Search results for: Persian Gulf
329 Sustainable Energy Production from Microalgae in Queshm Island, Persian Gulf
Authors: N. Moazami, R. Ranjbar, A. Ashori
Abstract:Out of hundreds of microalgal strains reported, only very few of them are capable for production of high content of lipid. Therefore, the key technical challenges include identifying the strains with the highest growth rates and oil contents with adequate composition, which were the main aims of this work. From 147 microalgae screened for high biomass and oil productivity, the Nannochloropsis sp. PTCC 6016, which attained 52% lipid content, was selected for large scale cultivation in Persian Gulf Knowledge Island. Nannochloropsis strain PTCC 6016 belongs to Eustigmatophyceae (Phylum heterokontophyta) isolated from Mangrove forest area of Qheshm Island and Persian Gulf (Iran) in 2008. The strain PTCC 6016 had an average biomass productivity of 2.83 g/L/day and 52% lipid content. The biomass productivity and the oil production potential could be projected to be more than 200 tons biomass and 100000 L oil per hectare per year, in an outdoor algal culture (300 day/year) in the Persian Gulf climate.
Keywords: biofuels, microalgae, Nannochloropsis, raceway open pond, bio-jetProcedia PDF Downloads 420
328 Health Risks Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Sea Food from Persian Gulf
Authors: Mohsen Ehsanpour, Maryam Ehsanpour, Majid Afkhami, Fatemeh Afkhami
Abstract:Heavy metals are increasingly being released into natural waters from geological and anthropogenic sources. The distribution of several heavy metals (Cd, Pb) was investigated in muscle, liver in six different fish species seasonally collected in Persian Gulf (autumn 2009-summer 2010). The concentrations of all metals were lower in flesh than those recorded in liver due to their physiological roles. The THQ index for fish was calculated. Estimation of target hazard quotients calculations for the contaminated fish consumption was calculated to evaluate the effect of pollution on health. Total metal THQs values (Pb and Cd) for adults were 0.05 and 0.04 in Bushehr and Bandar-Genaveh, respectively, and for children they were 0.08 and 0.05 in Bandar-Abbas and Bandar-Lengeh, respectively.
Keywords: Persian Gulf, heavy metals, health risks, THQ indexProcedia PDF Downloads 633
327 Study of the Persian Gulf’s and Oman Sea’s Numerical Tidal Currents
Authors: Fatemeh Sadat Sharifi
Abstract:In this research, a barotropic model was employed to consider the tidal studies in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, where the only sufficient force was the tidal force. To do that, a finite-difference, free-surface model called Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), was employed on the data over the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. To analyze flow patterns of the region, the results of limited size model of The Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) were appropriated. The two points were determined since both are one of the most critical water body in case of the economy, biology, fishery, Shipping, navigation, and petroleum extraction. The OSU Tidal Prediction Software (OTPS) tide and observation data validated the modeled result. Next, tidal elevation and speed, and tidal analysis were interpreted. Preliminary results determine a significant accuracy in the tidal height compared with observation and OTPS data, declaring that tidal currents are highest in Hormuz Strait and the narrow and shallow region between Iranian coasts and Islands. Furthermore, tidal analysis clarifies that the M_2 component has the most significant value. Finally, the Persian Gulf tidal currents are divided into two branches: the first branch converts from south to Qatar and via United Arab Emirate rotates to Hormuz Strait. The secondary branch, in north and west, extends up to the highest point in the Persian Gulf and in the head of Gulf turns counterclockwise.
Keywords: numerical model, barotropic tide, tidal currents, OSU tidal prediction software, OTPSProcedia PDF Downloads 74
326 Tamukkana, Ancient Achaemenids City near the Persian Gulf
Authors: Ghulamhossein Nezami
Abstract:Civilizations based in Iran, especially in the south, have always realized the all-around importance of the Persian Sea and for various reasons, have paid full attention to it. The first of these was the pre-Aryan government, Ilam in the coastal province of Sharihum and the city of Lian (now the port of Bushehr) in terms of trade, defense and religion. With the establishment of the Achaemenids on the entire plateau of Iran to the center of Persia, they created several communication routes from Parseh to the shores of the Persian Gulf, which ended in the present Bushehr province. This coastal area was extended by a road in the coastal plain to the more southern parts of the ports of Ausinze - according to Ptolemy the port of Siraf before the Sassanids - and Epstane and Hormozia in the present-day Strait of Hormuz. Meanwhile, the ancient city of Temukknana, whose new historical documents testify to its extraordinary importance in the Achaemenid period, especially Darius I of the Achaemenids, from a strategic position with the coastal areas, the coasts and on the other hand with the gamers, the political center. - Achaemenid administration, had. New archeological evidence, research, and excavations show that both the famous Achaemenid kings and courtiers paid special attention to Tamukknana. The discovery of a tomb and three Achaemenid palaces from before the reign of Cyrus to Xerxes in this region showed the importance of the strategic, security-defense and commercial position of this region, extraordinary for the Achaemenids. Therefore, the city of Temukkana in the Dashtestan region of present-day Bushehr province became an important Achaemenid center on the Persian Gulf coast and became the political-economic center of gravity of the Achaemenids and the regulator of communication networks on the Persian Gulf coast. This event showed that the Achaemenids attached importance to their economic goals and oversight of their vast territory by the Persian Gulf. Methods: Book resources and field study.
