Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 270

Search results for: Persian Gulf

270 Sustainable Energy Production from Microalgae in Queshm Island, Persian Gulf

Authors: N. Moazami, R. Ranjbar, A. Ashori

Abstract:

Out of hundreds of microalgal strains reported, only very few of them are capable for production of high content of lipid. Therefore, the key technical challenges include identifying the strains with the highest growth rates and oil contents with adequate composition, which were the main aims of this work. From 147 microalgae screened for high biomass and oil productivity, the Nannochloropsis sp. PTCC 6016, which attained 52% lipid content, was selected for large scale cultivation in Persian Gulf Knowledge Island. Nannochloropsis strain PTCC 6016 belongs to Eustigmatophyceae (Phylum heterokontophyta) isolated from Mangrove forest area of Qheshm Island and Persian Gulf (Iran) in 2008. The strain PTCC 6016 had an average biomass productivity of 2.83 g/L/day and 52% lipid content. The biomass productivity and the oil production potential could be projected to be more than 200 tons biomass and 100000 L oil per hectare per year, in an outdoor algal culture (300 day/year) in the Persian Gulf climate.

Keywords: biofuels, microalgae, Nannochloropsis, raceway open pond, bio-jet

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
269 Health Risks Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Sea Food from Persian ‎Gulf

Authors: Mohsen Ehsanpour, Maryam Ehsanpour, ‎Majid Afkhami, Fatemeh Afkhami ‎

Abstract:

Heavy metals are increasingly being released into natural waters from geological and anthropogenic sources. The distribution of several heavy metals (Cd, Pb) was investigated in muscle, liver in six different fish species seasonally collected in Persian Gulf (autumn 2009-summer 2010). The concentrations of all metals were lower in flesh than those recorded in liver due to their physiological roles. The THQ index for fish was calculated. Estimation of target hazard quotients calculations for the contaminated fish consumption was calculated to evaluate the effect of pollution on health. Total metal THQs values (Pb and Cd) for adults were 0.05 and 0.04 in Bushehr and Bandar-Genaveh, respectively, and for children they were 0.08 and 0.05 in Bandar-Abbas and Bandar-Lengeh, respectively.

Keywords: Persian Gulf, heavy metals, health risks, THQ index

Procedia PDF Downloads 548
268 Study of the Persian Gulf’s and Oman Sea’s Numerical Tidal Currents

Authors: Fatemeh Sadat Sharifi

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In this research, a barotropic model was employed to consider the tidal studies in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, where the only sufficient force was the tidal force. To do that, a finite-difference, free-surface model called Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), was employed on the data over the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. To analyze flow patterns of the region, the results of limited size model of The Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) were appropriated. The two points were determined since both are one of the most critical water body in case of the economy, biology, fishery, Shipping, navigation, and petroleum extraction. The OSU Tidal Prediction Software (OTPS) tide and observation data validated the modeled result. Next, tidal elevation and speed, and tidal analysis were interpreted. Preliminary results determine a significant accuracy in the tidal height compared with observation and OTPS data, declaring that tidal currents are highest in Hormuz Strait and the narrow and shallow region between Iranian coasts and Islands. Furthermore, tidal analysis clarifies that the M_2 component has the most significant value. Finally, the Persian Gulf tidal currents are divided into two branches: the first branch converts from south to Qatar and via United Arab Emirate rotates to Hormuz Strait. The secondary branch, in north and west, extends up to the highest point in the Persian Gulf and in the head of Gulf turns counterclockwise.

Keywords: numerical model, barotropic tide, tidal currents, OSU tidal prediction software, OTPS

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267 Tamukkana, Ancient Achaemenids City near the Persian Gulf

