Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 453

Search results for: pedagogy

453 Critical Pedagogy in the Philippine K-12 Grade 8 Values Education Curriculum and Textbook

Authors: Raymon Maac, Michael Arthus Muega, Joyce Ann Calingasan, Elva Maureen Gorospe

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Critical pedagogy is known for its advocacy of humanistic and liberating education. Its far-reaching approach helps students to understand and analyze their own situations and the realities happening in their society. However, this pedagogy together with its promising features is not well-known in the Philippines. This paper determines the place of critical pedagogy in the new values education curriculum and analyzes its features in the K-12 Values Education curriculum and textbook. The study examines the position of critical pedagogy in the Philippine K-12 Values Education curriculum by closely studying and comparing their features; and scrutinizes the Grade 8 Values Education textbook specifically modules 4, 8, 10 and 13 which comprises 25% of the total 16 modules. The said modules are concerned with the role of the family in the preservation of social justice, which is one of the objectives of critical pedagogy. The findings in this research were based on the pieces of evidence gathered from the curriculum and textbook itself. Based on the evaluation done, the study found out that the ideas of critical pedagogy were the same with that of the objectives of K-12 Values Education Curriculum. Due to this, values education teachers can utilize critical pedagogy in their subject. In addition, the K-12 Values Education curriculum exhibits some of the features of critical pedagogy such as authentic student empowerment and critical thinking. Lastly, some features of critical pedagogy are also evident in some of the general parts and recommended activities in the K-12 Values Education textbook while other activities need to be fully developed by both teacher and students to reflect the genuine critical pedagogy.

Keywords: authentic student empowerment, critical pedagogy, critical thinking, liberating education

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452 Critical Realism as a Bridge between Critical Pedagogy and Queer Theory

Authors: Mike Seal

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This paper explores the traditions of critical and queer pedagogy, its intersections, tensions and paradoxes. Critical pedagogy, with a materialist realist ontology, and queer theory, which is often post-modern, post-structural and anti-essential, may not seem compatible. Similarly, there are tensions between activist orientations, often enacted through essential sexual identities, and a queer approach that questions such identities and subjectivities. It will argue that critical realism gives us a bridge between critical and queer pedagogy in preserving a realist materialist ontology, where economic forces are real, and independent of consciousness and hermeneutic constructions of them. At the same time, it offers an epistemology that does not necessitate a binary view of the roles of the oppressed, liberator, or even oppressor. It accepts that our knowledge is contingent, partial and contestable, but has the potential, and enough validity, to demand action and potentially inform the actions of others.

Keywords: critical pedagogy, queer pedagogy, critical realsim, heteronormativity

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451 Emerging Challenges Related to Digital Pedagogy: A Practitioners’ Case

Authors: Petronella Jonck, Martin Chanza, Anna-Marie Pelser

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Ascribed to the global pandemic most higher education institutions responded by relocating content presented by means of contact sessions to an online platform giving rise to digital pedagogy. The purpose of the research reported on was to explore emerging challenges linked to digital pedagogy from a practitioner stance. Digital pedagogy has emerged as a powerful tool to compliment traditional methods. However, stumbling blocks should be identified and addressed for future utilization. A qualitative research design was implemented by means of a semi-structured interview schedule distributed to practitioners during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results revealed that institutional type influenced the implementation of digital pedagogy. Other challenges relate to the increased cost of education, decreased access, limited knowledge about digital pedagogy, behavioral intent to adopt a multi-modal approach, lack of ICT infrastructure to mention a few. Higher education institutions should address challenges towards the optimal use of digital pedagogy in future.

Keywords: COVID-19, digital pedagogy, higher education institutions, information communication technology

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450 The Antrophological Determination of Pedagogy

Authors: Sara Kakuk

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Pedagogy has always been open to other disciplines that reflect about the educational process (philosophy, sociology, psychology, anthropology, technology, etc.). Its interdisciplinary openness puts education, as the subject of pedagogy within a broader context of the community, enabling the knowledge of other disciplines to contribute to a better understanding of the fundamental pedagogical notion of education. The purpose of pedagogy as a science serves humans, strives towards humans, must be for humans, and this is its ultimate goal. Humans are essentially dependent on education, which is also considered as a category of humans’ being, because through education an entire world develops in humans. Anthropological assumptions of humans as "deficient beings" see the solution in education, but they also indicate a wealth of shortcomings, because they provide an opportunity for enrichment and formation of culture, living and the self. In that context, this paper illustrates the determination of pedagogy through an anthropological conception of humans and the phenomenon of education. It presents a review of anthropological ideas about education, by providing an analysis of relevant literature dealing with the anthropological notion of humans, which provides fruitful conditions for a pedagogical reconsideration of education.

