Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7549

Search results for: water pollution

7549 Pollution-Sources, Controls, and Impact Analysis

Authors: Aditi Acharya

Abstract:

Environmental pollution is threatening the environmental and human health in the most drastic way. This paper provides insight about the affects of environmental pollution in the perspective of water pollution. Sewage in drinking water, the increasing contamination of water bodies and water resources and the human beings are the major contributors, increasing the harsh activities of pollution. The research presents information about the sources of pollution, its impacts and control activities to be undertaken to make our environment free from water pollution.

Keywords: environmental pollution, water pollution, nanotechnology, nanomaterials

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
7548 Environmental Pollution and Treatment Technology

Authors: R. Berrached, H. Ait Mahamed, A. Iddou

Abstract:

Water pollution is nowadays a serious problem, due to the increasing scarcity of water and thus to the impact induced by such pollution on the human health. Various techniques are made use of to deal with water pollution. Among the most used ones, some can be enumerated: the bacterian bed, the activated mud, the Lagunage as biological processes and coagulation-floculation as a physic-chemical process. These processes are very expensive and an treatment efficiency which decreases along with the increase of the initial pollutants’ concentration. This is the reason why research has been reoriented towards the use of a process by adsorption as an alternative solution instead of the other traditional processes. In our study, we have tempted to exploit the characteristics of two metallic hydroxides Al and Fe to purify contaminated water by two industrial dyes SBL blue and SRL-150 orange. Results have shown the efficiency of the two materials on the blue SBL dye.

Keywords: metallic hydroxydes, industrial dyes, purificatıon,

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
7547 Effects of Air Pollution on Dew Water: A Case Study of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

Authors: M. Sanmi Awopetu, Olugbenga Aribisala, Olabisi O. Ologuntoye, S. Olumuyi Akindele

Abstract:

Human existence vis-à-vis its environment is more and more getting a threatened sequel to air pollution occasioned majorly by human coupled with natural activities. Earth is getting warmer; ozone layer is getting depleted, acid rain is being experienced, all as a result of air pollution. This study seeks to investigate the effect of air pollution on dew water. Thirty-one (31) samples of dew water were collected in four locations in Ado- Ekiti, Ekiti State Nigeria. Analytical studies of the dew water samples were carried out to determine the pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Electrical Conductivity (EC) in order to determine whether the dew water is polluted or not. There is no documented world standard for dew water quality. However, the standard for normal rain water which is pH between 5.0-5.6 and acid rain pH between 4.0-4.4 was adopted for this study. The pH of dew water samples collected and analyzed ranged between 5.5 and 7.9 in Olokun Ado-Ekiti while other samples fell in between this range. In Government Reserved Area (GRA), Ajilosun and EKSU school area, the pH ranged between 6.4 and 7.9 while EC fell in between 0.0 and 0.9 mS/cm which shows that the observed zones are polluted. Everyone has a role to play in order to reduce the pollutants being released into the atmosphere. There is a need to develop an international standard for dew water quality.

Keywords: dew, air pollution, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, Ado-Ekiti

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
7546 Modeling and Calculation of Physical Parameters of the Pollution of Water by Oil and Materials in Suspensions

Authors: Ainas Belkacem, Fourar Ali

Abstract:

The present study focuses on the mathematical modeling and calculation of physical parameters of water pollution by oil and sand in regime fully dispersed in water. In this study, the sand particles and oil are suspended in the case of fully developed turbulence. The study consists to understand, model and predict the viscosity, the structure and dynamics of these types of mixtures. The work carried out is Numerical and validated by experience.

Keywords: multi phase flow, pollution, suspensions, turbulence

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
7545 Evaluation of Water Quality of the Surface Water of the Damietta Nile Branch, Damietta Governorate, Egypt

Authors: M. S. M. El-Bady

Abstract:

Water quality and heavy metals pollution of the Damietta Nile Branch at Damietta governorate were investigated in the current work. Fourteen different sampling points were selected along the Damietta Nile branch from Ras EL-Bar (sample 1) to Sheremsah (sample 14). Physical and chemical parameters and the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Fe, Al, Hg, Pb and Zn were investigated for water quality assessment of Damietta Nile Branch at Damietta Governorate. Most of the samples show that the water is suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes. All locations of samples near the sea are unsuitable water but the samples in the south direction away from the sea are suitable or good water for drinking and irrigation.