Keywords: Achaemenids, Bushehr, Persian Gulf, TamukkanaProcedia PDF Downloads 125
325 Screening for Antibacterial, Antifungal and Cytotoxic Agents in Three Hard Coral Species from Persian Gulf
Authors: Maryam Ehsanpou, Majid Afkhami, Flora Mohammadizadeh, Amirhoushang Bahri, Rastin Afkhami
Abstract:Within the frame of a biodiversity and bioactivity study of marine macro organisms from the Persian Gulf, three hard coral species extracts were investigated for cytotoxic, antibacterial and antifungal activities against five human pathogenic microorganisms. All concentrations of extracts from three hard corals showed no antifungal activity towards the tested strains. In antibacterial assays, the hard coral extracts showed significant activity solely against Staphylococcus aureus with MICs ranging from 3 to 9 μg/ml. The highest antibacterial activity was found in the aqueous methanol extract of Porites compressa with an inhibition zone of 22 mm against Staphylococcus aureus at 18 μg/ml extract concentration. Methanol extracts from Porites harrisoi and Porites compressa exhibited only weak cytotoxic activities. It is important for future research to concentrate on finding the mechanisms employed by corals to defend themselves against invasion, the mechanism of infections and the type of chemical compounds in coral extracts that inhibit antibacterial growth or proliferation in underexplored areas such as the Persian Gulf.
Keywords: antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, hard corals, Persian GulfProcedia PDF Downloads 415
324 Mercury Detection in Two Fishes from the Persian Gulf
Authors: Zahra Khoshnood, Mehdi Kazaie, Sajedeh Neisi
Abstract:In 2013, 24 fish samples were taken from two fishery regions in the north of Persian Gulf near the Iranian coastal lines. The two flatfishes were Yellofin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus) and Longtail tuna (Thannus tonggol). We analyzed total Hg concentration of liver and muscle tissues by Mercury Analyzer (model LECO AMA 254). The average concentration of total Hg in edible Muscle tissue of deep-Flounder was measured in Bandar-Abbas and was found to be 18.92 and it was 10.19 µg.g-1 in Bandar-Lengeh. The corresponding values for Oriental sole were 8.47 and 0.08 µg.g-1. The average concentration of Hg in liver tissue of deep-Flounder, in Bandar-Abbas was 25.49 and that in Bandar-Lengeh was 12.52 µg.g-1.the values for Oriental sole were 11.88 and 3.2 µg.g-1 in Bandar-Abbas and Bandar-Lengeh, respectively.
Keywords: mercury, Acanthopagrus latus, Thannus tonggol, Persian GulfProcedia PDF Downloads 534
323 Effects of PAHs on Blood Thyroidal Hormones of Liza klunzingeri in the Northern Part of Hormuz Strait (Persian Gulf)
Authors: Fateme Afkhami, Mohsen Ehsanpour, Maryam Ehsanpour, Majid Afkhami
Abstract:This study was conducted to determine the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on thyroidal hormones of Liza klunzingeri and to monitor marine pollution from northern part of Hormuz strait (Persian Gulf). Results showed the highest total PAHs levels (268.56 µg/kg) were in the fish samples and the lowest are obtained from water samples (3.12 µg/kg). Also, highest of PAHs levels in fish, sediment and water were found in St3. There was a positive correlation between T3 and T4, with PAHs results. T4 had a significant positive correlation (P<0.05).
Keywords: PAHs, thyroidal hormones, Liza klunzingeri, Hormuz Strait, Persian GulfProcedia PDF Downloads 629
322 Application of Post-Stack and Pre-Stack Seismic Inversion for Prediction of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in a Persian Gulf Gas Field
Authors: Nastaran Moosavi, Mohammad Mokhtari
Abstract:Seismic inversion is a technique which has been in use for years and its main goal is to estimate and to model physical characteristics of rocks and fluids. Generally, it is a combination of seismic and well-log data. Seismic inversion can be carried out through different methods; we have conducted and compared post-stack and pre- stack seismic inversion methods on real data in one of the fields in the Persian Gulf. Pre-stack seismic inversion can transform seismic data to rock physics such as P-impedance, S-impedance and density. While post- stack seismic inversion can just estimate P-impedance. Then these parameters can be used in reservoir identification. Based on the results of inverting seismic data, a gas reservoir was detected in one of Hydrocarbon oil fields in south of Iran (Persian Gulf). By comparing post stack and pre-stack seismic inversion it can be concluded that the pre-stack seismic inversion provides a more reliable and detailed information for identification and prediction of hydrocarbon reservoirs.
