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in all the growth parameters among the treatments. Feed conversion ratio of 1.35 in fish fed diet FUP25 was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from 1.42 of fish fed diet FUP0. Apparent protein digestibility of 86.94% in fish fed diet FUP100 was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than 70.37% in fish fed diet FUP0 while apparent carbohydrate of 88.34% in fish fed diet FUP0 was significantly different (p < 0.05) from 70.29% of FUP100. Red blood cell (4.30 ml/mm3) of fish fed diet FUP100 was not significantly different from 4.13 ml/mm3 of fish fed diet FUP50. The highest percentage profit of 88.85% in fish fed diet FUP100 was significantly higher than 66.68% in fish fed diet FUP0 while the profit index of 1.89 in fish fed diet FUP100 was significantly different from 1.67 in fish fed diet FUP0. Therefore, fermented unripe plantain peel meal can completely replace maize in the diet of O. niloticus fingerlings.

Keywords: fermentation, fish diets, plantain peel, tilapia

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580 Quality Analysis of Lake Malawi's Diplotaxodon Fish Species Processed in Solar Tent Dryer versus Open Sun Drying

Authors: James Banda, Jupiter Simbeye, Essau Chisale, Geoffrey Kanyerere, Kings Kamtambe

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Improved solar tent dryers for processing small fish species were designed to reduce post-harvest fish losses and improve supply of quality fish products in the southern part of Lake Malawi under CultiAF project. A comparative analysis of the quality of Diplotaxodon (Ndunduma) from Lake Malawi processed in solar tent dryer and open sun drying was conducted using proximate analysis, microbial analysis and sensory evaluation. Proximates for solar tent dried fish and open sun dried fish in terms of proteins, fats, moisture and ash were 63.3±0.15% and 63.3±0.34%, 19.6±0.09% and 19.9±0.25%, 8.3±0.12% and 17.0±0.01%, and 15.6±0.61% and 21.9±0.91% respectively. Crude protein and crude fat showed non-significant differences (p = 0.05), while moisture and ash content were significantly different (p = 001). Open sun dried fish had significantly higher numbers of viable bacteria counts (5.2×10⁶ CFU) than solar tent dried fish (3.9×10² CFU). Most isolated bacteria from solar tent dried and open sun dried fish were 1.0×10¹ and 7.2×10³ for Total coliform, 0 and 4.5 × 10³ for Escherishia coli, 0 and 7.5 × 10³ for Salmonella, 0 and 5.7×10² for shigella, 4.0×10¹ and 6.1×10³ for Staphylococcus, 1.0×10¹ and 7.0×10² for vibrio. Qualitative evaluation of sensory properties showed higher acceptability of 3.8 for solar tent dried fish than 1.7 for open sun dried fish. It is concluded that promotion of solar tent drying in processing small fish species in Malawi would support small-scale fish processors to produce quality fish in terms of nutritive value, reduced microbial contamination, sensory acceptability and reduced moisture content.

Keywords: diplotaxodon, Malawi, open sun drying, solar tent drying

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579 Fish Scales as a Nonlethal Screening Tools for Assessing the Effects of Surface Water Contaminants in Cyprinus Carpio

Authors: Shahid Mahboob, Hafiz Muhammad Ashraf, Salma Sultana, Tayyaba Sultana, Khalid Al-Ghanim, Fahid Al-Misned, Zubair Ahmedd

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There is an increasing need for an effective tool to estimate the risks derived from the large number of pollutants released to the environment by human activities. Typical screening procedures are highly invasive or lethal to the fish. Recent studies show that fish scales biochemically respond to a range of contaminants, including toxic metals, organic compounds, and endocrine disruptors. The present study evaluated the effects of the surface water contaminants on Cyprinus carpio in the Ravi River by comparing DNA extracted non-lethally from their scales to DNA extracted from the scales of fish collected from a controlled fish farm. A single, random sampling was conducted. Fish were broadly categorised into three weight categories (W1, W2 and W3). The experimental samples in the W1, W2 and W3 categories had an average DNA concentration (µg/µl) that was lower than the control samples. All control samples had a single DNA band; whereas the experimental samples in W1 fish had 1 to 2 bands, the experimental samples in W2 fish had two bands and the experimental samples in W3 fish had fragmentation in the form of three bands. These bands exhibit the effects of pollution on fish in the Ravi River. On the basis findings of this study, we propose that fish scales can be successfully employed as a new non-lethal tool for the evaluation of the effect of surface water contaminants.