Keywords: water quality indices, Damietta Governorate, Nile river, pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
7544 Water Quality of Cengkareng Drain in Maritime Security Perspective

Authors: Febri Ramadhan, Sigid Hariyadi, Niken Tunjung Murti Pratiwi, Budiman Djoko Said

Abstract:

The scope about maritime security copes all of the problems emanating from maritime domain. Those problems can give such threats to national security of the state. One of threats taking place nowadays in maritime domain is about pollution. Pollution coming from many sources may increase water-borne disease risk that can cause the instability of national security. Pollution coming from many sources may increase water-borne disease risk. Hence the pollution makes an improper condition of environments for humans and others biota dwelling in the waters. One of the tools that can determine about pollution is by measuring about the water quality of its waters. In this case, what brings the waste and pollutants is there an activity of tidal waves introducing substances or energy into the natural environment. Cengkareng Drain is one of the water channels which is affected by tidal waves. Cengkareng Drain was become an observation area to examine the relation between water quality and tide waves. This research was conducted monthly from July to November 2015. Sampling of water was conducted every ebb and tide in every observation. Pollution index showed that the level of pollution on Cengkareng drain was moderately polluted, with the score about 7.7-8.6. Based on the results of t-test and analysis of similarity, the characteristic of water quality on rising tide does not significantly differ from the characteristic of water quality on ebbing tide. Therefore, we need a proper management as a means to control the pollutants in order to make good maritime security strategy.

Keywords: maritime security, Cengkareng drain, water quality, tidal waves

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
7543 Adsoption Tests of Two Industrial Dyes by Hydroxyds of Metals

Authors: R. Berrached, H. Ait Mahamed, A. Iddou

Abstract:

Water pollution is nowadays a serious problem, due to the increasing scarcity of water and thus to the impact induced by such pollution on the human health. Various techniques are made use of to deal with water pollution. Among the most used ones, some can be enumerated: the bacterian bed, the activated sludge, lagoons as biological processes and coagulation-flocculation as a physic-chemical process. These processes are very expensive and a decreasing in efficiency treatment with the increase of the initial pollutants concentration. This is the reason why research has been reoriented towards the use of adsorption process as an alternative solution instead of the other traditional processes. In our study, we have tempted to explore the characteristics of hydroxides of Al and Fe to purify contaminated water by two industrial dyes SBL blue and SRL-150 orange. Results have shown the efficiency of the two materials on the blue SBL dye.

Keywords: metallic hydroxydes, dyes, purification, adsorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
7542 Assessing the Eutrophication Risk in the Suat Uğurlu Dam Lake by Evaluation of Trophic Variables

Authors: Bilge Aydın Er, Yuksel Ardalı

Abstract:

In Ayvacık village, 80-90% of the population is engaged in agriculture. The pollution was adversely affecting the properties of agricultural origin of the lake. This study is to determine pollution caused by unwanted changes in the Suat Ugurlu Dam Lake has been launched to monitor. Yesilirmak basin is located in the proximal part of the Black Sea. Therefore it was exposed to impact many pollution. In this study, sediment samples from selected points along the lake was made on the analysis. This work was supported by the results of water analyzes. It is clear that urgent measures should be taken to the area of water management

Keywords: eutrophication, Black sea, lake, pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
7541 Adsoption Tests of Two Industrial Dyes by Metallic Hydroxyds

Authors: R. Berrached, H. Ait Mahamed, A. Iddou

Abstract:

Water pollution is nowadays a serious problem, due to the increasing scarcity of water and thus to the impact induced by such pollution on the human health. Various techniques are made use of to deal with water pollution. Among the most used ones, some can be enumerated: the bacterian bed, the activated mud, the Lagunage as biological processes and coagulation-floculation as a physic-chemical process. These processes are very expensive and an treatment efficiency which decreases along with the increase of the initial pollutants’ concentration. This is the reason why research has been reoriented towards the use of a process by adsorption as an alternative solution instead of the other traditional processes. In our study, we have tempted to exploit the characteristics of two metallic hydroxides Al and Fe to purify contaminated water by two industrial dyes SBL blue and SRL-150 orange. Results have shown the efficiency of the two materials on the blue SBL dye.