Authors: Ghulamhossein Nezami

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Civilizations based in Iran, especially in the south, have always realized the all-around importance of the Persian Sea and for various reasons, have paid full attention to it. The first of these was the pre-Aryan government, Ilam in the coastal province of Sharihum and the city of Lian (now the port of Bushehr) in terms of trade, defense and religion. With the establishment of the Achaemenids on the entire plateau of Iran to the center of Persia, they created several communication routes from Parseh to the shores of the Persian Gulf, which ended in the present Bushehr province. This coastal area was extended by a road in the coastal plain to the more southern parts of the ports of Ausinze - according to Ptolemy the port of Siraf before the Sassanids - and Epstane and Hormozia in the present-day Strait of Hormuz. Meanwhile, the ancient city of Temukknana, whose new historical documents testify to its extraordinary importance in the Achaemenid period, especially Darius I of the Achaemenids, from a strategic position with the coastal areas, the coasts and on the other hand with the gamers, the political center. - Achaemenid administration, had. New archeological evidence, research, and excavations show that both the famous Achaemenid kings and courtiers paid special attention to Tamukknana. The discovery of a tomb and three Achaemenid palaces from before the reign of Cyrus to Xerxes in this region showed the importance of the strategic, security-defense and commercial position of this region, extraordinary for the Achaemenids. Therefore, the city of Temukkana in the Dashtestan region of present-day Bushehr province became an important Achaemenid center on the Persian Gulf coast and became the political-economic center of gravity of the Achaemenids and the regulator of communication networks on the Persian Gulf coast. This event showed that the Achaemenids attached importance to their economic goals and oversight of their vast territory by the Persian Gulf. Methods: Book resources and field study.

Keywords: Achaemenids, Bushehr, Persian Gulf, Tamukkana

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266 Screening for Antibacterial, Antifungal and Cytotoxic Agents in Three Hard Coral Species from Persian Gulf

Authors: Maryam Ehsanpou, Majid Afkhami, Flora Mohammadizadeh, Amirhoushang Bahri, Rastin Afkhami

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Within the frame of a biodiversity and bioactivity study of marine macro organisms from the Persian Gulf, three hard coral species extracts were investigated for cytotoxic, antibacterial and antifungal activities against five human pathogenic microorganisms. All concentrations of extracts from three hard corals showed no antifungal activity towards the tested strains. In antibacterial assays, the hard coral extracts showed significant activity solely against Staphylococcus aureus with MICs ranging from 3 to 9 μg/ml. The highest antibacterial activity was found in the aqueous methanol extract of Porites compressa with an inhibition zone of 22 mm against Staphylococcus aureus at 18 μg/ml extract concentration. Methanol extracts from Porites harrisoi and Porites compressa exhibited only weak cytotoxic activities. It is important for future research to concentrate on finding the mechanisms employed by corals to defend themselves against invasion, the mechanism of infections and the type of chemical compounds in coral extracts that inhibit antibacterial growth or proliferation in underexplored areas such as the Persian Gulf.

Keywords: antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, hard corals, Persian Gulf

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
265 Mercury Detection in Two Fishes from the Persian Gulf

Authors: Zahra Khoshnood, Mehdi Kazaie, Sajedeh Neisi

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In 2013, 24 fish samples were taken from two fishery regions in the north of Persian Gulf near the Iranian coastal lines. The two flatfishes were Yellofin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus) and Longtail tuna (Thannus tonggol). We analyzed total Hg concentration of liver and muscle tissues by Mercury Analyzer (model LECO AMA 254). The average concentration of total Hg in edible Muscle tissue of deep-Flounder was measured in Bandar-Abbas and was found to be 18.92 and it was 10.19 µg.g-1 in Bandar-Lengeh. The corresponding values for Oriental sole were 8.47 and 0.08 µg.g-1. The average concentration of Hg in liver tissue of deep-Flounder, in Bandar-Abbas was 25.49 and that in Bandar-Lengeh was 12.52 µg.g-1.the values for Oriental sole were 11.88 and 3.2 µg.g-1 in Bandar-Abbas and Bandar-Lengeh, respectively.

Keywords: mercury, Acanthopagrus latus, Thannus tonggol, Persian Gulf

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
264 Effects of PAHs on Blood Thyroidal Hormones of Liza klunzingeri in the Northern Part of Hormuz Strait (Persian Gulf)

Authors: Fateme Afkhami, Mohsen Ehsanpour, Maryam Ehsanpour, Majid Afkhami

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This study was conducted to determine the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on thyroidal hormones of Liza klunzingeri and to monitor marine pollution from northern part of Hormuz strait (Persian Gulf). Results showed the highest total PAHs levels (268.56 µg/kg) were in the fish samples and the lowest are obtained from water samples (3.12 µg/kg). Also, highest of PAHs levels in fish, sediment and water were found in St3. There was a positive correlation between T3 and T4, with PAHs results. T4 had a significant positive correlation (P<0.05).