Keywords: fish scales, Cyprinus carpio, heavy metals, non-invasive, DNA fragmentation

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578 Scanning Electron Microscopy of the Erythrocytes of Channa punctatus (Bloch) Exposed to Mercuric Chloride

Authors: Shweta Maheshwari, Anish Dua

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Hematological changes reflect the adverse effects of heavy metals on fish. Hematology is a valuable tool to evaluate pathological condition of the fish. It helps in diagnosing the structural and functional status of fish exposed to toxicants. Morphological alteration in erythrocytes due to environmental stress can be studied through ultra-structural analysis. The aim of the present study was to assess the toxicity of mercuric chloride on red blood cells of an air breathing fish, Channa punctatus. Fish were subjected to chronic experiments using three sublethal concentration of mercuric chloride (0.020mg/L, 0.027mg/L, 0.040mg/L) for a period of 15, 30 and 60 days. Exposed fish of all the three concentrations were subjected to a recovery period of 30 days. A control was maintained in tap water simultaneously. For SEM analysis, blood from caudal vein of fish was taken and examined at an accelerating voltage of 20kV. Scanning electron micrographs revealed elliptical shaped erythrocytes of control fish. Alterations in the erythrocyte morphology such as presence of spherocytes, membrane internalization, crenation of membrane and development of lobopodial projections were observed in the exposed fish. The study revealed that ultra-structural analysis appears to be a sensitive method to evaluate the toxicity of various toxicants to fish.

Keywords: Channa punctatus, erythrocytes, mercuric chloride, scanning electron microscopy

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577 Radiological Assessment of Fish Samples Due to Natural Radionuclides in River Yobe, North Eastern Nigeria

Authors: H. T. Abba, Abbas Baba Kura

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Assessment of natural radioactivity of some fish samples in river Yobe was conducted, using gamma spectroscopy method with NaI(TI) detector. Radioactivity is phenomenon that leads to production of radiations, whereas radiation is known to trigger or induce cancer. The fish were analyzed to estimate the radioactivity (activity) concentrations due to natural radionuclides (Radium 222(226Ra), Thorium 232 (232Th) and Potassium 40 (40K)). The obtained result show that the activity concentration for (226Ra), in all the fish samples collected ranges from 15.23±2.45 BqKg-1 to 67.39±2.13 BqKg-1 with an average value of 34.13±1.34 BqKg-1. That of 232Th, ranges from 42.66±0.81 BqKg-1 to 201.18±3.82 BqKg-1, and the average value stands at 96.01±3.82 BqKg-1. The activity concentration for 40K, ranges between 243.3±1.56 BqKg-1 to 618.2±2.81 BqKg-1 and the average is 413.92±1.7 BqKg-1. This study indicated that average daily intake due to natural activity from the fish is valued at 0.913 Bq/day, 2.577Bq/day and 11.088 Bq/day for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K respectively. This shows that the activity concentration values for fish, shows a promising result with most of the fish activity concentrations been within the acceptable limits. However locations (F02, F07 and F12) fish, became outliers with significant values of 112.53μSvy-1, 121.11μSvy-1 and 114.32μSvy-1 effective Dose. This could be attributed to variation in geological formations within the river as while as the feeding habits of these fish. The work shows that consumers of fish from River Yobe have no risk of radioactivity ingestion, even though no amount of radiation is assumed to be totally safe.