Keywords: density, p-impedance, s-impedance, post-stack seismic inversion, pre-stack seismic inversionProcedia PDF Downloads 224
321 Effect of Pollutions on Mangrove Forests of Nayband National Marine Park
Authors: Esmaeil Kouhgardi, Elaheh Shakerdargah
Abstract:The mangrove ecosystem is a complex of various inter-related elements in the land-sea interface zone which is linked with other natural systems of the coastal region such as corals, sea-grass, coastal fisheries and beach vegetation. The mangrove ecosystem consists of water, muddy soil, trees, shrubs, and their associated flora, fauna and microbes. It is a very productive ecosystem sustaining various forms of life. Its waters are nursery grounds for fish, crustacean, and mollusk and also provide habitat for a wide range of aquatic life, while the land supports a rich and diverse flora and fauna, but pollutions may affect these characteristics. Iran has the lowest share of Persian Gulf pollution among the eight littoral states; environmental experts are still deeply concerned about the serious consequences of the pollution in the oil-rich gulf. Prolongation of critical conditions in the Persian Gulf has endangered its aquatic ecosystem. Water purification equipment, refineries, wastewater emitted by onshore installations, especially petrochemical plans, urban sewage, population density and extensive oil operations of Arab states are factors contaminating the Persian Gulf waters. Population density has been the major cause of pollution and environmental degradation in the Persian Gulf. Persian Gulf is a closed marine environment which is connected to open waterways only from one way. It usually takes between three and four years for the gulf's water to be completely replaced. Therefore, any pollution entering the water will remain there for a relatively long time. Presently, the high temperature and excessive salt level in the water have exposed the marine creatures to extra threats, which mean they have to survive very tough conditions. The natural environment of the Persian Gulf is very rich with good fish grounds, extensive coral reefs and pearl oysters in abundance, but has become increasingly under pressure due to the heavy industrialization and in particular the repeated major oil spillages associated with the various recent wars fought in the region. Pollution may cause the mortality of mangrove forests by effect on root, leaf and soil of the area. Study was showed the high correlation between industrial pollution and mangrove forests health in south of Iran and increase of population, coupled with economic growth, inevitably caused the use of mangrove lands for various purposes such as construction of roads, ports and harbors, industries and urbanization.
Keywords: Mangrove forest, pollution, Persian Gulf, population, environmentProcedia PDF Downloads 333
320 Shark Resources in the Iranian Waters of the Persian Gulf
Authors: Nassir Niamaimandi, Mehrdad Hosaini Shabankareh
Abstract:This study was analyzed the annual catch and trawl survey data of sharks in the northern part of the Persian Gulf (26˚ 30΄ to 30˚ 00΄N and 49˚ 00΄ to 56˚ 00΄E) from 2004 to 2009. Trawl survey was conducted by research vessel Ferdous, equipped with bottom trawl nets in meshes 400mm and 80mm at the body, and cod-end, respectively. Ten stratums were selected in the study area and 199 stations were randomly trawled. The density (CPUA) of shark resources was estimated based on swept area method. The annual total catch was obtained from Iranian fisheries organization (Shilat). The results of catch per unit area showed 250.7 kg/nm2 in 2004 to 49.7 kg/nm2 in 2009. There was a high degree of variability of CPUA among different areas and the maximum was estimated 1870.8 kg/nm2 in Nayband and Mogham. In catch composition data, sharks have a decreasing trend from 4.2% in 2004 to 2.9% in 2009 that shows a decline with an annual average 1.3% during 2004-2009. This results suggesting that the shark resource is overexploited and the current effort is far higher than the effort required harvesting optimum yields.
Keywords: shark resources, Iranian waters, Persian Gulf, Trawl surveyProcedia PDF Downloads 482
319 Investigation of the Possible Correlation of Earthquakes with a Red Tide Occurrence in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea
Authors: Hadis Hosseinzadehnaseri
Abstract:The red tide is a kind of algae blooming, caused different problems at different sizes for the human life and the environment, so it has become one of the serious global concerns in the field of Oceanography in few recent decades. This phenomenon has affected on Iran's water, especially the Persian Gulf's since last few years. Collecting data associated with this phenomenon and comparison in different parts of the world is significant as a practical way to study this phenomenon and controlling it. Effective factors to occur this phenomenon lead to the increase of the required nutrients of the algae or provide a good environment for blooming. In this study, we examined the probability of relation between the earthquake and the harmful algae blooming in the Persian Gulf's water through comparing the earthquake data and the recorded Red tides. On the one hand, earthquakes can cause changes in seawater temperature that is effective in creating a suitable environment and the other hand, it increases the possibility of water nutrients, and its transportation in the seabed, so it can play a principal role in the development of red tide occurrence. Comparing the distribution spatial-temporal maps of the earthquakes and deadly red tides in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, confirms the hypothesis, why there is a meaningful relation between these two distributions. Comparing the number of earthquakes around the world as well as the number of the red tides in many parts of the world indicates the correlation between these two issues. This subject due to numerous earthquakes, especially in recent years and in the southern part of the country should be considered as a warning to the possibility of re-occurrence of a critical state of red tide in a large scale, why in the year 2008, the number of recorded earthquakes have been more than near years. In this year, the distribution value of the red tide phenomenon in the Persian Gulf got measured about 140,000 square kilometers and entire Oman Sea, with 10 months Survival in the area, which is considered as a record among the occurred algae blooming in the world. In this paper, we could obtain a logical and reasonable relation between the earthquake frequency and this phenomenon occurrence, through compilation of statistics relating to the earthquakes in the southern Iran, from 2000 to the end of the first half of 2013 and also collecting statistics on the occurrence of red tide in the region as well as examination of similar data in different parts of the world. As shown in Figure 1, according to a survey conducted on the earthquake data, the most earthquakes in the southern Iran ranks first in the fourth Gregorian calendar month In April, coincided with Ordibehesht and Khordad in Persian calendar and then in the tenth Gregorian calendar month In October, coincided in Aban and Azar in Persian calendar.