Keywords: PAHs, thyroidal hormones, Liza klunzingeri, Hormuz Strait, Persian Gulf

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263 Application of Post-Stack and Pre-Stack Seismic Inversion for Prediction of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in a Persian Gulf Gas Field

Authors: Nastaran Moosavi, Mohammad Mokhtari

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Seismic inversion is a technique which has been in use for years and its main goal is to estimate and to model physical characteristics of rocks and fluids. Generally, it is a combination of seismic and well-log data. Seismic inversion can be carried out through different methods; we have conducted and compared post-stack and pre- stack seismic inversion methods on real data in one of the fields in the Persian Gulf. Pre-stack seismic inversion can transform seismic data to rock physics such as P-impedance, S-impedance and density. While post- stack seismic inversion can just estimate P-impedance. Then these parameters can be used in reservoir identification. Based on the results of inverting seismic data, a gas reservoir was detected in one of Hydrocarbon oil fields in south of Iran (Persian Gulf). By comparing post stack and pre-stack seismic inversion it can be concluded that the pre-stack seismic inversion provides a more reliable and detailed information for identification and prediction of hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Keywords: density, p-impedance, s-impedance, post-stack seismic inversion, pre-stack seismic inversion

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
262 Effect of Pollutions on Mangrove Forests of Nayband National Marine Park

Authors: Esmaeil Kouhgardi, Elaheh Shakerdargah

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The mangrove ecosystem is a complex of various inter-related elements in the land-sea interface zone which is linked with other natural systems of the coastal region such as corals, sea-grass, coastal fisheries and beach vegetation. The mangrove ecosystem consists of water, muddy soil, trees, shrubs, and their associated flora, fauna and microbes. It is a very productive ecosystem sustaining various forms of life. Its waters are nursery grounds for fish, crustacean, and mollusk and also provide habitat for a wide range of aquatic life, while the land supports a rich and diverse flora and fauna, but pollutions may affect these characteristics. Iran has the lowest share of Persian Gulf pollution among the eight littoral states; environmental experts are still deeply concerned about the serious consequences of the pollution in the oil-rich gulf. Prolongation of critical conditions in the Persian Gulf has endangered its aquatic ecosystem. Water purification equipment, refineries, wastewater emitted by onshore installations, especially petrochemical plans, urban sewage, population density and extensive oil operations of Arab states are factors contaminating the Persian Gulf waters. Population density has been the major cause of pollution and environmental degradation in the Persian Gulf. Persian Gulf is a closed marine environment which is connected to open waterways only from one way. It usually takes between three and four years for the gulf's water to be completely replaced. Therefore, any pollution entering the water will remain there for a relatively long time. Presently, the high temperature and excessive salt level in the water have exposed the marine creatures to extra threats, which mean they have to survive very tough conditions. The natural environment of the Persian Gulf is very rich with good fish grounds, extensive coral reefs and pearl oysters in abundance, but has become increasingly under pressure due to the heavy industrialization and in particular the repeated major oil spillages associated with the various recent wars fought in the region. Pollution may cause the mortality of mangrove forests by effect on root, leaf and soil of the area. Study was showed the high correlation between industrial pollution and mangrove forests health in south of Iran and increase of population, coupled with economic growth, inevitably caused the use of mangrove lands for various purposes such as construction of roads, ports and harbors, industries and urbanization.

Keywords: Mangrove forest, pollution, Persian Gulf, population, environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
261 Shark Resources in the Iranian Waters of the Persian Gulf

Authors: Nassir Niamaimandi, Mehrdad Hosaini Shabankareh

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This study was analyzed the annual catch and trawl survey data of sharks in the northern part of the Persian Gulf (26˚ 30΄ to 30˚ 00΄N and 49˚ 00΄ to 56˚ 00΄E) from 2004 to 2009. Trawl survey was conducted by research vessel Ferdous, equipped with bottom trawl nets in meshes 400mm and 80mm at the body, and cod-end, respectively. Ten stratums were selected in the study area and 199 stations were randomly trawled. The density (CPUA) of shark resources was estimated based on swept area method. The annual total catch was obtained from Iranian fisheries organization (Shilat). The results of catch per unit area showed 250.7 kg/nm2 in 2004 to 49.7 kg/nm2 in 2009. There was a high degree of variability of CPUA among different areas and the maximum was estimated 1870.8 kg/nm2 in Nayband and Mogham. In catch composition data, sharks have a decreasing trend from 4.2% in 2004 to 2.9% in 2009 that shows a decline with an annual average 1.3% during 2004-2009. This results suggesting that the shark resource is overexploited and the current effort is far higher than the effort required harvesting optimum yields.