Keywords: pedagogy, education, humans, anthropology, culture

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449 Developing Learning in Organizations with Innovation Pedagogy Methods

Authors: T. Konst

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Most jobs include training and communication tasks, but often the people in these jobs lack pedagogical competences to plan, implement and assess learning. This paper aims to discuss how a learning approach called innovation pedagogy developed in higher education can be utilized for learning development in various organizations. The methods presented how to implement innovation pedagogy such as process consultation and train the trainer model can provide added value to develop pedagogical knowhow in organizations and thus support their internal learning and development.

Keywords: innovation pedagogy, learning, organizational development, process consultation

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448 The Time for the World to Go Back to Forgotten "Values Pedagogy"

Authors: Sakineh Tashakori, Terrence Lovat

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With the start of war in every part of the world, from the war between Russia and Ukraine to the unbelievable start of the war between Israel and Palestine, the number of war refugees is increasing day by day. They are all homeless dads, moms, and kids looking for a safe place to go back to their ordinary lives without the fear of being mistreated and misunderstood by others. The significance of this study is to help the education system make life easier for refugees by going to values pedagogy inspired by Habermasian epistemology. The study employs a literature review methodology, which involves gathering relevant sources from academic journals and books to answer how values pedagogy is going to help the education system in this regard. The collected literature will be critically analyzed and synthesized to draw meaningful conclusions and support the argument for the implementation of values pedagogy. The findings of the study illustrate that values pedagogy can have a role in peace education and softening discourse to give students a better sense of mutual cultural and religious understanding and respect.

Keywords: war, refugee, values pedagogy, Habermasian epistemology, peace education

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447 Children's Literature As Pedagogy: Lessons For Literacy Practice

Authors: Alicia Curtin, Kathy Hall

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This paper explores research and practice shared on a masters University module entitled Children's Literature as Pedagogy. Issues explored include the meaning of childhood and literature; the definition of what counts as text, textual and literacy practice for children and adolescents. A sociocultural framework is used to define literacy practice from this perspective and student voice and experience remains central. Lessons from classroom experience and the use of innovative, multi modal and non traditional texts and pedagogical approaches are offered as examples of innovative and inclusive pedagogy in the field of literacy practice.

Keywords: non traditional, pedagogy, practice, sociocultural

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446 Challenges Caused by the Integration of Technology as a Pedagogy in One of the Historically Disadvantaged Higher Education Institutions

Authors: Rachel Gugu Mkhasibe

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Incorporation of technology as a pedagogy has many benefits. For instance, improvement of pedagogy, increased information access, increased cooperation, and collaboration. However, as good as it may be, this integration of technology as a pedagogy has not been widely adopted in most historically Black higher education institutions especially those in developing countries. For example, the socioeconomic background of students in historically black universities, the weak financial support available from these universities, as well as a large population of students struggle to access the recommended modern physical resources such as iPads, laptops, mobile phones, to name a few. This contributes to an increase in the increase of educational inequalities. The qualitative research approach was utilized in this work to gather detailed data about the obstacles created by the integration of technology as a pedagogy. Interviews were conducted to generate data from 20 academics from 10 Leve two students from one of the historically disadvantaged higher education Institutions in South Africa. The findings revealed that although both students and academics had overwhelming support of the integration of technology as a pedagogy in their institution, the environment which they found themselves in compromise the incorporation of technology as a pedagogy. Therefore, this paper recommends that Department of Higher Education and University Management should intervene and budget for technology to be provided in all the institutions of higher education regardless of where the institutions are situated.

Keywords: collaboration, integration, pedagogy, technology

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445 Pedagogical Variation with Computers in Mathematics Classrooms: A Cultural Historical Activity Theory Analysis

Authors: Joanne Hardman

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South Africa’s crisis in mathematics attainment is well documented. To meet the need to develop students’ mathematical performance in schools the government has launched various initiatives using computers to impact on mathematical attainment. While it is clear that computers can change pedagogical practices, there is a dearth of qualitative studies indicating exactly how pedagogy is transformed with Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) in a teaching activity. Consequently, this paper addresses the following question: how, along which dimensions in an activity, does pedagogy alter with the use of computer drill and practice software in four disadvantaged grade 6 mathematics classrooms in the Western Cape province of South Africa? The paper draws on Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) to develop a view of pedagogy as socially situated. Four ideal pedagogical types are identified: Reinforcement pedagogy, which has the reinforcement of specialised knowledge as its object; Collaborative pedagogy, which has the development of metacognitive engagement with specialised knowledge as its object; Directive pedagogy, which has the development of technical task skills as its object, and finally, Defensive pedagogy, which has student regulation as its object. Face-to-face lessons were characterised as predominantly Reinforcement and Collaborative pedagogy and most computer lessons were characterised as mainly either Defensive or Directive.