Keywords: red tide, earth quake, persian gulf, harmful algae bloomProcedia PDF Downloads 443
318 Biogeochemical Study of Polycuclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Its Physiological Response in Mudskippre (B. dussumieri) along the North western Coasts of the Persian Gulf
Authors: Ali Mashinchian Moradi, Mahmood Sinaei
Abstract:Study on the biomarkers to assess health status of marine ecosystems has an important value in biomonitoring of marine environment. Accordingly, accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment, water and tissues (liver and gill) of mudskipper (Boleophthalmus dussmieri) and some physiological responses like lysosomal membrane change in haemocytes and the Glutathione-S Transferase (GST) activity in the liver were measured in mudskippers. Samples were collected from five sites along the noth western cost of the Persian Gulf. PAHs concentration was measured by HPLC method. The activity of GST enzyme was analysed by spectrophotometric method. Total PAH concentration in coastal seawater, sediments, liver and gill tissues ranged between 0.80-18.34 ug/L, 113.550-3384.34 ng/g dw, 3.99-46.64 ng/g dw and 3.11-17.This study showed that PAH concentrations in this region are not higher than available standards. The findings revile that lysosomal membrane destabilization and liver GST activities are highly sensitive to PAHs in mudskipper, B. dussumieri. Sediment PAH concentrations were strongly correlated with biomarkers, indicating PAHs were biologically available to fish. Thus, mudskipper perceived to be good sentinel organism for PAH pollution biomonitoring.
Keywords: PAHs, biomarker, mudskipper, Persian GulfProcedia PDF Downloads 288
317 Isolation, Characterization and Screening of Antimicrobial Producing Actinomycetes from Sediments of Persian Gulf
Authors: H. Alijani, M. Jabari, S. Matroodi, H. Zolqarnein, A. Sharafi, I. Zamani
Abstract:Actinomycetes, Gram-positive bacteria, are interesting as a main producer of secondary metabolites and are important industrially and pharmaceutically. The marine environment is a potential source for new actinomycetes, which can provide novel bioactive compounds and industrially important enzymes. The aims of this study were to isolate and identify novel actinomycetes from Persian Gulf sediments and screen these isolates for the production of secondary metabolites, especially antibiotics, Using phylogenetic (16S rRNA gene sequence), morphological and biochemical analyses. 15 different actinomycete strains from Persian Gulf sediments at a depth of 5-10 m were identified. DNA extraction was done using Cinnapure DNA Kit. PCR amplification of 16S rDNA gene was performed using F27 and R1492 primers. Phylogenetic tree analysis was performed using the MEGA 6 software. Most of the isolated strains belong to the genus namely Streptomyces (14), followed by Nocardiopsis (1). Antibacterial assay of the isolates supernatant was performed using a standard disc diffusion assay with replication (n=3). The results of disk diffusion assay showed that most active strain against Proteus volgaris and Bacillus cereus was AMJ1 (16.46±0.2mm and 13.78±0.2mm, respectively), against Salmonella sp. AMJ7 was the most effective strain (10.13±0.2mm), and AMJ1 and AHA5 showed more inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli (8.04±0.02 mm and 8.2±0.03 ). The AMJ6 strain showed best antibacterial activity against Klebsiella sp. (8.03±0.02mm). Antifungal activity of AMJ2 showed that it was most active strain against complex (16.05±0.02mm) and against Aspergillus flavus strain AMJ1 was most active strain (16.4±0.2mm) and highest antifungal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gyp serum and Candida albicans, were shown by AHA1 (21.03±0.02mm), AHA3 and AHA7 (18±0.03mm), AMJ6 (21.03±0.2mm) respectively. Our results revealed that the marine actinomycetes of Persian Gulf sediments were potent source of novel antibiotics and bioactive compounds and indicated that the antimicrobial metabolites were extracellular. Most of the secondary metabolites and antibiotics are extracellular in nature and extracellular products of actinomycetes show potent antimicrobial activities.
Keywords: antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, marine actinomycetes, Persian GulfProcedia PDF Downloads 237
316 Plasma Biochemistry Values in Wild Hawksbill Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) during Nesting and Foraging Seasons in Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf
Authors: Fateme Afkhami, Mohsen Ehsanpour, Majid Afkhami, Maryam Ehsanpour
Abstract:Normal reference ranges of biochemical parameters are considered important for assessing and monitoring the health status of sea turtles. For this means, serum biochemistry determinations were analyzed in normal adult nesting and foraging hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata). Blood samples were collected in March–April during nesting season and December-November in the foraging season. Plasma biochemistry values, except for creatinine and lipase were significant between the two periods. FBS, cholesterol, triglycerides, ALP (alkaline phosphatase), AST (aspartate aminotransferase), bilirubin, total protein, LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), CK (creatine kinase) and amylase were significantly higher in nesting season than foraging season (P<0.05). On the other hand urea, ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and albumin in the nesting season were significantly lower than foraging season (P<0.05). It was concluded that the nesting E. imbricata showed significant variation in their biochemical profile due to reproductive output. This study has produced working reference intervals useful for hawksbill turtles for future conservation and rehabilitation projects in the Persian Gulf and may be of assistance in similar programs worldwide.