Keywords: shark resources, Iranian waters, Persian Gulf, Trawl survey

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260 Investigation of the Possible Correlation of Earthquakes with a Red Tide Occurrence in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea

Authors: Hadis Hosseinzadehnaseri

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The red tide is a kind of algae blooming, caused different problems at different sizes for the human life and the environment, so it has become one of the serious global concerns in the field of Oceanography in few recent decades. This phenomenon has affected on Iran's water, especially the Persian Gulf's since last few years. Collecting data associated with this phenomenon and comparison in different parts of the world is significant as a practical way to study this phenomenon and controlling it. Effective factors to occur this phenomenon lead to the increase of the required nutrients of the algae or provide a good environment for blooming. In this study, we examined the probability of relation between the earthquake and the harmful algae blooming in the Persian Gulf's water through comparing the earthquake data and the recorded Red tides. On the one hand, earthquakes can cause changes in seawater temperature that is effective in creating a suitable environment and the other hand, it increases the possibility of water nutrients, and its transportation in the seabed, so it can play a principal role in the development of red tide occurrence. Comparing the distribution spatial-temporal maps of the earthquakes and deadly red tides in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, confirms the hypothesis, why there is a meaningful relation between these two distributions. Comparing the number of earthquakes around the world as well as the number of the red tides in many parts of the world indicates the correlation between these two issues. This subject due to numerous earthquakes, especially in recent years and in the southern part of the country should be considered as a warning to the possibility of re-occurrence of a critical state of red tide in a large scale, why in the year 2008, the number of recorded earthquakes have been more than near years. In this year, the distribution value of the red tide phenomenon in the Persian Gulf got measured about 140,000 square kilometers and entire Oman Sea, with 10 months Survival in the area, which is considered as a record among the occurred algae blooming in the world. In this paper, we could obtain a logical and reasonable relation between the earthquake frequency and this phenomenon occurrence, through compilation of statistics relating to the earthquakes in the southern Iran, from 2000 to the end of the first half of 2013 and also collecting statistics on the occurrence of red tide in the region as well as examination of similar data in different parts of the world. As shown in Figure 1, according to a survey conducted on the earthquake data, the most earthquakes in the southern Iran ranks first in the fourth Gregorian calendar month In April, coincided with Ordibehesht and Khordad in Persian calendar and then in the tenth Gregorian calendar month In October, coincided in Aban and Azar in Persian calendar.

Keywords: red tide, earth quake, persian gulf, harmful algae bloom

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259 Biogeochemical Study of Polycuclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Its Physiological Response in Mudskippre (B. dussumieri) along the North western Coasts of the Persian Gulf

Authors: Ali Mashinchian Moradi, Mahmood Sinaei

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Study on the biomarkers to assess health status of marine ecosystems has an important value in biomonitoring of marine environment. Accordingly, accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment, water and tissues (liver and gill) of mudskipper (Boleophthalmus dussmieri) and some physiological responses like lysosomal membrane change in haemocytes and the Glutathione-S Transferase (GST) activity in the liver were measured in mudskippers. Samples were collected from five sites along the noth western cost of the Persian Gulf. PAHs concentration was measured by HPLC method. The activity of GST enzyme was analysed by spectrophotometric method. Total PAH concentration in coastal seawater, sediments, liver and gill tissues ranged between 0.80-18.34 ug/L, 113.550-3384.34 ng/g dw, 3.99-46.64 ng/g dw and 3.11-17.This study showed that PAH concentrations in this region are not higher than available standards. The findings revile that lysosomal membrane destabilization and liver GST activities are highly sensitive to PAHs in mudskipper, B. dussumieri. Sediment PAH concentrations were strongly correlated with biomarkers, indicating PAHs were biologically available to fish. Thus, mudskipper perceived to be good sentinel organism for PAH pollution biomonitoring.