Keywords: Metallic Hydroxydes, industrial dyes, purification, lagunage

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
7540 Impact of Chronic Pollution on the Taj Mahal, India

Authors: Kiran P. Chadayamuri, Saransh Bagdi, Sai Vinod Boddu

Abstract:

Pollution has been a major problem that has haunted India for years. Large amounts of industrial, automobile and domestic waste have resulted in heavy contamination of air, land and water. The Taj Mahal, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, has been and continues to be India’s symbol of a rich history around the globe. Over the years, the beauty of Taj Mahal has also suffered from increasing pollution. Its shiny white exterior has started to turn yellow because of air pollution and acid rain. Illegal factories and uncontrolled construction have played a major role in worsening its condition. Rapid population growth in the city (Agra) meant more water requirement which has led to ground water deterioration under the historical monument making its wooden foundations dry and weak. Despite various measures by the state and central government, there hasn’t been any satisfactory result. This paper aims at studying the various causes and their impacts affecting the Taj Mahal and method that could slow down its deterioration.

Keywords: pollution, Taj Mahal, India, management

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
7539 Assessment the Capacity of Retention of a Natural Material for the Protection of Ground Water

Authors: Hakim Aguedal, Abdelkader Iddou, Abdalla Aziz, Abdelhadi Bentouami, Ferhat Bensalah, Salah Bensadek

Abstract:

The major environmental risk of soil pollution is the contamination of groundwater by infiltration of organic and inorganic pollutants that can cause a serious pollution. To prevent the migration of this pollution through this structure, many studies propose the installation of layers, which play a role of a barrier that inhibiting the contamination of groundwater by limiting or slowing the flow of rainwater carrying pollution through the layers of soil. However, it is practically impossible to build a barrier layer that let through only water, but it is possible to design a structure with low permeability, which reduces the infiltration of dangerous pollutant. In an environmental context of groundwater protection, the main objective of this study was to investigate the environmental and appropriate suitability method to preserve groundwater, by establishment of a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) intermediate in soil. Followed the influence of several parameters allow us to find the most effective materials and the most appropriate way to incorporate this barrier in the soil.

Keywords: Ground water, protection, permeable reactive Barrier, soil pollution.

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
7538 Well Water Pollution Caused by Central Batik Industry in Kliwonan, Sragen, Central Java, Indonesia in Ecofeminism Perspective

Authors: Intan Purnama Sari, Fitri Damayanti, Nabiila Yumna Ghina

Abstract:

Kliwonan, Sragen is a famous central batik industry village. In the process of the industry, women are placed into the central role but marginalized in economic mode. Women have the double burden on domestic sector and public sector (work as craftsmen batik). The existence of the batik industry bring on issues related to the pollution of water resources as a result of waste water with the marginalized of women. This research aims to examine the relevance of the pollution of the water from the well in Kliwonan with women as the biggest role holders through ecofeminism perspective. To examine these aspects then made observations, documentation, and interview against women batik craftsmen. The results of the study showed that the wells as sources of water to the inhabitants of contaminated because the liquid waste water batik industry. The impact of women must buy clean water each month to meet the needs of the household water with the reward that is obtained from the result of labor as much as Rp 12,000 per day. It proves the marginalized women on economic mode. Based on the results of research done, it can be concluded that the required environmental planning to promote how women do the rescue environment. The implementation requires kelor (Moringa oleifera seeds) as such as natural coagulants of sources of water-saving and easy to use.

Keywords: well water pollution, ecofeminism, environmental planning, Moringa oleifera

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
7537 Examining the Presence of Heterotrophic Aerobic Bacteria (HAB), and Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) in Some Types of Water from the City of Tripoli, Libya

Authors: Abdulsalam. I. Rafida, Marwa. F. Elalem, Hasna. E. Alemam

Abstract:

This study aimed at testing the various types of water in some areas of the city of Tripoli, Libya for the presence of Heterotrophic Aerobic Bacteria (HAB), and anaerobic Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB). The water samples under investigation included rainwater accumulating on the ground, sewage water (from the city sewage treatment station, sulphate water from natural therapy swimming sites), and sea water (i.e. sea water exposed to pollution by untreated sewage water, and unpolluted sea water from specific locations). A total of 20 samples have been collected distributed as follows: rain water (8 samples), sewage water (6 samples), and sea water (6 samples). An up-to-date method for estimation has been used featuring readymade solutions i.e. (BARTTM test for HAB and BARTTM test for SRB). However, with the exception of one rain water sample, the results have indicated that the target bacteria have been present in all samples. Regarding HAB bacteria the samples have shown a maximum average of 7.0 x 106 cfu/ml featuring sewage and rain water and a minimum average of 1.8 x 104 cuf/ml featuring unpolluted sea water collected from a specific location. As for SRB bacteria; a maximum average of 7.0 x 105 cfu/ml has been shown by sewage and rain water and a minimum average of 1.8 x 104 cfu/ml by sewage and sea water. The above results highlight the relationship between pollution and the presence of bacteria in water particularly water collected from specific locations, and also the presence of bacteria as the result of the use of water provided that a suitable environment exists for its growth.