Keywords: radiation, radio-activity, dose, radionuclides, river Yobe

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576 The Concentration of Natural Alpha Emitters Radionuclides in Fish and Their Contribution to the Internal Dose

Authors: Wagner Pereira, Alphonse Kelecom

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Mining can impact the environment, and the major impact of some mining activities is the radiological impact. In human populations, such impact is well studied and regulated. For biota, this assessment always had as focus the protection of human food chain. The protection of biota itself is a new approach, still developing. In order to contribute to this new approach, fish collecting was carried out in areas of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), where a uranium mine is in decommissioning phase. The activity concentrations were analyzed, in Bq/kg wet weight, for Uranium (Unat), Th-232 and Ra-226 in the lambari fish Astyanax bimaculatus L. (omnivorous fish) and in the traíra fish Hoplias malabaricus Bloch, 1794 (carnivorous fish). Seven composite samples (that is: a sufficient number of individuals to reach at least 2 kg of fresh weight) were collected every six months between 2013 and 2015. The mean activity concentrations (AC) for uranium ranged from 1.12 (lambari) to 0.60 (lungfish). For Th, variations ranged from 0.30 to 0.05 (lambari and traíra, respectively). Finally, the Ra-226 means ranged between 0.08 and 0.03. No temporal trends of accumulation could be identified. Systematically, the AC values of radionuclides were higher in omnivorous fish when compared to the carnivore ones.

Keywords: biota dose, NORM, fish, environmental protection

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575 Sewage Induced Behavioural Responses in an Air-Breathing Fish, Pangasius pangasius

Authors: Sasikala Govindaraj, P. Palanisamy, G. M. Natarajan

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Domestic sewage poses major threats to the aquatic environment in third world countries due to lack of technical and economic sources which can have significant impacts on fish. The tolerance limits to toxicants found in domestic effluents vary among species and their integrative effects may lead to reproductive failure and reduction of survival and growth of the more sensitive fish species. The mechanism of action of toxic substances upon various concentrations of sewage was taken aiming to evaluate locomotory, physiological, neurological and morbidity response of fish. The rapid biomonitoring assessment technique for qualitative evaluation of various industrial pollutants, behavioral responses of an air-breathing fish Pangasius pangasius were used as biomarkers for water quality assessment. The present investigation concluded that sewage is highly toxic to the fish and severely affects their physiology and behavior.

Keywords: air-breathing organs, behavioral, locomotory, morbidity, neurological, physiological, sewage

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574 Effect of Different Model Drugs on the Properties of Model Membranes from Fishes

Authors: M. Kumpugdee-Vollrath, T. G. D. Phu, M. Helmis

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A suitable model membrane to study the pharmacological effect of pharmaceutical products is human stratum corneum because this layer of human skin is the outermost layer and it is an important barrier to be passed through. Other model membranes which were also used are for example skins from pig, mouse, reptile or fish. We are interested in fish skins in this project. The advantages of the fish skins are, that they can be obtained from the supermarket or fish shop. However, the fish skins should be freshly prepared and used directly without storage. In order to understand the effect of different model drugs e.g. lidocaine HCl, resveratrol, paracetamol, ibuprofen, acetyl salicylic acid on the properties of the model membrane from various types of fishes e.g. trout, salmon, cod, plaice permeation tests were performed and differential scanning calorimetry was applied.

Keywords: fish skin, model membrane, permeation, DSC, lidocaine HCl, resveratrol, paracetamol, ibuprofen, acetyl salicylic acid

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573 Planktivorous Fish Schooling Responses to Current at Natural and Artificial Reefs

Authors: Matthew Holland, Jason Everett, Martin Cox, Iain Suthers

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High spatial-resolution distribution of planktivorous reef fish can reveal behavioural adaptations to optimise the balance between feeding success and predator avoidance. We used a multi-beam echosounder to record bathymetry and the three-dimensional distribution of fish schools associated with natural and artificial reefs. We utilised generalised linear models to assess the distribution, orientation, and aggregation of fish schools relative to the structure, vertical relief, and currents. At artificial reefs, fish schooled more closely to the structure and demonstrated a preference for the windward side, particularly when exposed to strong currents. Similarly, at natural reefs fish demonstrated a preference for windward aspects of bathymetry, particularly when associated with high vertical relief. Our findings suggest that under conditions with stronger current velocity, fish can exercise their preference to remain close to structure for predator avoidance, while still receiving an adequate supply of zooplankton delivered by the current. Similarly, when current velocity is low, fish tend to disperse for better access to zooplankton. As artificial reefs are generally deployed with the goal of creating productivity rather than simply attracting fish from elsewhere, we advise that future artificial reefs be designed as semi-linear arrays perpendicular to the prevailing current, with multiple tall towers. This will facilitate the conversion of dispersed zooplankton into energy for higher trophic levels, enhancing reef productivity and fisheries.