Keywords: plasma biochemistry, nesting, foraging, hawksbill turtles, Persian GulfProcedia PDF Downloads 548
315 Biomass and CPUA Estimation and Distribution Pattern of Saurida Tumbil in the Northwest of Persian Gulf
Authors: Negar Ghotbeddin, Izadpanah Zeinab, Tooraj Valinassab, Mohammad Azhir
Abstract:It is reported on results of a trawls survey in 2011 to assess the amount of biomass and Catch Per Unit of Area (CPUA) and also to determine the distribution pattern of Synodonidae family of demersal fishes (with emphasize on great lizardfish, Saurida tumbil) as one the most important and commercial fish species in the northwest of Persian Gulf. Samples were collected at a total 65 trawl stations selected a stratified random procedure. The study area was stratified to five strata (A to E) covering the depth layers of 10-20, 20-30 and 30-50 m. The catch rates of CPUA and biomass of lizardfishes were estimated to be approximately 316.20 kg/nm2, and 2902.1 tons, respectively. The highest value of biomass of Synodontids was recorded in the east of the study area, Bordkhoon to Dayer (stratum D & E, approximately 1310.6 tonnes) and in depth layer of 30-50 m; and the lowest value was estimated for stratum A (West of Khuzestan Province) and in depth layer of 10-20 m. On the other hand, the highest CPUA was recorded in stratum D and depth layer of 20-30 m; and the lowest value for stratum A and 10-20 m depth. It was concluded that stratum D (namely from Bordkhoon to Dayer) contains the best fishing area from the point of higher density and distribution of Synodontidae in the covering area, and from the point of depth distribution, they are found in depths more than 30 m.
Keywords: Saurida tumbil, CPUA, biomass, distribution, fishing area, Persian gulfProcedia PDF Downloads 336
314 Determination of Heavy Metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Al, As, Ni and Zn) in 6 Important Commercial Fish Species in North of Hormoz Strait
Authors: Majid Afkhami, Maryam Ehsanpour, Zahra Khoshnood
Abstract:The concentrations of 10 heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Al, As, Ni, Zn) were measured in muscle, gill and liver of 6 species from Hormoz Strait in north coast of Persian Gulf in 12 months (April 2009 – March 2010). All samples were analyzed three times for Cd, Pb, Cu, Fe, Mn, Al, As, Ni, Zn by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and for Hg by LECO AMA254 Advanced Mercury Analyzer. Results of this study showed that iron had the highest concentration (total mean concentration) in all species, followed by Zn, Cu, Ni, Al, Pb, Mn, Cd, Hg and lowest concentration in three tissues was As. In addition, the accumulation of metals was species-dependent, and was higher in Scomberomorous commerson and Scomberomorous guttatus (p<0.05) and the lowest concentration was record in Pampus argenteus (p<0.05).
Keywords: Persian Gulf, heavy metals, Hormoz strait, Scomberomorous guttatus, Scomberomorous commerson, Pampus argenteusProcedia PDF Downloads 573
313 Investigation of the Low-Level Jet Role in Transportation of Shamal Dust Storms in Southwest Iran
Authors: Nasim Hossein Hamzeh, Abbas Ranjbar Saadat Abadi, Maggie Chel Gee Ooi, Steven Soon-Kai Kong, Christian Opp
Abstract:Dust storm is one of the most important natural disasters in the world, where the Middle East suffers frequently due to the existence of the dust belt region. As a country in the Middle East, Iran mostly is affected by the dust storms from some internal and also external dust sources, mostly originating from deserts in Iraq, Syria, and Saudi Arabia. In this study, some severe Shamal dust storms were investigated in Southwest Iran. The measured 〖PM〗_10 reached up to 834 μg m-3 in some stations in west Iran and Iran-Iraq borders, while the measured 〖PM〗_10 reached up to 4947 μg m-3 SW stations in northern shores of the Persian Gulf. During these severe dust storms, a low-level jet was observed at 930hPa atmospheric level in north Iraq and south Iraq. the jet core and its width were about 16 ms-1 and 100 km, respectively, in the cases where it is located in the NW regions of Iraq and northeastern Syria (at 35°N and 40-41°E), So the jet was stronger at higher latitudes (34°N - 35°N) than at lower latitudes (32°N). Therefore, suitable conditions have been created for lifting of dust sources located in northwestern Iraq and northeastern Syria. The topography surrounding the Mesopotamia and north of the Persian Gulf play a major role in the development of the Low-Level Jet through the interaction of meteorological conditions and mountain forcing. Also, the output of CALIPSO satellite images show dust rising to higher than 5 km in these dust cases, that confirming the influence of Shamal wind on the dust storm occurrence.
Keywords: dust storm, shamal wind, the persian gulf, southwest IranProcedia PDF Downloads 24
312 Determination of Some Biochemical Values for the Liza klunzingeri in Coastal Water of Persian Gulf
Authors: Majid Afkhami, Maryam Ehsanpour
Abstract:Serum biochemical can be used for monitoring any changes in the physiological condition of fish and quality of waters. The aim of this paper was to determine of plasma sugar, triglycerides, cholesterol, iron, ALP (alkaline phosphatase) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) levels of Liza klunzingeri in Persian Gulf. Blood sample was collected from the caudal vessel with syringes coated with sodium heparin. Biochemical values were: sugar 110.37±28.46 mg/di, triglycerides 96.82±23.40 mg/di, cholesterol 177.28 ±40.75 mg/di, iron 104.74± 19.08 mg/di, ALP 117.62±34.49 u/l, LDH 1613.00±345.34 u/l. A significant positive correlation (P<0.01) was found between triglycerides and sugar. Triglycerides had a significant and positive relationship with cholesterol (P<0.01). ALP also had a significant and positive relationship with sugar (P<0.01) and triglycerides (P<0.05). LDH correlated positively with sugar, cholesterol, triglycerides (P<0.01) and ALP (P<0.05). The results revealed reverse correlation between iron with cholesterol, sugar, triglycerides, ALP, and LDH (P<0.01). This study represents a contribution to the referential biochemical values of the L. klunzingeri. In further studies, the established reference ranges might be useful for the health assessment of this species.