Keywords: computers, cultural historical activity theory, mathematics, pedagogy

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444 A Study of Faculty Development Programs in India to Assist Pedagogy and Curriculum Development

Authors: Chhavi Rana, Sanjay K Jain

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All sides of every education debate agree that quality learning happens when knowledgeable, caring teachers use sound pedagogy. Many deliberations of pedagogy make the fault of considering it as principally being about teaching. There has been lot of research about how to build a positive climate for learning, improve student curiosity, and enhance classroom association. However, these things can only be facilitated when teachers are equipped with better teaching techniques that use sound and accurate pedagogy. Pedagogy is the science and art of education. Its aims range from the full development of the human being to skills acquisition. In India, a project named Mission 10 x has been started by an esteemed IT Corporation Wipro as a faculty development programme (FDP) that particularly focus on elements that facilitated teachers in developing curriculum and new pedagogies that can lead to improvement in student engagement. This paper presents a study of these FDPs and examines (1) the parameters that help teachers in building new pedagogies (2) the extent to which appropriate usage of pedagogy is improved after the conduct of Mission 10 x FDPs, and (3) whether institutions differ in terms of their ability to convert usage of improved pedagogy into academic performance via these FDPs. The sample consisted of 2,236 students at 6 four-year engineering colleges and universities that completed several FDPs during 2012-2014. Many measures of usage of better pedagogy were linked positively with such FDPs, although some of the relationships were weak in strength. The results suggest that the usage of pedagogy were more benefited after conducting these FDPs and application of novel approaches in conducting classes.

Keywords: student engagement, critical thinking; achievement, student learning, pedagogy

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443 Innovative Business Education Pedagogy: A Case Study of Action Learning at NITIE, Mumbai

Authors: Sudheer Dhume, T. Prasad

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There are distinct signs of Business Education losing its sheen. It is more so in developing countries. One of the reasons is the value addition at the end of 2 year MBA program is not matching with the requirements of present times and expectations of the students. In this backdrop, Pedagogy Innovation has become prerequisite for making our MBA programs relevant and useful. This paper is the description and analysis of innovative Action Learning pedagogical approach adopted by a group of faculty members at NITIE Mumbai. It not only promotes multidisciplinary research but also enhances integration of the functional areas skillsets in the students. The paper discusses the theoretical bases of this pedagogy and evaluates the effectiveness of it vis-à-vis conventional pedagogical tools. The evaluation research using Bloom’s taxonomy framework showed that this blended method of Business Education is much superior as compared to conventional pedagogy.

Keywords: action learning, blooms taxonomy, business education, innovation, pedagogy

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442 A Review of Critical Thinking Formative Assessment Framework: Coping with Teachers Resistance to Critical Pedagogy

Authors: Chenhui Wang, Chwee Beng Lee

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The practice of critical pedagogy is challenged by resistance from teachers. This study presents a discussion on teachers' resistance to critical pedagogy and previous practical frameworks for assessing critical thinking in formative assessment in the classroom through a critical review of the related literature. The authors found out that the main issue of teachers' resistance is not whether teachers should possess theoretical knowledge of critical thinking but how they apply that knowledge in their classroom teaching. In addition, critical thinking in formative assessment may provide teachers with a comprehensive understanding of critical pedagogical planning, implementing, and reflecting. Therefore, this paper intends to discuss a practical step-by-step framework for critical thinking formative assessment to address this resistance. Such discussion is based on a thorough examination of the related theories and frameworks. This review paper will benefit teachers in understanding and reducing their resistance to critical pedagogy as well as in implementing critical pedagogy.

Keywords: critical thinking, critical pedagogy, critical thinking formative assessment framework, teachers resistance

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441 A Study of The STEAM Toy Pedagogy Plan Evaluation for Elementary School

Authors: Wen-Te Chang, Yun-Hsin Pai

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Purpose: Based on the interdisciplinary of lower grade Elementary School with the integration of STEAM concept, related wooden toy and pedagogy plans were developed and evaluated. The research goal was to benefit elementary school education. Design/methodology/approach: The subjects were teachers from two primary school teachers and students from the department of design of universities in Taipei. Amount of 103participants (Male: 34, Female: 69) were invited to participate in the research. The research tools are “STEAM toy design” and “questionnaire of STEAM toy Pedagogy plan.” The STEAM toy pedagogy plans were evaluated after the activity of “The interdisciplinary literacy discipline guiding study program--STEAM wooden workshop,” Finding/results: The study results: (1) As factors analyzing of the questionnaire indicated the percentage on the major factors were cognition teaching 68.61%, affection 80.18% and technique 80.14%, with α=.936 of validity. The assessment tools were proved to be valid for STEAM pedagogy plan evaluation; (2) The analysis of the questionnaires investigation confirmed that the main effect of the teaching factors was not significant (affection = technique = cognition); however, the interaction between STEAM factors revealed to be significant (F (8, 1164) =5.51, p < .01); (3) The main effect of the six pedagogy plans was significant (climbing toy > bird toy = gondola toy > frog castanets > train toy > balancing toy), and an interactive effect between STEAM factors also reached a significant level, (F (8, 1164) =5.51, p < .01), especially on the artistic (A/ Art) aspect. Originality/value: The main achievement of research: (1) A pedagogy plan evaluation was successfully developed. (2) The interactive effect between the STEAM and the teaching factors reached a significant level. (3) An interactive effect between the STEAM factors and the pedagogy plans reached a significant level too.