Keywords: PAHs, biomarker, mudskipper, Persian Gulf

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
258 Isolation, Characterization and Screening of Antimicrobial Producing Actinomycetes from Sediments of Persian Gulf

Authors: H. Alijani, M. Jabari, S. Matroodi, H. Zolqarnein, A. Sharafi, I. Zamani

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Actinomycetes, Gram-positive bacteria, are interesting as a main producer of secondary metabolites and are important industrially and pharmaceutically. The marine environment is a potential source for new actinomycetes, which can provide novel bioactive compounds and industrially important enzymes. The aims of this study were to isolate and identify novel actinomycetes from Persian Gulf sediments and screen these isolates for the production of secondary metabolites, especially antibiotics, Using phylogenetic (16S rRNA gene sequence), morphological and biochemical analyses. 15 different actinomycete strains from Persian Gulf sediments at a depth of 5-10 m were identified. DNA extraction was done using Cinnapure DNA Kit. PCR amplification of 16S rDNA gene was performed using F27 and R1492 primers. Phylogenetic tree analysis was performed using the MEGA 6 software. Most of the isolated strains belong to the genus namely Streptomyces (14), followed by Nocardiopsis (1). Antibacterial assay of the isolates supernatant was performed using a standard disc diffusion assay with replication (n=3). The results of disk diffusion assay showed that most active strain against Proteus volgaris and Bacillus cereus was AMJ1 (16.46±0.2mm and 13.78±0.2mm, respectively), against Salmonella sp. AMJ7 was the most effective strain (10.13±0.2mm), and AMJ1 and AHA5 showed more inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli (8.04±0.02 mm and 8.2±0.03 ). The AMJ6 strain showed best antibacterial activity against Klebsiella sp. (8.03±0.02mm). Antifungal activity of AMJ2 showed that it was most active strain against complex (16.05±0.02mm) and against Aspergillus flavus strain AMJ1 was most active strain (16.4±0.2mm) and highest antifungal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gyp serum and Candida albicans, were shown by AHA1 (21.03±0.02mm), AHA3 and AHA7 (18±0.03mm), AMJ6 (21.03±0.2mm) respectively. Our results revealed that the marine actinomycetes of Persian Gulf sediments were potent source of novel antibiotics and bioactive compounds and indicated that the antimicrobial metabolites were extracellular. Most of the secondary metabolites and antibiotics are extracellular in nature and extracellular products of actinomycetes show potent antimicrobial activities.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, marine actinomycetes, Persian Gulf

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
257 Plasma Biochemistry Values in Wild Hawksbill Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) during Nesting and Foraging Seasons in Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf

Authors: Fateme Afkhami, Mohsen Ehsanpour, Majid Afkhami, Maryam Ehsanpour

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Normal reference ranges of biochemical parameters are considered important for assessing and monitoring the health status of sea turtles. For this means, serum biochemistry determinations were analyzed in normal adult nesting and foraging hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata). Blood samples were collected in March–April during nesting season and December-November in the foraging season. Plasma biochemistry values, except for creatinine and lipase were significant between the two periods. FBS, cholesterol, triglycerides, ALP (alkaline phosphatase), AST (aspartate aminotransferase), bilirubin, total protein, LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), CK (creatine kinase) and amylase were significantly higher in nesting season than foraging season (P<0.05). On the other hand urea, ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and albumin in the nesting season were significantly lower than foraging season (P<0.05). It was concluded that the nesting E. imbricata showed significant variation in their biochemical profile due to reproductive output. This study has produced working reference intervals useful for hawksbill turtles for future conservation and rehabilitation projects in the Persian Gulf and may be of assistance in similar programs worldwide.