Keywords: Liza klunzingeri, blood, ALP, LDHProcedia PDF Downloads 563
311 ViraPart: A Text Refinement Framework for Automatic Speech Recognition and Natural Language Processing Tasks in Persian
Authors: Narges Farokhshad, Milad Molazadeh, Saman Jamalabbasi, Hamed Babaei Giglou, Saeed Bibak
Abstract:The Persian language is an inflectional subject-object-verb language. This fact makes Persian a more uncertain language. However, using techniques such as Zero-Width Non-Joiner (ZWNJ) recognition, punctuation restoration, and Persian Ezafe construction will lead us to a more understandable and precise language. In most of the works in Persian, these techniques are addressed individually. Despite that, we believe that for text refinement in Persian, all of these tasks are necessary. In this work, we proposed a ViraPart framework that uses embedded ParsBERT in its core for text clarifications. First, used the BERT variant for Persian followed by a classifier layer for classification procedures. Next, we combined models outputs to output cleartext. In the end, the proposed model for ZWNJ recognition, punctuation restoration, and Persian Ezafe construction performs the averaged F1 macro scores of 96.90%, 92.13%, and 98.50%, respectively. Experimental results show that our proposed approach is very effective in text refinement for the Persian language.
Keywords: Persian Ezafe, punctuation, ZWNJ, NLP, ParsBERT, transformersProcedia PDF Downloads 114
310 Sensitivity Analysis of Oil Spills Modeling with ADIOS II for Iranian Fields in Persian Gulf
Authors: Farzingohar Mehrnaz, Yasemi Mehran, Esmaili Zinat, Baharlouian Maedeh
Abstract:Aboozar (Ardeshir) and Bahregansar are the two important Iranian oilfields in Persian Gulf waters. The operation activities cause to create spills which impacted on the marine environment. Assumed spills are molded by ADIOS II (Automated Data Inquiry for Oil Spills) which is NOAA’s weathering oil software. Various atmospheric and marine data with different oil types are used for the modeling. Numerous scenarios for 100 bbls with mean daily air temperature and wind speed are input for 5 days. To find the model sensitivity in each setting, one parameter is changed, but the others stayed constant. In both fields, the evaporated and dispersed output values increased hence the remaining rate is reduced. The results clarified that wind speed first, second air temperature and finally oil type respectively were the most effective factors on the oil weathering process. The obtained results can help the emergency systems to predict the floating (dispersed and remained) volume spill in order to find the suitable cleanup tools and methods.
Keywords: ADIOS, modeling, oil spill, sensitivity analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 227
309 Heavy Metal Distribution in Tissues of Two Commercially Important Fish Species, Euryglossa orientalis and Psettodes erumei
Authors: Reza Khoshnood, Zahra Khoshnood, Ali Hajinajaf, Farzad Fahim, Behdokht Hajinajaf, Farhad Fahim
Abstract:In 2013, 24 fish samples were taken from two fishery regions in Bandar-Abbas and Bandar-Lengeh, the fishing grounds north of Hormoz Strait (Persian Gulf) near the Iranian coastline. The two flat fishes were oriental sole (Euryglossa orientalis) and deep flounder (Psettodes erumei). Using the ROPME method (MOOPAM) for chemical digestion, Cd concentration was measured with a nonflame atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. The average concentration of Cd in the edible muscle tissue of deep flounder was measured in Bandar-Abbas and was found to be 0.15±.06 µg g-1. It was 0.1±.05 µg.g-1 in Bandar-Lengeh. The corresponding values for oriental sole were 0.2±0.13 and 0.13±0.11 µg.g-1. The average concentration of Cd in the liver tissue of deep flounder in Bandar-Abbas was 0.22±.05 µg g-1 and that in Bandar-Lengeh was 0.2±0.04 µg.g-1. The values for oriental sole were 0.31±0.09 and 0.24±0.13 µg g-1 in Bandar-Abbas and Bandar-Lengeh, respectively.