Keywords: heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (HAB), sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB), water, environmental sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
7536 The Study of Effective Microorganism's Biopreperation for Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Batsukh Chultem, Oyunbileg Natsagdorj, Namsrai Steyrmunkh

Abstract:

Many industries, tourist camps and houses, discharge aqueous effluents containing relatively high levels of heavy metals, harmful organic compounds water. Untreated effluent from these manufacturing processes has an adverse impact on the environment. A specific problem associated with waste water in the environment is accumulation in the food chain and persistence in the environment. The screening of microorganisms resistant to pollution and able to detoxification them is essential for the development of clean-up technologies. The purpose of this study is to use advanced microbiological technology products for oxidizing organic and heavy metals pollutants as a biological treatment, to reduce water pollution, which arise as a result of waste water due to day-to-day operations of industries and houses of Ulaanbaatar city and tourist camps located around the lake Hovsgol, in Hovsgol province of Mongolia. By comparing the results from tests of effective microorganism’s bio-preparation treated sewage samples and not treated sewage samples shows that the treated sewage samples pollution decreased defending on treatment period and ratio. Treated water analyses show that: the suspended solids 352 mg/l, pH 5.85-7.95, ammonium nitrate 81.25-221.2 mg NH₄/l, nitrite 0.088-0.227 mg NO₂/l, nitrate 8.5-11.5 mg NO₃/l, and orthophosphate 1.06-15.46 mg PO₄/l. Also, heavy metals were decreased and microbiological test results defined parameters, respectively show the waste water pollution was reduced.

Keywords: effective microorganims, environment, pollution, treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
7535 Application Water Quality Modelling In Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Management: A Review

Authors: S. A. Che Osmi, W. M. F. W. Ishak, S. F. Che Osmi

Abstract:

Nowadays the issues of water quality and water pollution have been a major problem across the country. A lot of management attempt to develop their own TMDL database in order to control the river pollution. Over the past decade, the mathematical modeling has been used as the tool for the development of TMDL. This paper presents the application of water quality modeling to develop the total maximum daily load (TMDL) information. To obtain the reliable database of TMDL, the appropriate water quality modeling should choose based on the available data provided. This paper will discuss on the use of several water quality modeling such as QUAL2E, QUAL2K, and EFDC to develop TMDL. The attempts to integrate several modeling are also being discussed in this paper. Based on this paper, the differences in the application of water quality modeling based on their properties such as one, two or three dimensional are showing their ability to develop the modeling of TMDL database.

Keywords: TMDL, water quality modeling, QUAL2E, EFDC

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
7534 Analysis of Pollution in Agriculture Land Using Decagon Em-50 and Rock Magnetism Method

Authors: Adinda Syifa Azhari, Eleonora Agustine, Dini Fitriani

Abstract:

This measurement has been done to analyze the impact of industrial pollution on the environment. Our research is to indicate the soil which has contained some pollution by industrial activity around the area, especially in Sumedang, West Java. The parameter phsyics such as total dissolved solid, volumetric water content, electrical conductivity bulk and FD have shown that the soil has polluted and measured by Decagon EM 50. Decagon EM 50 is one of the geophysical environment instrumentation that is used to interpret the soil condition. This experiment has given a result of these parameter physics, these are: Volumetric water content (m³/m³) = 0,154 – 0,384; Electrical Conductivity Bulk (dS/m) = 0,29 – 1,11 ; Dielectric Permittivity (DP) = 77,636 – 78, 339.Based on these data, we have got the conclusion that the area has, in fact, been contaminated by dangerous materials. VWC is parameter physics that has shown water in soil. The data show the pollution of the soil at the place, of which the specifications are PH, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Electrical Conductivity (EC) bigger (>>) and Frequency Dependent (FD) smaller (<<); that means the soil is alkali with big grain and has high salt concentration.