Keywords: STEAM, toy design, pedagogy plans, evaluation

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440 Developing and Enacting a Model for Institutional Implementation of the Humanizing Pedagogy: Case Study of Nelson Mandela University

Authors: Mukhtar Raban

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As part of Nelson Mandela University’s journey of repositioning its learning and teaching agenda, the university adopted and foregrounded a humanizing pedagogy-aligning with institutional goals of critically transforming the academic project. The university established the Humanizing Pedagogy Praxis and Research Niche (HPPRN) as a centralized hub for coordinating institutional work exploring and advancing humanizing pedagogies and tasked the unit with developing and enacting a model for humanizing pedagogy exploration. This investigation endeavored to report on the development and enactment of a model that sought to institutionalize a humanizing pedagogy at a South African university. Having followed a qualitative approach, the investigation presents the case study of Nelson Mandela University’s HPPRN and the model it subsequently established and enacted for the advancement towards a more common institutional understanding, interpretation and application of the humanizing pedagogy. The study adopted an interpretive lens for analysis, complementing the qualitative approach of the investigation. The primary challenge that confronted the HPPRN was the development of a ‘living model’ that had to complement existing institutional initiatives while accommodating a renewed spirit of critical reflection, innovation and research of continued and new humanizing pedagogical exploration and applications. The study found that the explicit consideration of tenets of humanizing and critical pedagogies in underpinning and framing the HPPRN Model contributed to the sense of ‘lived’ humanizing pedagogy experiences during enactment. The multi-leveled inclusion of critical reflection in the development and enactment stages was found to further the processes of praxis employed at the university, which is integral to the advancement of humanizing and critical pedagogies. The development and implementation of a model that seeks to institutionalize the humanizing pedagogy at a university rely not only on sound theoretical conceptualization but also on the ‘richness of becoming more human’ explicitly expressed and encountered in praxes and application.

Keywords: humanizing pedagogy, critical pedagogy, institutional implementation, praxis

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439 Understanding Rural Teachers’ Perceived Intention of Using Play in ECCE Mathematics Classroom: Strength-Based Approach

Authors: Nyamela M. ‘Masekhohola, Khanare P. Fumane

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The Lesotho downward trend in mathematics attainment at all levels is compounded by the absence of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in Early Childhood. However, studies have shown that play pedagogy can be used to mitigate the challenges of mathematics education. Despite the benefits of play pedagogy to rural learners, its full potential has not been realized in early childhood care and education classrooms to improve children’s performance in mathematics because the adoption of play pedagogy depends on a strength-based approach. The study explores the potential of play pedagogy to improve mathematics education in early childhood care and education in Lesotho. Strength-based approach is known for its advocacy of recognizing and utilizing children’s strengths, capacities and interests. However, this approach and its promisingattributes is not well-known in Lesotho. In particular, little is known about the attributes of play pedagogy that are essential to improve mathematic education in ECCE programs in Lesotho. To identify such attributes and strengthen mathematics education, this systematic review examines evidence published on the strengths of play pedagogy that supports the teaching and learning of mathematics education in ECCE. The purpose of this review is, therefore, to identify and define the strengths of play pedagogy that supports mathematics education. Moreover, the study intends to understand the rural teachers’ perceived intention of using play in ECCE math classrooms through a strength-based approach. Eight key strengths were found (cues for reflection, edutainment, mathematics language development, creativity and imagination, cognitive promotion, exploration, classification, and skills development). This study is the first to identify and define the strength-based attributes of play pedagogy to improve the teaching and learning of mathematics in ECCE centers in Lesotho. The findings reveal which opportunities teachers find important for improving the teaching of mathematics as early as in ECCE programs. We conclude by discussing the implications of the literature for stimulating dialogues towards formulating strength-based approaches to teaching mathematics, as well as reflecting on the broader contributions of play pedagogy as an asset to improve mathematics in Lesotho and beyond.

Keywords: early childhood education, mathematics education, lesotho, play pedagogy, strength-based approach.

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438 Bringing Feminist Critical Pedagogy to the ESP Higher Education Classes: Feasibility and Challenges