Keywords: trace metal, Euryglossa orientalis, Psettodes erumei, Persian GulfProcedia PDF Downloads 595
308 Multilingualism and Unification of Teaching
Authors: Mehdi Damaliamiri, Firouzeh Akbari
Abstract:Teaching literature to children at an early age is of great importance, and there have been different methods to facilitate learning literature. Based on the law, all children going to school in Iran should learn the Persian language and literature. This has been concomitant with two different levels of learning related to urban or rural bilingualism. For bilingual children living in the villages, learning literature and a new language (Persian) turns into a big challenge as it is done based on the translation the teacher does while in the city, it is easier as the confrontation of children with the Persian language is more. Over recent years, to change the trend of learning Persian by children speaking another language, the TV and radio programs have been considered to be effective, but the scores of the students in Persian language national exams show that these programs have not been so effective for the bilingual students living in the villages. To identify the determinants of weak learning of Persian by bilingual children, two different regions were chosen, Turkish-speaking and Kurdish-speaking communities, to compare their learning of Persian at the first and second levels of elementary school. The criteria of learning was based on the syllabification of Persian words, word order in the sentence, and compound sentences. Students were taught in Persian how to recognize syllabification without letting them translate the words in their own languages and were asked to produce simple sentences in Persian in response to situational questions. Teaching methods, language relatedness with Persian, and exposure to social media programs, especially TV and radio, were the factors that were considered to affect the potential of children in learning Persian.
Keywords: bilingualism, persian, education, LiteratureProcedia PDF Downloads 12
307 Comparison of Reserve Strength Ratio and Capacity Curve Parameters of Offshore Platforms with Distinct Bracing Arrangements
Authors: Aran Dezhban, Hooshang Dolatshahi Pirooz
Abstract:The phenomenon of corrosion, especially in the Persian Gulf region, is the main cause of the deterioration of offshore platforms, due to the high corrosion of its water. This phenomenon occurs mostly in the area of water spraying, threatening the members of the first floor of the jacket, legs, and piles in this area. In the current study, the effect of bracing arrangement on the Capacity Curve and Reserve Strength Ratio of Fixed-Type Offshore Platforms is investigated. In order to continue the operation of the platform, two modes of robust and damaged structures are considered, while checking the adequacy of the platform capacity based on the allowable values of API RP-2SIM regulations. The platform in question is located in the Persian Gulf, which is modeled on the OpenSEES software. In this research, the Nonlinear Pushover Analysis has been used. After validation, the Capacity Curve of the studied platforms is obtained and then their Reserve Strength Ratio is calculated. Results are compared with the criteria in the API-2SIM regulations.
Keywords: fixed-type jacket structure, structural integrity management, nonlinear pushover analysis, robust and damaged structure, reserve strength ration, capacity curveProcedia PDF Downloads 43
306 A Bridge to Success: Building Academic Identity in Foundation Programs
Authors: Krystyna Golkowska
Abstract:Recent years have witnessed rapid growth of Transnational Education (TNE), especially in Asia and the Middle East. Exporting North American curricula into different socio-cultural contexts brings with it numerous advantages as well as challenges that have yet to be fully explored. This article focuses on Foundation programs, bridge programs between local high schools and tertiary level education on North-American branch campuses in the Persian Gulf. Based on a case study of Foundation students in Qatar, it explores ways of preparing TNE students for academic success by helping them to develop not only their skills and subject knowledge but also their academic identity.
Keywords: academic identity, foundation program, gulf, transnational educationProcedia PDF Downloads 242
305 Morphological Analysis of English L1-Persian L2 Adult Learners’ Interlanguage: From the Perspective of SLA Variation
Authors: Maassoumeh Bemani Naeini
Abstract:Studies on interlanguage have long been engaged in describing the phenomenon of variation in SLA. Pursuing the same goal and particularly addressing the role of linguistic features, this study describes the use of Persian morphology in the interlanguage of two adult English-speaking learners of Persian L2. Taking the general approach of a combination of contrastive analysis, error analysis and interlanguage analysis, this study focuses on the identification and prediction of some possible instances of transfer from English L1 to Persian L2 across six elicitation tasks aiming to investigate whether any of contextual features may variably influence the learners’ order of morpheme accuracy in the areas of copula, possessives, articles, demonstratives, plural form, personal pronouns, and genitive cases. Results describe the existence of task variation in the interlanguage system of Persian L2 learners.
Keywords: English L1, Interlanguage Analysis, Persian L2, SLA variationProcedia PDF Downloads 255
304 Effects of Oil Pollution on Euryglossa orientalis and Psettodes erumei in the Persian Gulf
Authors: Majid Afkhami, Maryam Ehsanpour, Reza Khoshnood, Zahra Khoshnood, Rastin Afkhami
Abstract:Marine pollution is a global environmental problem. Different human activities on land, in the water and in the air contribute to the contamination of seawater, sediments and organisms with potentially toxic substances. Contaminants can be natural substances or artificially produced compounds. After discharge into the sea, contaminants can stay in the water in dissolved form or they can be removed from the water column through sedimentation to the bottom sediments. Histopathological alterations can be used as indicators for the effects of various anthropogenic pollutants on organisms and are a reflection of the overall health of the entire population in the ecosystem. These histo pathological biomarkers are closely related to other biomarkers of stress since many pollutants have to undergo metabolic activation in order to be able to provoke cellular change in the affected organism. In order to make evaluation of the effects of oil pollution, some heavy metals bioaccumulation and explore their histopathological effects on hepatocytes of Oriental sole (Euryglossa orientalis) and Deep flounder (Psettodes erumei), fishes caught from two areas of north coast of the Persian Gulf: Bandar Abbass and Bandar Lengeh. Concentrations of Ni and V in liver of both species in two sampling regions were in following order: Bandar abbass Bandar lengeh; also between two species, these quantities were higher in P. erumei than E. orientalis in both sampling regions. Histopathology of the liver shows some cellular alterations including: degeneration, necrosis and tissue disruption, and histopathological effects were severe in P. erumei than E. orientalis. Results showed that Bandar Abbass region was more polluted than Bandar Lengeh, and because Ni and V were oil pollution indicators, and two flat fishes were benthic, they can receive considerable amount of oil pollution through their biological activities like feeding. Also higher amounts of heavy metal concentrations and major histopathological effects in E. orientalis showed strong relationship between benthic habitat of the fish and amounts of received pollutants from water and sediments, because E. orientalis is more related to the bottom than P. erumei.