Keywords: artificial reef, current, forage fish, multi-beam, planktivorous fish, reef fish, schooling

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572 Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Estuarine Fish from Dhaka City Markets

Authors: Fahmida Khalique Nitu

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Little is known on the biosafety level of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in estuarine fish in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and concentration of V. parahaemolyticus in estuarine fishes using the Polymerase Chain Reaction( PCR) method . The study was conducted on 37 fishes of different species from different types of estuarine fish commonly sold at city markets. Sampling was done on the intestinal tract and gills of each fish. The prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus was found to be 29.72% with higher percentages detected in samples from the gills (89.28%) followed by the intestinal tract (10.71%). The density of Vibrio spp. in the gill of estuarine fishes with an average was 4.4 x103CFU/g and in the intestine samples was 1.5x103 CFU/g. The outcome of the biosafety assessment V. parahaemolyticus in estuarine fish indicates another potential source of food safety issues to consumers.

Keywords: biosafety, estuarine, prevalence, Vibrios

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571 Product Quality and Profitability of Sea Bream Fish Farms in Greece

Authors: C. Nathanailides, S. Anastasiou, P. Logothetis, G. Kanlis

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Production parameters of gilt head sea bream fish farm such as feeding regimes, mortalities, fish densities were used to calculate the economic efficiency of six different aquaculture sites from West Greece. Samples of farmed sea bream were collected and lipid content, microbial load and filleting yield of the samples were used as quality criteria. The results indicate that Lipid content, filleting yield and microbial load of fish originating from different fish farms varied significantly with improved quality exhibited in fish farms which exhibited improved Feed conversion rates and lower mortalities. Changes in feeding management practices such as feed quality and feeding regimes have a significant impact on the financial performance of sea bass farms. Fish farms which exhibited improved feeding conversion rates also exhibited increased profitability. Improvements in the FCR explained about 13.4 % of the difference in profitability of the different aquaculture sites. Lower mortality and higher growth rates were also exhibited by the fish farms which exhibited improved FCR. It is concluded that best feeding management practices resulted in improved product quality and profitability.

Keywords: aquaculture economics, gilt head sea, production fish, feeding management

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570 Marketing Parameters on Consumer's Perceptions of Farmed Sea Bass in Greece

Authors: Sophia Anastasiou, Cosmas Nathanailides, Fotini Kakali, Kostas Karipoglou

Abstract:

Wild fish are considered as testier and in fish restaurants are offered at twice the price of farmed fish. Several chemical and structural differences can affect the consumer's attitudes for farmed fish. The structure and chemical composition of fish muscle is also important for the performance of farmed fish during handling, storage and processing. In the present work we present the chemical and sensory parameters which are used as indicators of fish flesh quality and we investigated the perceptions of consumers for farmed sea bass and the organoleptic differences between samples of wild and farmed sea bass. A questionnaire was distributed to a group of various ages that were regular consumers of sea bass. The questionnaire included a survey on the perceptions on taste and appearance differences between wild and farmed sea bass. A significant percentage (>40%) of the participants stated their perception of superior taste of wild sea bass versus the farmed fish. The participants took part in an organoleptic assessment of wild and farmed sea bass prepared and cooked by a local fish restaurant. Portions were evaluated for intensity of sensorial attributes from 1 (low intensity) to 5 (high intensity). The results indicate that contrary to the assessor's perception, farmed sea bass scored better in al organoleptic parameters assessed with marked superiority in texture and taste over the wild sea bass. This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund – ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: ARCHIMEDES III. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