Keywords: plasma biochemistry, nesting, foraging, hawksbill turtles, Persian Gulf

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256 Biomass and CPUA Estimation and Distribution Pattern of Saurida Tumbil in the Northwest of Persian Gulf

Authors: Negar Ghotbeddin, Izadpanah Zeinab, Tooraj Valinassab, Mohammad Azhir

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It is reported on results of a trawls survey in 2011 to assess the amount of biomass and Catch Per Unit of Area (CPUA) and also to determine the distribution pattern of Synodonidae family of demersal fishes (with emphasize on great lizardfish, Saurida tumbil) as one the most important and commercial fish species in the northwest of Persian Gulf. Samples were collected at a total 65 trawl stations selected a stratified random procedure. The study area was stratified to five strata (A to E) covering the depth layers of 10-20, 20-30 and 30-50 m. The catch rates of CPUA and biomass of lizardfishes were estimated to be approximately 316.20 kg/nm2, and 2902.1 tons, respectively. The highest value of biomass of Synodontids was recorded in the east of the study area, Bordkhoon to Dayer (stratum D & E, approximately 1310.6 tonnes) and in depth layer of 30-50 m; and the lowest value was estimated for stratum A (West of Khuzestan Province) and in depth layer of 10-20 m. On the other hand, the highest CPUA was recorded in stratum D and depth layer of 20-30 m; and the lowest value for stratum A and 10-20 m depth. It was concluded that stratum D (namely from Bordkhoon to Dayer) contains the best fishing area from the point of higher density and distribution of Synodontidae in the covering area, and from the point of depth distribution, they are found in depths more than 30 m.

Keywords: Saurida tumbil, CPUA, biomass, distribution, fishing area, Persian gulf

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255 Determination of Heavy Metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Al, As, Ni and Zn) in 6 Important Commercial Fish Species in North of Hormoz Strait

Authors: Majid Afkhami, Maryam Ehsanpour, Zahra Khoshnood

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The concentrations of 10 heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Al, As, Ni, Zn) were measured in muscle, gill and liver of 6 species from Hormoz Strait in north coast of Persian Gulf in 12 months (April 2009 – March 2010). All samples were analyzed three times for Cd, Pb, Cu, Fe, Mn, Al, As, Ni, Zn by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and for Hg by LECO AMA254 Advanced Mercury Analyzer. Results of this study showed that iron had the highest concentration (total mean concentration) in all species, followed by Zn, Cu, Ni, Al, Pb, Mn, Cd, Hg and lowest concentration in three tissues was As. In addition, the accumulation of metals was species-dependent, and was higher in Scomberomorous commerson and Scomberomorous guttatus (p<0.05) and the lowest concentration was record in Pampus argenteus (p<0.05).

Keywords: Persian Gulf, heavy metals, Hormoz strait, Scomberomorous guttatus, Scomberomorous commerson, Pampus argenteus

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254 Determination of Some Biochemical Values for the Liza klunzingeri in Coastal Water of Persian Gulf

Authors: Majid Afkhami, Maryam Ehsanpour

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Serum biochemical can be used for monitoring any changes in the physiological condition of fish and quality of waters. The aim of this paper was to determine of plasma sugar, triglycerides, cholesterol, iron, ALP (alkaline phosphatase) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) levels of Liza klunzingeri in Persian Gulf. Blood sample was collected from the caudal vessel with syringes coated with sodium heparin. Biochemical values were: sugar 110.37±28.46 mg/di, triglycerides 96.82±23.40 mg/di, cholesterol 177.28 ±40.75 mg/di, iron 104.74± 19.08 mg/di, ALP 117.62±34.49 u/l, LDH 1613.00±345.34 u/l. A significant positive correlation (P<0.01) was found between triglycerides and sugar. Triglycerides had a significant and positive relationship with cholesterol (P<0.01). ALP also had a significant and positive relationship with sugar (P<0.01) and triglycerides (P<0.05). LDH correlated positively with sugar, cholesterol, triglycerides (P<0.01) and ALP (P<0.05). The results revealed reverse correlation between iron with cholesterol, sugar, triglycerides, ALP, and LDH (P<0.01). This study represents a contribution to the referential biochemical values of the L. klunzingeri. In further studies, the established reference ranges might be useful for the health assessment of this species.