Keywords: Decagon EM 50, electrical conductivity, industrial textiles, land, pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
7533 Study of the Quality of Surface Water in the Upper Cheliff Basin

Authors: Touhari Fadhila, Mehaiguene Madjid, Meddi Mohamed

Abstract:

This work aims to assess the quality of water dams based on the monitoring of physical-chemical parameters by the National Agency of Water Resources (ANRH) for a period of 10 years (1999-2008). Quality sheets of surface water for the four dams in the region of upper Cheliff (Ghrib, Deurdeur, Harreza, and Ouled Mellouk) show a degradation of the quality (organic pollution expressed in COD and OM) over time. Indeed, the registered amount of COD often exceeds 50 mg/ l, and the OM exceeds 15 mg/l. This pollution is caused by discharges of wastewater and eutrophication. The waters of dams show a very high salinity (TDS = 2574 mg/l in 2008 for the waters of the dam Ghrib, standard = 1500 mg/l). The concentration of nitrogenous substances (NH4+, NO2-) in water is high in 2008 at Ouled Melloukdam. This pollution is caused by the oxidation of nitrogenous organic matter. On the other hand, we studied the relationship between the evolution of quality parameters and filling dams. We observed a decrease in the salinity and COD following an improvement of the filling state of dams, this resides in the dilution water through the contribution of rainwater. While increased levels of nitrates and phosphorus in the waters of four dams studied during the rainy season is compared to the dry period, this increase may be due to leaching from fertilizers used in agricultural soils situated in watersheds.

Keywords: surface water quality, pollution, physical-chemical parameters, upper Cheliff basin.

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
7532 Hydroclean Smartbin Solution for Plastic Pollution Crisis

Authors: Anish Bhargava

Abstract:

By 2050, there will be more plastic than fish in our oceans. 51 trillion micro-plastics pollute our waters and contaminate the food on our plates, increasing the risk of tumours and diseases such as cancer. Our product is a solution to the ever-growing problem of plastic pollution. We call it the SmartBin. The SmartBin is a cylindrical device which will float just below the surface of the water, able to move with the aid of 4 water thrusters situated on the sides. As it floats, our SmartBin will suck water into itself and pump it out through the bottom. All waste is collected into a reusable filter including microplastics measuring down to 1.5mm. A speaker emitting sound at a frequency of 9 hertz ensures marine life stays away from the SmartBin. Featured along with our product is a smartphone app which will enable the user to designate an area for the SmartBin to cover on a satellite image. The SmartBin will then return to its start position near the shore, configured through the app. As global pressure to tackle water pollution continues to increase, environmental spending increases too. As our product provides an effective solution to this issue, we can seize the opportunity and scale our company. Our product is unparalleled. It can move at a high speed, covering a wide area rather than being restricted to one position. We target not only oceans and sea-shores, but also rivers, lakes, reservoirs and canals, as they are much easier to access and control.

Keywords: water, plastic, pollution, solution, hydroclean, smartbin, cleanup

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
7531 Climate Change Impact on Water Resources above the Territory of Georgia

Authors: T. Davitashvili

Abstract:

At present impact of global climate change on the territory of Georgia is evident at least on the background of the Caucasus glaciers melting which during the last century have decreased to half their size. Glaciers are early indicators of ongoing global and regional climate change. Knowledge of the Caucasus glaciers fluctuation (melting) is an extremely necessary tool for planning hydro-electric stations and water reservoir, for development tourism and agriculture, for provision of population with drinking water and for prediction of water supplies in more arid regions of Georgia. Otherwise, the activity of anthropogenic factors has resulted in decreasing of the mowing, arable, unused lands, water resources, shrubs and forests, owing to increasing the production and building. Transformation of one type structural unit into another one has resulted in local climate change and its directly or indirectly impacts on different components of water resources on the territory of Georgia. In the present paper, some hydrological specifications of Georgian water resources and its potential pollutants on the background of regional climate change are presented. Some results of Georgian’s glaciers pollution and its melting process are given. The possibility of surface and subsurface water pollution owing to accidents at oil pipelines or railway routes are discussed. The specific properties of regional climate warming process in the eastern Georgia are studied by statistical methods. The effect of the eastern Georgian climate change upon water resources is investigated.

Keywords: climate, droughts, pollution, water resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
7530 Minimizing Fresh and Wastewater Using Water Pinch Technique in Petrochemical Industries

Authors: Wasif Mughees, Malik Al-Ahmad, Muhammad Naeem

Abstract:

This research involves the design and analysis of pinch-based water/wastewater networks to minimize water utility in the petrochemical and petroleum industries. A study has been done on Tehran Oil Refinery to analyze feasibilities of regeneration, reuse and recycling of water network. COD is considered as a single key contaminant. Amount of freshwater was reduced about 149m3/h (43.8%) regarding COD. Re-design (or retrofitting) of water allocation in the networks was undertaken. The results were analyzed through graphical method and mathematical programming technique which clearly demonstrated that amount of required water would be determined by mass transfer of COD.