Keywords: heavy metals, flatfishes, Persian Gulf, oil pollutionProcedia PDF Downloads 276
303 Economics of Oil and Its Stability in the Gulf Region
Authors: Al Mutawa A. Amir, Liaqat Ali, Faisal Ali
Abstract:After the World War II, the world economy was disrupted and changed due to oil and its prices. The research in this paper presents the basic statistical features and economic characteristics of the Gulf economy. The main features of the Gulf economies and its heavy dependence on oil exports, its dualism between modern and traditional sectors and its rapidly increasing affluences are particularly emphasized. In this context, the research in this paper discussed the problems of growth versus development and has attempted to draw the implications for the future economic development of this area.
Keywords: oil prices, GCC, economic growth, gulf oilProcedia PDF Downloads 274
302 Reasons for Language Words in the Quran and Literary Approaches That Are Persian
Authors: Fateme Mazbanpoor, Sayed Mohammad Amiri
Abstract:In this article, we will examine the Persian words in Quran and study the reasons of their presence in this holy book. Writers of this paper extracted about 70 Persian words of Quran by referring to resources. (Alalfaz ol Moarab ol Farsieh Edishir, Almoarabol Javalighi, Almahzab va Etghan Seuti; Vocabulary involved in Quran Arthur Jeffry;, and etc…), some of these words are: ‘Abarigh, ‘Estabragh’,’Barzakh’, ‘Din’,’Zamharir, ‘Sondos’ ‘Sejil’,’ Namaregh’, ‘Fil’ etc. These Persian words have entered Arabic and finally entered Quran in two ways: 1) directly from Persian language, 2) via other languages. The first way: because of the Iranian dominance on Hira, Yemen, whole Oman and Bahrein land in Sasanian period, there were political, religious, linguistic, literary, and trade ties between these Arab territories causing the impact of Persian on Arabic; giving way to many Persian-loan words into Arabic in this period of time. The second way: Since the geographical and business conditions of the areas were dominated by Iran, Hejaz had lots of deals and trades with Mesopotamia and Yemen. On the other hand, Arabic language which was relatively a young language at that time, used to be impressed by Semitic languages in order to expand its vocabulary (Syrian and Aramaic were influenced by the languages of Iran). Consequently, due to the long relationship between Iranian and Arabs, some of the Persian words have taken longer ways through Aramaic and Syrian to find their way into Quran.
Keywords: Quran, Persian word, Arabic language, PersianProcedia PDF Downloads 401
301 Deployment of Attack Helicopters in Conventional Warfare: The Gulf War
Authors: Mehmet Karabekir
Abstract:Attack helicopters (AHs) are usually deployed in conventional warfare to destroy armored and mechanized forces of enemy. In addition, AHs are able to perform various tasks in the deep, and close operations – intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance, air assault operations, and search and rescue operations. Apache helicopters were properly employed in the Gulf Wars and contributed the success of campaign by destroying a large number of armored and mechanized vehicles of Iraq Army. The purpose of this article is to discuss the deployment of AHs in conventional warfare in the light of Gulf Wars. First, the employment of AHs in deep and close operations will be addressed regarding the doctrine. Second, the US armed forces AH-64 doctrinal and tactical usage will be argued in the 1st and 2nd Gulf Wars.
Keywords: attack helicopter, conventional warfare, gulf warsProcedia PDF Downloads 414
300 Modeling Sediment Transports under Extreme Storm Situation along Persian Gulf North Coast
Authors: Majid Samiee Zenoozian
Abstract:The Persian Gulf is a bordering sea with an normal depth of 35 m and a supreme depth of 100 m near its narrow appearance. Its lengthen bathymetric axis divorces two main geological shires — the steady Arabian Foreland and the unbalanced Iranian Fold Belt — which are imitated in the conflicting shore and bathymetric morphologies of Arabia and Iran. The sediments were experimented with from 72 offshore positions through an oceanographic cruise in the winter of 2018. Throughout the observation era, several storms and river discharge actions happened, as well as the major flood on record since 1982. Suspended-sediment focus at all three sites varied in reaction to both wave resuspension and advection of river-derived sediments. We used hydrological models to evaluation and associate the wave height and inundation distance required to carriage the rocks inland. Our results establish that no known or possible storm happening on the Makran coast is accomplished of detaching and transporting the boulders. The fluid mud consequently is conveyed seaward due to gravitational forcing. The measured sediment focus and velocity profiles on the shelf provide a strong indication to provision this assumption. The sediment model is joined with a 3D hydrodynamic module in the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model that offers data on estuarine rotation and salinity transport under normal temperature conditions. 3-D sediment transport from model simulations specify dynamic sediment resuspension and transport near zones of highly industrious oyster beds.
Keywords: sediment transport, storm, coast, fluid dynamicsProcedia PDF Downloads 45