Keywords: Liza klunzingeri, blood, ALP, LDH

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253 Sensitivity Analysis of Oil Spills Modeling with ADIOS II for Iranian Fields in Persian Gulf

Authors: Farzingohar Mehrnaz, Yasemi Mehran, Esmaili Zinat, Baharlouian Maedeh

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Aboozar (Ardeshir) and Bahregansar are the two important Iranian oilfields in Persian Gulf waters. The operation activities cause to create spills which impacted on the marine environment. Assumed spills are molded by ADIOS II (Automated Data Inquiry for Oil Spills) which is NOAA’s weathering oil software. Various atmospheric and marine data with different oil types are used for the modeling. Numerous scenarios for 100 bbls with mean daily air temperature and wind speed are input for 5 days. To find the model sensitivity in each setting, one parameter is changed, but the others stayed constant. In both fields, the evaporated and dispersed output values increased hence the remaining rate is reduced. The results clarified that wind speed first, second air temperature and finally oil type respectively were the most effective factors on the oil weathering process. The obtained results can help the emergency systems to predict the floating (dispersed and remained) volume spill in order to find the suitable cleanup tools and methods.

Keywords: ADIOS, modeling, oil spill, sensitivity analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
252 Heavy Metal Distribution in Tissues of Two Commercially Important Fish Species, Euryglossa orientalis and Psettodes erumei

Authors: Reza Khoshnood, Zahra Khoshnood, Ali Hajinajaf, Farzad Fahim, Behdokht Hajinajaf, Farhad Fahim

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In 2013, 24 fish samples were taken from two fishery regions in Bandar-Abbas and Bandar-Lengeh, the fishing grounds north of Hormoz Strait (Persian Gulf) near the Iranian coastline. The two flat fishes were oriental sole (Euryglossa orientalis) and deep flounder (Psettodes erumei). Using the ROPME method (MOOPAM) for chemical digestion, Cd concentration was measured with a nonflame atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. The average concentration of Cd in the edible muscle tissue of deep flounder was measured in Bandar-Abbas and was found to be 0.15±.06 µg g-1. It was 0.1±.05 µg.g-1 in Bandar-Lengeh. The corresponding values for oriental sole were 0.2±0.13 and 0.13±0.11 µg.g-1. The average concentration of Cd in the liver tissue of deep flounder in Bandar-Abbas was 0.22±.05 µg g-1 and that in Bandar-Lengeh was 0.2±0.04 µg.g-1. The values for oriental sole were 0.31±0.09 and 0.24±0.13 µg g-1 in Bandar-Abbas and Bandar-Lengeh, respectively.

Keywords: trace metal, Euryglossa orientalis, Psettodes erumei, Persian Gulf

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251 A Bridge to Success: Building Academic Identity in Foundation Programs

Authors: Krystyna Golkowska

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Recent years have witnessed rapid growth of Transnational Education (TNE), especially in Asia and the Middle East. Exporting North American curricula into different socio-cultural contexts brings with it numerous advantages as well as challenges that have yet to be fully explored. This article focuses on Foundation programs, bridge programs between local high schools and tertiary level education on North-American branch campuses in the Persian Gulf. Based on a case study of Foundation students in Qatar, it explores ways of preparing TNE students for academic success by helping them to develop not only their skills and subject knowledge but also their academic identity.

Keywords: academic identity, foundation program, gulf, transnational education

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
250 Morphological Analysis of English L1-Persian L2 Adult Learners’ Interlanguage: From the Perspective of SLA Variation

Authors: Maassoumeh Bemani Naeini

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Studies on interlanguage have long been engaged in describing the phenomenon of variation in SLA. Pursuing the same goal and particularly addressing the role of linguistic features, this study describes the use of Persian morphology in the interlanguage of two adult English-speaking learners of Persian L2. Taking the general approach of a combination of contrastive analysis, error analysis and interlanguage analysis, this study focuses on the identification and prediction of some possible instances of transfer from English L1 to Persian L2 across six elicitation tasks aiming to investigate whether any of contextual features may variably influence the learners’ order of morpheme accuracy in the areas of copula, possessives, articles, demonstratives, plural form, personal pronouns, and genitive cases.  Results describe the existence of task variation in the interlanguage system of Persian L2 learners.