Authors: Samira Essabari

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What, unfortunately, governs the Moroccan educational philosophy and policy today is a concerning neoliberal discourse with its obsession with market logics and individualism. Critical education has been advocated to resist the neoliberal hegemony since it holds the promise to reclaim the social function of education. Significantly, the mounting forms of sexism and discrimination against women combined with hegemonic educational practices are jeopardizing the social function of teaching and learning, hence the relevance of feminist critical pedagogy. A substantial body of research worldwide has explored the ways in which feminist pedagogy can develop feminist consciousness and examine power relations in different educational contexts. In Morocco, however, the feasibility of feminist pedagogy has not been researched despite the overwhelming interest in gender issues in different educational settings. The research on critical pedagogies in Morocco remains very promising. Yet, most studies were conducted in contexts which are already engaged with issues of theory, discourse, and discourse analysis. The field of ESP ( English for Specific Purposes) is pragmatic by nature, and priority in research has been given to questions that adhere to the mainstream concerns of need analysis and study skills and ignore issues of power, gender power relations, and intersectional forms of oppression. To address these gaps in the existing literature, this participatory action research seeks to investigate the feasibility of Feminist pedagogy in ESP higher education and how it can foster feminist critical consciousness among ESP students without compromising their language learning needs. The findings of this research will contribute to research on critical applied linguistics and critical ESP more specifically and add to the practice of critical pedagogies in Moroccan higher education by providing in-depth insights into the enablers and barriers to the implementation of feminist critical pedagogy, which is still feeling its way into the educational scene in Morocco.

Keywords: feminist pedagogy, critical pedagogy, power relations, gender, ESP, intersectionality

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437 The Effectiveness of Genre-Based Pedagogy in Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language in Hong Kong

Authors: Mark Shiu-kee Shum, Dan Shi

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This paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of genre-based pedagogy in teaching Chinese as a foreign language to South Asian ethnic minority students in Hong Kong. South Asian ethnic minority students, as a disadvantaged group of foreign language learners, lack sufficient parental and institutional support in Chinese language learning. The genre-based “Reading to Learn, Learning to Write, R2L” pedagogy derived from Halliday’s Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) is applied in this study to improve Chinese language performance of South Asian ethnic minority students for better chance to participate in mainstream society. In this study, the R2L pedagogy is applied to teach students Chinese writing of different genres in junior secondary level for a year. To determine the effectiveness of the R2L pedagogy, the pre-test and post-test writings were evaluated by R2L assessment criteria and analyzed using Systemic Functional Linguistics framework from the whole-text level, sentence level, and the word level. Besides, semi-structured interviews were conducted to perceive students’ learning expectations via experiencing with R2L pedagogy. The finding shows that after the pedagogic interventions, students are equipped with an increased meta-linguistic awareness of genre-specific writing in improving and facilitating their writing performance. It is hoped that the findings can provide a reference for language teachers in teaching and learning Chinese as a foreign language to non-Chinese speaking students in Hong Kong and beyond.

Keywords: ethnic minority, genre-based approach, reading to learn pedagogy, foreign language education

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436 Disrupting Certainties: Reimagined History Curriculum as Critical Pedagogy in Secondary Teacher Education

Authors: Philippa Hunter

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How might history education support teachers and students to see the past as a provocation, be open to possible futures, and act differently? As teacher educators in an age of diversity and uncertainty, we need to question history’s curriculum nature, pedagogy, and policy intent. The cultural politics of history’s identity in the senior secondary curriculum influences educational socialization (disciplinary, professional, research) and engagement with curriculum decision-making. This paper reflects on curriculum disturbance that shaped a critical pedagogy stance to problematize school history’s certainties. The context is situated in an Aotearoa New Zealand university-based initial teacher education programme. A pedagogic innovation was activated whereby problematized history pedagogy [PHP] was conceptualized as the phenomenon and method of inquiry and storied in doctoral work. The PHP was a reciprocal research process involving history class’ participants and the teacher as researcher, in fashioning teaching identities, identifying with, and thinking critically about history pedagogy. PHP findings revealed evocative discourses of embodiment, nostalgia, and connectedness about living ‘inside the past’. Participants expressed certainty about their abilities as teachers living ‘outside the past’ to interpret historical perspectives. However, discomfort was evident in relation to ‘difficult knowledge’ or unfamiliar contexts of the past that exposed exclusion, powerlessness, or silenced voices. Participants identified history programmes as strongly masculine and conflict-focused. A normalized inquiry-transmission approach to history pedagogy was identified and critiqued. Individuals’ reflexive accounts of PHP implemented whilst on practicum indicate possibilities of history pedagogy as; inclusive and democratic, social and ethical reconstruction, and as a critical project. The PHP sought to reimagine history curriculum and identify spaces of possibility in secondary postgraduate teacher education.

Keywords: curriculum, pedagogy, problematise, reciprocal

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435 Newly-Rediscovered Manuscripts Talking about Seventeenth-Century French Harpsichord Pedagogy

Authors: David Chung

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The development of seventeenth-century French harpsichord music is enigmatic in several respects. Although little is known about the formation of this style before 1650 (we have names of composers, but no surviving music), the style has attained a high degree of refinement and sophistication in the music of the earliest known masters (e.g. Chambonnières, Louis Couperin and D’Anglebert). In fact, how the seventeenth-century musicians acquired the skills of their art remains largely steeped in mystery, as the earliest major treatise on French keyboard pedagogy was not published until 1702 by Saint Lambert. This study fills this lacuna by surveying some twenty recently-rediscovered manuscripts, which offer ample materials for revisiting key issues pertaining to seventeenth-century harpsichord pedagogy. By analyzing the musical contents, the verbal information and explicit notation (such as written-out ornaments and rhythmic effects), this study provides a rich picture of the process of learning at the time, with engaging details of performance nuances often lacking in tutors and treatises. Of even greater significance, that creative skills (such as continuo and ornamentation) were taught alongside fundamental knowledge (solfèges, note values, etc.) at the earliest stage of learning offers fresh challenge for modern pedagogues to rethink how harpsichord pedagogy can be revamped to cater for our own pedagogical and aesthetic needs.