Keywords: minimization, water pinch, water management, pollution prevention

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
7529 Long Term Changes of Water Quality in Latvia

Authors: Maris Klavins, Valery Rodinov

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to analyze long term changes of surface water quality in Latvia, spatial variability of water chemical composition, possible impacts of different pollution sources as well as to analyze the measures to protect national water resources - river basin management. Within this study, the concentrations of major water ingredients and microelements in major rivers and lakes of Latvia have been determined. Metal concentrations in river and lake waters were compared with water chemical composition. The mean concentrations of trace metals in inland waters of Latvia are appreciably lower than the estimated world averages for river waters and close to or lower than background values, unless regional impacts determined by local geochemistry. This may be explained by a comparatively lower level of anthropogenic load. In the same time in several places, direct anthropogenic impacts are evident, regarding influences of point sources both transboundary transport impacts. Also, different processes related to pollution of surface waters in Latvia have been analyzed. At first the analysis of changes and composition of pollutant emissions in Latvia has been realized, and the obtained results were compared with actual composition of atmospheric precipitation and their changes in time.

Keywords: water quality, trend analysis, pollution, human impact

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
7528 The Mitidja between Drought and Water Pollution

Authors: Aziez Ouahiba, Remini Boualam, Habi Mohamed

Abstract:

the growth and the development of a pay are strongly related to the existence or the absence of water in this area, The sedentary lifestyle of the population makes that water demand is increasing and the different brandishing (dams, tablecloths or other) are increasingly solicited. In normal time rain and snow of the winter period reloads the slicks and the wadis that fill dams. Over these two decades, global warming fact that temperature is increasingly high and rainfall is increasingly low which induces a charge less and less important tablecloths, add to that the strong demand in irrigation. Our study will focus on the variation of rainfall and irrigation, their effects on the degree of pollution of the groundwater in this area based on statistical analyses by the Xlstat (ACP, correlation...) software for a better explanation of these results and determine the hydrochemistry of different groups or polluted areas pou be able to offer adequate solutions for each area.

Keywords: rainfall, groundwater of mitidja, irrigation, pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
7527 Potential Use of Spore-Forming Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria in Oil-Pollution Bioremediation

Authors: S. N. Al-Bahry, Y. M. Al-Wahaibi, S. J. Joshi, E. A. Elshafie, A. S. Al-Bimani

Abstract:

Oman is one of the oil producing countries in the Arabian Peninsula and the Gulf region. About 30-40 % of oil produced from the Gulf is transported globally along the seacoast of Oman. Oil pollution from normal tanker operations, ballast water, illegal discharges and accidental spills are always serious threats to terrestrial and marine habitats. Due to Oman’s geographical location at arid region where the temperature ranges between high 40s and low 50s Celsius in summers with low annual rainfall, the main source of fresh water is desalinated sea and brackish water. Oil pollution, therefore, pose a major threat to drinking water. Biosurfactants are secondary metabolites produced by microorganisms in hydrophobic environments to release nutrients from solid surfaces, such as oil. In this study, indigenous oil degrading thermophilic spore forming bacteria were isolated from oil fields contaminated soil. The isolates were identified using MALDI-TOF biotyper and 16s RNA. Their growth conditions were optimized for the production of biosurfactant. Surface tension, interfacial tensions and microbial oil biodegradation capabilities were tested. Some thermophilic bacteria degraded either completely or partially heavy crude oil (API 10-15) within 48h suggesting their high potential in oil spill bioremediation and avoiding the commonly used physical and chemical methods which usually lead to other environmental pollution.