Keywords: fish marketing, farmed fish, seafood quality, wild fish

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569 Economic Assessment of the Fish Solar Tent Dryers

Authors: Collen Kawiya

Abstract:

In an effort of reducing post-harvest losses and improving the supply of quality fish products in Malawi, the fish solar tent dryers have been designed in the southern part of Lake Malawi for processing small fish species under the project of Cultivate Africa’s Future (CultiAF). This study was done to promote the adoption of the fish solar tent dryers by the many small scale fish processors in Malawi through the assessment of the economic viability of these dryers. With the use of the project’s baseline survey data, a business model for a constructed ‘ready for use’ solar tent dryer was developed where investment appraisal techniques were calculated in addition with the sensitivity analysis. The study also conducted a risk analysis through the use of the Monte Carlo simulation technique and a probabilistic net present value was found. The investment appraisal results showed that the net present value was US$8,756.85, the internal rate of return was 62% higher than the 16.32% cost of capital and the payback period was 1.64 years. The sensitivity analysis results showed that only two input variables influenced the fish solar dryer investment’s net present value. These are the dried fish selling prices that were correlating positively with the net present value and the fresh fish buying prices that were negatively correlating with the net present value. Risk analysis results showed that the chances that fish processors will make a loss from this type of investment are 17.56%. It was also observed that there exist only a 0.20 probability of experiencing a negative net present value from this type of investment. Lastly, the study found that the net present value of the fish solar tent dryer’s investment is still robust in spite of any changes in the levels of investors risk preferences. With these results, it is concluded that the fish solar tent dryers in Malawi are an economically viable investment because they are able to improve the returns in the fish processing activity. As such, fish processors need to adopt them by investing their money to construct and use them.

Keywords: investment appraisal, risk analysis, sensitivity analysis, solar tent drying

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568 Trends and Priorities for the Fishing Sector in the Republic of Moldova

Authors: Mihaela Munteanu Pila

Abstract:

Abstract The Republic of Moldova has a high potential for commercial growth of fish, due to its rich natural resources. Every year, national actions are implemented for the development and improvement of wetlands through acclimatization of hydrobionts, cleaning of adjacent waste areas and repopulation with valuable fish species. Due to aggressive environmental factors, anthropogenic factors, poaching or insufficient financial resources allocated to the authorities, there is a strong degradation of aquatic resources in the area. The main issue of the study is to identify priority areas for the development of fish farming in the area and maintain potential reserves to increase the efficiency of fish production in the pond. The rational operation of pond-type reservoirs will make it possible to maintain the breeding base of many fish species and will in future become a valuable source of local marketable products, in order to increase the productivity of fish in ponds and exploit the region's resources. The research looked at the problems that led to a decline in local fish production and identified a number of long-term measures needed to develop aquaculture.

Keywords: Development, , Republic of Moldova, , fisheries, , productivity

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567 Acute Toxicity and the Effects of dichromate potassium (K2Cr2O7) in sobaity seabream (Sparidebtex hasta)

Authors: Elnaz Erfani, Elahe Erfni

Abstract:

In this study, 96h LC50 values of dichromate potassium (K2Cr2O7), a highly toxicant heavy metal on sobaity seabream, Sparidebtex hasta of average weight mean weight 3.24 g; mean length 5.35cm was determined. At first, for rang finding test, fish were exposed to K2Cr2O7 at several selected concentrations 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mg/L, then fish exposed to five concentrations control, 40, 45, 50 and 55 mg/L of K2Cr2O7 for LC50-96h. The experiment was carried out in triplicate, and 21 fish per each treatment, Physicochemical properties of water were measured continuously throughout the experiment. The temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and salinity were 26 ◦c, 7.05, 8.84 mgO2 L-1 and 37.5 ppt, respectively. A number of mortality and behavioral responses of fish were recorded after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. LC50 values were determined with probate analysis. The 96 hour LC50 value of K2Cr2O7 to the fish was found to be 48.82 ppm. In addition, behavioural changes increased with increased concentration. The results obtained in this study clearly revealed the fact that it is necessary to control the use of a heavy metal such as dichromate potassium.