Keywords: French, harpsichord, pedagogy, seventeenth century

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434 If You Can't Teach Yourself, No One Can

Authors: Timna Mayer

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This paper explores the vast potential of self-directed learning in violin pedagogy. Based in practice and drawing on concepts from neuropsychology, the author, a violinist and teacher, outlines five learning principles. Self-directed learning is defined as an ongoing process based on problem detection, definition, and resolution. The traditional roles of teacher and student are reimagined within this context. A step-by-step guide to applied self-directed learning suggests a model for both teachers and students that realizes student independence in the classroom, leading to higher-level understanding and more robust performance. While the value of self-directed learning is well-known in general pedagogy, this paper is novel in applying the approach to the study of musical performance, a field which is currently dominated by habit and folklore, rather than informed by science.

Keywords: neuropsychology and musical performance, self-directed learning, strategic problem solving, violin pedagogy

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433 Cognitive Theory and the Design of Integrate Curriculum

Authors: Bijan Gillani, Roya Gillani

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The purpose of this paper is to propose a pedagogical model where engineering provides the interconnection to integrate the other topics of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The author(s) will first present a brief discussion of cognitive theory and then derive an integrated pedagogy to use engineering and technology, such as drones, sensors, camera, iPhone, radio waves as the nexus to an integrated curriculum development for the other topics of STEM. Based on this pedagogy, one example developed by the author(s) called “Drones and Environmental Science,” will be presented that uses a drone and related technology as an appropriate instructional delivery medium to apply Piaget’s cognitive theory to create environments that promote the integration of different STEM subjects that relate to environmental science.

Keywords: cogntive theories, drone, environmental science, pedagogy

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432 Perspectives of Pre-service Teachers on Vocational Pedagogy in Technical and Vocational Education and Training Teaching

Authors: Siphokazi Vimbelo

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Abstract - TVET colleges were established to equip students with the necessary skills for careers in a variety of fields such as business, tourism, engineering, and hospitality. TVET teachers are responsible for preparing students and for ensuring that students acquire these necessary skills. This calls for the pedagogies currently utilized in the TVET classroom. Occupational programmes that are being introduced in TVET colleges in South Africa will necessitate vocational pedagogy, which focuses on how individuals learn effectively in skill-oriented knowledge areas. Furthermore, limited research exists on the obstacles encountered by pre-service TVET educators as they develop vocational pedagogy-based lessons. Hence, this research will specifically examine the difficulties encountered by pre-service teachers in creating lesson plans rooted in vocational teaching methods. The preservice teachers are the students in the first year of the Advanced Diploma in Technical and Vocational Teaching (ADTVT). After brainstorming vocational pedagogy, the preservice teachers will develop lessons rooted in vocational pedagogy. Following that, the preservice teachers will participate in interviews to reflect on their lesson preparation process and discuss the challenges they encountered during the preparation. Thematic analysis will be used to analyse the data. It would be fascinating to discover the obstacles and exchange thoughts with academics from other Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) that also provide the same course, since it is a new program. Furthermore, the results will assist Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT) academics in partnering with other academics to create various strategies for tackling challenges and determining priorities in implementing vocational education for a new student population.

Keywords: preservice teachers, TVET, TVET teaching, vocational pedagogy

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431 Modern Pedagogy Techniques for DC Motor Speed Control

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Roopali Dogra, Puneet Aggarwal

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Based on a survey conducted for second and third year students of the electrical engineering department at Maharishi Markandeshwar University, India, it was found that around 92% of students felt that it would be better to introduce a virtual environment for laboratory experiments. Hence, a need was felt to perform modern pedagogy techniques for students which consist of a virtual environment using MATLAB/Simulink. In this paper, a virtual environment for the speed control of a DC motor is performed using MATLAB/Simulink. The various speed control methods for the DC motor include the field resistance control method and armature voltage control method. The performance analysis of the DC motor is hence analyzed.