Keywords: bacteria, bioremediation, biosurfactant, crude-oil-pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
7526 Water Quality Determination of River Systems in Antalya Basin by Biomonitoring

Authors: Hasan Kalyoncu, Füsun Kılçık, Hatice Gülboy Akyıldırım, Aynur Özen, Mehmet Acar, Nur Yoluk

Abstract:

For evaluation of water quality of the river systems in Antalya Basin, macrozoobenthos samples were taken from 22 determined stations by a hand net and identified at family level. Water quality of Antalya Basin was determined according to Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) system, by using macrozoobenthic invertebrates and physicochemical parameters. As a result of the evaluation, while Aksu Stream was determined as the most polluted stream in Antalya Basin, Isparta Stream was determined as the most polluted tributary of Aksu Stream. Pollution level of the Isparta Stream was determined as quality class V and it is the extremely polluted part of stream. Pollution loads at the sources of the streams were determined in low levels in general. Due to some parts of the streams have passed through deep canyons and take their sources from nonresidential and non-arable regions, majority of the streams that take place in Antalya Basin are at high quality level. Waste water, which comes from agricultural and residential regions, affects the lower basins of the streams. Because of the waste water, lower parts of the stream basins exposed to the pollution under anthropogenic effects. However, in Aksu Stream, which differs by being exposed to domestic and industrial wastes of Isparta City, extreme pollution was determined, particularly in the Isparta Stream part.

Keywords: Antalya basin, biomonitoring, BMWP, water quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
7525 Quantification of River Ravi Pollution and Oxidation Pond Treatment to Improve the Drain Water Quality

Authors: Yusra Mahfooz, Saleha Mehmood

Abstract:

With increase in industrialization and urbanization, water contaminating rivers through effluents laden with diverse chemicals in developing countries. The study was based on the waste water quality of the four drains (Outfall, Gulshan -e- Ravi, Hudiara, and Babu Sabu) which enter into river Ravi in Lahore, Pakistan. Different pollution parameters were analyzed including pH, DO, BOD, COD, turbidity, EC, TSS, nitrates, phosphates, sulfates and fecal coliform. Approximately all the water parameters of drains were exceeded the permissible level of wastewater standards. In calculation of pollution load, Hudiara drains showed highest pollution load in terms of COD i.e. 429.86 tons/day while in Babu Sabu drain highest pollution load was calculated in terms of BOD i.e. 162.82 tons/day (due to industrial and sewage discharge in it). Lab scale treatment (oxidation ponds) was designed in order to treat the waste water of Babu Sabu drain, through combination of different algae species i.e. chaetomorphasutoria, sirogoniumsticticum and zygnema sp. Two different sizes of ponds (horizontal and vertical), and three different concentration of algal samples (25g/3L, 50g/3L, and 75g/3L) were selected. After 6 days of treatment, 80 to 97% removal efficiency was found in the pollution parameters. It was observed that in the vertical pond, maximum reduction achieved i.e. turbidity 62.12%, EC 79.3%, BOD 86.6%, COD 79.72%, FC 100%, nitrates 89.6%, sulphates 96.9% and phosphates 85.3%. While in the horizontal pond, the maximum reduction in pollutant parameters, turbidity 69.79%, EC 83%, BOD 88.5%, COD 83.01%, FC 100%, nitrates 89.8%, sulphates 97% and phosphates 86.3% was observed. Overall treatment showed that maximum reduction was carried out in 50g algae setup in the horizontal pond due to large surface area, after 6 days of treatment. Results concluded that algae-based treatment are most energy efficient, which can improve drains water quality in cost effective manners.

Keywords: oxidation pond, ravi pollution, river water quality, wastewater treatment

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7524 Spatial Orientation of Land Use Activities along Buffalo River Estuary: A Study in Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality, Eastern Cape South Africa

Authors: A. Ngunga, M. K. Soviti, S. Nakin

Abstract:

South Africa is one of the developing countries rich in estuary ecosystem. Previous studies have identified many impacts of land use activities on the pollution status of the estuaries. These land use activity and related practices are often blamed for the many pollution problems affecting the estuaries. For example, the estuarine ecosystems on a global scale are experiencing vast transformations from anthropogenic influences; Buffalo River Estuary is one of the influenced estuaries whereby the sources of pollution are unknown. These problems consequently lead to the degradation of the estuaries. The aim of the research was to establish the factors that have the potential to impact pollution status of Buffalo river estuary. Study focuses on Identifying and mapping land use activities along Buffalo River Estuary. Questionnaire survey, structured interviews, direct observation, GPS survey and ArcGIS mapping were the methods used for data collection in the area, and results were analyzed and presented by ANOVA and Microsoft Excel statistical methods. The results showed that harbour is the main source of pollution, in Buffalo River Estuary, through Ballast water discharge. Therefore that requires more concern for protecting and cleaning the estuary.