Keywords: marin fish- lc50, dicromat potassium, lc50, mortality

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566 Some Metal Levels in Muscle Tissue of Seven Fish Species from the Suğla and Beyşehir Lakes, Turkey

Authors: Haluk Özparlak, Murad Aydın Şanda, Gülşin Arslan

Abstract:

Phoxinellus anatolicus, Carassius gibelio, Sander lucioperca, Vimba vimba tenella, Capoeta capoeta, Tinca tinca from Suğla Lake (Turkey) and Phoxinellus anatolicus, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Tinca tinca from Beyşehir Lake (Turkey) are economically important fish species and these fish have been consumed as food by local people. P. anatolicus is also endangered and endemic species from Turkey. In this study, concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in muscle tissue of these fish by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Levels of metals in the muscle tissue of all the fish specimens were compared with results of previous studies, the tolerance levels of national and international guidelines and the levels of Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) limits set by FAO/WHO. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb in the muscle tissue of all the fish specimens from Suğla and Beyşehir Lakes exceeded the tolerance levels of national and international guidelines. However, concentrations of Cd, Fe, Pb and Zn were below PTWI limits. Therefore, in terms of these metal levels, consumption of fresh filet of examined seven fish species (weekly up to about 300 g/person) doesn’t seem to be objectionable for human health.

Keywords: Beyşehir Lake, fish, metal levels, Suğla Lake

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
565 Using Submerge Fermentation Method to Production of Extracellular Lipase by Aspergillus niger

Authors: Masoumeh Ghasemi, Afshin Farahbakhsh, Arman Farahbakhsh, Ali Asghar Safari

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In this study, lipase production has been investigated using submerge fermentation by Aspergillus niger in Kilka fish oil as main substrate. The Taguchi method with an L9 orthogonal array design was used to investigate the effect of parameters and their levels on lipase productivity. The optimum conditions for Kilka fish oil concentration, incubation temperature and pH were obtained 3 gr./ml 35°C and 7, respectively. The amount of lipase activity in optimum condition was obtained 4.59IU/ml. By comparing this amount with the amount of productivity in the olive oil medium based on the cost of each medium, it was that using Kilka fish oil is 84% economical. Therefore Kilka fish oil can be used as an economical and suitable substrate in the lipase production and industrial usages.

Keywords: lipase, Aspergillus niger, Kilka fish oil, submerge fermentation method

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564 The Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) in the Diet on Some Serum Biochemical Parameters of Oscar Fish (Astronotus ocellatus)

Authors: Ali Saghaei, Negar Ghotbeddin, Ebrahim Rajabzadeh Ghatrami, Milad Maniat

Abstract:

The use of herbs as natural additives in fish diets are used to enhance the efficiency and safety systems. The use of herbs, garlic, due to the structure and composition of it has beneficial role in human nutrition and animal nutrition. This study was conducted evaluate the effect different levels of garlic (Allium sativum) powder on the some serum biochemical parameters of Oscar fish (Astronotus ocellatus). Fish were divided into four groups fed on diets containing garlic in different levels; 5 g kg˗1, 10 g kg-1, 20 g kg-1, 30 g kg-1 diet and the control group diet was without garlic. A total number of 300 fish was used and Triplicate groups of Oscar fish with initial weight of 12.43±0.24 g were hand-fed to visual satiation at three meals per day. The experiment extended for two months. Total Protein (TP), Albumin (ALB), Globulin (GLB) and Albumin/Globulin (A/G) ratio, were determined. Based on the results, no significant differences were seen among treatments and control groups during the experimental period for TP, ALB, GLB, and A/G ratio (p > 0.05). Although, the highest amount of serum total protein and globulin levels were observed in diet containing 10 g kg-1 of garlic. Also, the highest value of albumin and A/G were observed in diet containing 20 g kg-1 of garlic, but there were no significant difference with other treatments. The results of this study show that addition of garlic Allium sativum to fish diet can improve fish health.

Keywords: garlic (Allium sativum), serum, Oscar fish (Astronotus ocellatus), iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 363