Keywords: DC Motor, field control, pedagogy techniques, speed control, virtual environment, voltage control

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430 Critical Mathematics Education and School Education in India: A Study of the National Curriculum Framework 2022 for Foundational Stage

Authors: Eish Sharma

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Literature around Mathematics education suggests that democratic attitudes can be strengthened through teaching and learning Mathematics. Furthermore, connections between critical education and Mathematics education are observed in the light of critical pedagogy to locate Critical Mathematics Education (CME) as the theoretical framework. Critical pedagogy applied to Mathematics education is identified as one of the key themes subsumed under Critical Mathematics Education. Through the application of critical pedagogy in mathematics, unequal power relations and social injustice can be identified, analyzed, and challenged. The research question is: have educational policies in India viewed the role of critical pedagogy applied to mathematics education (i.e., critical mathematics education) to ensure social justice as an educational aim? The National Curriculum Framework (NCF), 2005 upholds education for democracy and the role of mathematics education in facilitating the same. More than this, NCF 2005 rests on Critical Pedagogy Framework and it recommends that critical pedagogy must be practiced in all dimensions of school education. NCF 2005 visualizes critical pedagogy for social sciences as well as sciences, stating that the science curriculum, including mathematics, must be used as an “instrument for achieving social change to reduce the divide based on economic class, gender, caste, religion, and the region”. Furthermore, the implementation of NCF 2005 led to a reform in the syllabus and textbooks in school mathematics at the national level, and critical pedagogy was applied to mathematics textbooks at the primary level. This intervention led to ethnomathematics and critical mathematics education in the school curriculum in India for the first time at the national level. In October 2022, the Ministry of Education launched the National Curriculum Framework for Foundational Stage (NCF-FS), developed in light of the National Education Policy, 2020, for children in the three to eight years age group. I want to find out whether critical pedagogy-based education and critical pedagogy-based mathematics education are carried forward in NCF 2022. To find this, an argument analysis of specific sections of the National Curriculum Framework 2022 document needs to be executed. Des Gasper suggests two tables: The first table contains four columns, namely, text component, comments on meanings, possible reformulation of the same text, and identified conclusions and assumptions (both stated and unstated). This table is for understanding the components and meanings of the text and is based on Scriven’s model for understanding the components and meanings of words in the text. The second table contains four columns i.e., claim identified, given data, warrant, and stated qualifier/rebuttal. This table is for describing the structure of the argument, how and how well the components fit together and is called ‘George Table diagram based on Toulmin-Bunn Model’.

Keywords: critical mathematics education, critical pedagogy, social justice, etnomathematics

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429 Using Reading to Learn Pedagogy to Promote Chinese Written Vocabulary Acquisition: An Evaluative Study

Authors: Mengping Cheng, John Everatt, Alison Arrow, Amanda Denston

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Based on the available evidence, Chinese heritage language learners have a basic level of Chinese language proficiency with lower capability in literacy compared to speaking. Low levels of literacy are likely related to the lack of reading activities in current textbook-based pedagogy used in Chinese community schools. The present study aims to use Reading to Learn pedagogy which is a top-down language learning model and test the effectiveness of Reading to Learn on Chinese heritage learners’ written vocabulary acquisition. A quasi-experiment with the pre-test/post-test non-equivalent group design was conducted. The experimental group received Reading to Learn instructions and the control group had traditional textbook-based instructions. Participants were given Chinese characters tasks (a recognize-and-read task and a listen-and-point task), vocabulary tasks (a receptive vocabulary task and a productive vocabulary task) and a sentence cloze test in pre-tests and post-tests. Data collection is in progress and results will be available shortly. If the results show more improvement of Chinese written vocabulary in the experimental group than in the control group, it will be recommended that Reading to Learn pedagogy is valuable to be used to maintain and develop Chinese heritage language literacy.

Keywords: Chinese heritage language, experimental research, Reading to Learn pedagogy, vocabulary acquisition

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428 Impacts of International Training Program in Pedagogy in Higher Education in the United States on Visiting Scholars in China

Authors: Yuliang Liu, Thomas Lavallee, Mary Weishaar, Gretchen Fricke, Huaibo Xin

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The longitudinal study was designed to investigate the impacts of the International Training Program in Pedagogy (ITPP) at a midwestern institution in the United States on the visiting scholars from China from 2012-18. The study used the survey research method and involved 48 visiting scholars from Northwest Normal University in China in those eight ITPP cohorts. The results of both quantitative and qualitative data were critically examined and indicated both types of data sources revealed similar findings. It was found that the ITPP has significantly affected all scholars' instruction in China. International implications resulted from the study.

Keywords: international training program in pedagogy, visiting scholars, survey research method, International implications

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427 Re-Thinking and Practicing Critical Pedagogy in Education through Art