Keywords: estuary, land-use activities, pollution, mapping, water pollution

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7523 Investigation on Natural Pollution Sources to Arsenic in around of Hashtrood City, East Azerbayjan Province

Authors: Azita Behbahaninia

Abstract:

Soil and surface and ground waters pollution to arsenic (As) due to its high potential for food cycle entrance, has high risk for human safety. Also, this pollution can cause quality and quantity decreasing of agricultural products or some lesions in farm animals that due to low knowledge, its reason is unknown, but can relate to As pollution. This study was conducted to investigate level of soil and water pollution by As in Hashtrood city. Based on the region’s information, the surface and ground waters, soil, river sediments, and rock were sampled and analyzed for physico-chemical and As in lab. There are significant differences for mean contents between As in the samples and crust. The maximum levels of As were observed in fly ash sample. Consequently, As pollution was related to geogenic and volcanic eruptions in this region. These mechanisms are diagnosed as As pollution in the region: As release for the rock units, As sorption by oxide minerals in aerobic and acidic to neutral conditions, desorption from oxide surfaces with pH increasing, increasing of As concentration in solution, and consequently pollution.

Keywords: arsenic, flyash, groundwater, soil

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7522 ECO ROADS: A Solution to the Vehicular Pollution on Roads

Authors: Harshit Garg, Shakshi Gupta

Abstract:

One of the major problems in today’s world is the growing pollution. The cause for all environmental problems is the increasing pollution rate. Looking upon the statistics, one can find out that most of the pollution is caused by the vehicular pollution which is more than 70 % of the total pollution, effecting the environment as well as human health proportionally. One is aware of the fact that vehicles run on roads so why not having the roads which could adsorb that pollution, not only once but a number of times. Every problem has a solution which can be solved by the state of art of technology, that is one can use the innovative ideas and thoughts to make technology as a solution to the problem of vehicular pollution on roads. Solving the problem up to a certain limit/ percentage can be formulated into a new term called ECO ROADS.

Keywords: environment, pollution, roads, sustainibility

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7521 Pollution by Iron of the Quaternary Drinking Water and its Effect on Human Health

Authors: Raafat A. Mandour

Abstract:

Background; Water may be regarded as polluted if it contains substances that render it unsafe for public use. The surface, subsoil waters and the shallow water-bearing geologic formation are more subjected to pollution due to its closeness to the human daily work. Aim of the work; determine the distribution of iron level in drinking water and its relation to iron level in blood patients suffering from liver diseases. Materials and Methods; For the present study, a total number of (71) drinking water samples (surface, wells and tap) have been collected and Blood samples were carried out on (71) selected inhabitants who attended in different hospitals, from different localities and suffering from liver diseases. Serum iron level in these patients was estimated by using IRON-B kit, Biocon company (Germany) and the 1, 10-phenanthroline method. Results; The water samples analyzed for iron are found suitable for drinking except two samples at Mit-Ghamr district showing values higher than the permissible limit of Egyptian Ministry of Health (EMH) and World Health Organization (WHO).The comparison between iron concentrations in drinking water and human blood samples shows a positive relationship. Conclusion; groundwater samples from the polluted areas should have special attention for treatment.

Keywords: water samples, blood samples, EMH, WHO

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7520 Surface and Drinking Water Quality Monitoring of Thomas Reservoir, Kano State, Nigeria

Authors: G. A. Adamu, M. S. Sallau, S. O. Idris, E. B. Agbaji

Abstract:

Drinking water is supplied to Danbatta, Makoda and some parts of Minjibir local government areas of Kano State from the surface water of Thomas Reservoir. The present land use in the catchment area of the reservoir indicates high agricultural activities, fishing, as well as domestic and small scale industrial activities. To study and monitor the quality of surface and drinking water of the area, water samples were collected from the reservoir, treated water at the treatment plant and potable water at the consumer end in three seasons November - February (cold season), March - June (dry season) and July - September (rainy season). The samples were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters, pH, temperature, total dissolved solids (TDS), conductivity, turbidity, total hardness, suspended solids, total solids, colour, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chloride ion (Cl-) nitrite (NO2-), nitrate (NO3-), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phosphate (PO43-). The higher values obtained in some parameters with respect to the acceptable standard set by World Health Organization (WHO) and Nigerian Industrial Standards (NIS) indicate the pollution of both the surface and drinking water. These pollutants were observed to have a negative impact on water quality in terms of eutrophication, largely due to anthropogenic activities in the watershed.

Keywords: surface water, drinking water, water quality, pollution, Thomas reservoir, Kano

Procedia PDF Downloads 143