Authors: Dalya Markovich

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In the last decade art-educators strive to integrate critical pedagogy within the art classroom. Critical pedagogy aims to deconstruct the oppressive social reality and the false consciousness in which learners from both privileged and underprivileged groups are caught. Understanding oppression as a product of socio-political conditions seeks to instigate processes of change anchored in the student's views. Yet, growing empirical evidence show that these efforts often has resulted in art projects in which art teachers play an active role in the process of critical teaching, while the students remain passive listeners. In this common scenario, the teachers/artists become authoritarian moral guides of critical thinking and acting, while the students are often found to be indifferent or play along to satisfy the teachers'/artists aspirations. These responses indicate that the message of critical pedagogy – transforming the students' way of thinking and acting – mostly do not fulfill its emancipation goals. The study analyses the critical praxis embedded in new art projects and their influence on the participants. This type of projects replaces the individual producer with a collaborative work; switch the finite work with an ongoing project; and transforms the passive learner to an engaged co-producer. The research delves into the pedagogical framework of two of these art projects by using qualitative methods. In-depth interviews were conducted with 4 of the projects' initiator and managers, in order to access understandings of the art projects goals and pedagogical methods. Field work included 4 participant observation (two in each project) during social encounters in the project's settings, focusing on how critical thinking is enacted (or not) by the participants. The analysis exposes how the new art projects avoid the prepackaged "critical" assumptions and praxis, thus turning the participants from passive carriers of critical thinking to agents that actively use criticism. Findings invite researchers to explore new avenues for understanding critical pedagogy and developing various ways to implement critical pedagogy during art education, in view of the growing need of critical thinking and acting in school/society.

Keywords: critical pedagogy, education through art, collaborative work, agency

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426 Open Educational Resources (OER): Deciding upon Openness

Authors: Eunice H. Li

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This e-poster explores some of the issues that are linked to Open Educational Resources (OER). It describes how OER is explained by experts in the field and relates its value in attaining and using knowledge. ‘Open', 'open pedagogy', self-direction, freedom, and autonomy are the main issues identified for the discussion. All of these issues make essential contributions to OER in one way or another. Nevertheless, there are seemingly areas of contentions with regard to applying these concepts in teaching and learning practices. For this e-Poster, it is the teaching-learning aspects of OER that it is primarily concerned with. The basis for the discussion comes from a 2013 critique of OER presented by Jeremy Knox of the University of Edinburgh, tutor of the MSc in Digital Education Programme. This discussion is also supported by the analysis of other research work and papers in this area. The general view on OER is that it is a useful tool for the advancement of learner-centred models of education, but in whatever context, pedagogy cannot be diminished and overlooked. It should take into consideration how to deal with the issues identified above in order to allow learners to gain full benefit from OER.

Keywords: open, pedagogy, e-learning technologies, autonomy, knowledge

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425 Literary Imagination and Leadership: Lessons From the Classroom

Authors: Naor Cohen

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In recent years, business schools made teaching ethical leadership a higher priority. Greater attention to moral and ethical concepts and reasoning processes may prove beneficial to future business leaders. But with a shift in focus, there is a need for a shift in pedagogy. This paper explores an imaginative literature-based pedagogy in the teaching of ethical leadership. An imaginative literature-based pedagogy uses works of fiction to help students build moral analysis and moral judgment capabilities through a rigorous assessment of the moral soundness of actions, motivations, rationales, and consequences portrayed in works of fiction. Business students enrolled in 4 leadership senior-level courses were assigned the White Tiger: A Novel by Aravind Adiga as their main course reading. Students' engagement was measured as a three-factor construct exploring cognitive engagement, behavioural engagement and emotional engagement. In addition, students' final papers were analyzed using thematic content analysis. This paper will present the results of this analysis and argue that incorporating fiction into the leadership curriculum allows students to explore the dire consequences of avoiding countervailing interests, engaging in dishonesty and engaging in moral puffery-based leadership.

Keywords: ethical leadership, empathetic imagination, business education, pedagogy, fiction

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424 Implications of Humanizing Pedagogy on Learning Design in a Technology-Enhanced Language Learning Environment: Critical Reflections on Student Identity and Agency

Authors: Mukhtar Raban

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Nelson Mandela University subscribes to a humanizing pedagogy (HP), as housed under broader critical pedagogy, that underpins and informs learning and teaching activities at the institution. The investigation sought to explore the implications of humanizing and critical pedagogical considerations for a technology-enhanced language learning (TELL) environment in a university course. The paper inquires into the design of a learning resource in an online learning environment of an English communication module, that applied HP principles. With an objective of creating agentive spaces for foregrounding identity, student voice, critical self-reflection, and recognition of others’ humanity; a flexible and open 'My Presence' feature was added to the TELL environment that allowed students and lecturers to share elements of their backgrounds in a ‘mutually vulnerable’ manner as a way of establishing digital identity and a more ‘human’ presence in the online language learning encounter, serving as a catalyst for the recognition of the ‘other’. Following a qualitative research design, the study adopted an auto-ethnographic approach, complementing the critical inquiry nature embedded into the activity’s practices. The study’s findings provide critical reflections and deductions on the possibilities of leveraging digital human expression within a humanizing pedagogical framework to advance the realization of HP-adoption in language learning and teaching encounters. It was found that the consideration of humanizing pedagogical principles in the design of online learning was more effective when the critical outcomes were explicated to students and lecturers prior to the completion of the activities. The integration of humanizing pedagogy also led to a contextual advancement of ‘affective’ language learning. Upon critical reflection and analysis, student identity and agency can flourish in a technology-enhanced learning environment when humanizing, and critical pedagogy influences the learning design.

Keywords: critical reflection, humanizing pedagogy, student identity, technology-enhanced language learning

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