Keywords: English L1, Interlanguage Analysis, Persian L2, SLA variation

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249 Effects of Oil Pollution on Euryglossa orientalis and Psettodes erumei in the Persian Gulf

Authors: Majid Afkhami, Maryam Ehsanpour, Reza Khoshnood, Zahra Khoshnood, Rastin Afkhami

Abstract:

Marine pollution is a global environmental problem. Different human activities on land, in the water and in the air contribute to the contamination of seawater, sediments and organisms with potentially toxic substances. Contaminants can be natural substances or artificially produced compounds. After discharge into the sea, contaminants can stay in the water in dissolved form or they can be removed from the water column through sedimentation to the bottom sediments. Histopathological alterations can be used as indicators for the effects of various anthropogenic pollutants on organisms and are a reflection of the overall health of the entire population in the ecosystem. These histo pathological biomarkers are closely related to other biomarkers of stress since many pollutants have to undergo metabolic activation in order to be able to provoke cellular change in the affected organism. In order to make evaluation of the effects of oil pollution, some heavy metals bioaccumulation and explore their histopathological effects on hepatocytes of Oriental sole (Euryglossa orientalis) and Deep flounder (Psettodes erumei), fishes caught from two areas of north coast of the Persian Gulf: Bandar Abbass and Bandar Lengeh. Concentrations of Ni and V in liver of both species in two sampling regions were in following order: Bandar abbass Bandar lengeh; also between two species, these quantities were higher in P. erumei than E. orientalis in both sampling regions. Histopathology of the liver shows some cellular alterations including: degeneration, necrosis and tissue disruption, and histopathological effects were severe in P. erumei than E. orientalis. Results showed that Bandar Abbass region was more polluted than Bandar Lengeh, and because Ni and V were oil pollution indicators, and two flat fishes were benthic, they can receive considerable amount of oil pollution through their biological activities like feeding. Also higher amounts of heavy metal concentrations and major histopathological effects in E. orientalis showed strong relationship between benthic habitat of the fish and amounts of received pollutants from water and sediments, because E. orientalis is more related to the bottom than P. erumei.

Keywords: heavy metals, flatfishes, Persian Gulf, oil pollution

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248 Economics of Oil and Its Stability in the Gulf Region

Authors: Al Mutawa A. Amir, Liaqat Ali, Faisal Ali

Abstract:

After the World War II, the world economy was disrupted and changed due to oil and its prices. The research in this paper presents the basic statistical features and economic characteristics of the Gulf economy. The main features of the Gulf economies and its heavy dependence on oil exports, its dualism between modern and traditional sectors and its rapidly increasing affluences are particularly emphasized.  In this context, the research in this paper discussed the problems of growth versus development and has attempted to draw the implications for the future economic development of this area.

Keywords: oil prices, GCC, economic growth, gulf oil

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247 Reasons for Language Words in the Quran and Literary Approaches That Are Persian

Authors: Fateme Mazbanpoor, Sayed Mohammad Amiri

Abstract:

In this article, we will examine the Persian words in Quran and study the reasons of their presence in this holy book. Writers of this paper extracted about 70 Persian words of Quran by referring to resources. (Alalfaz ol Moarab ol Farsieh Edishir, Almoarabol Javalighi, Almahzab va Etghan Seuti; Vocabulary involved in Quran Arthur Jeffry;, and etc…), some of these words are: ‘Abarigh, ‘Estabragh’,’Barzakh’, ‘Din’,’Zamharir, ‘Sondos’ ‘Sejil’,’ Namaregh’, ‘Fil’ etc. These Persian words have entered Arabic and finally entered Quran in two ways: 1) directly from Persian language, 2) via other languages. The first way: because of the Iranian dominance on Hira, Yemen, whole Oman and Bahrein land in Sasanian period, there were political, religious, linguistic, literary, and trade ties between these Arab territories causing the impact of Persian on Arabic; giving way to many Persian-loan words into Arabic in this period of time. The second way: Since the geographical and business conditions of the areas were dominated by Iran, Hejaz had lots of deals and trades with Mesopotamia and Yemen. On the other hand, Arabic language which was relatively a young language at that time, used to be impressed by Semitic languages in order to expand its vocabulary (Syrian and Aramaic were influenced by the languages of Iran). Consequently, due to the long relationship between Iranian and Arabs, some of the Persian words have taken longer ways through Aramaic and Syrian to find their way into Quran.

Keywords: Quran, Persian word, Arabic language, Persian

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246 Deployment of Attack Helicopters in Conventional Warfare: The Gulf War

Authors: Mehmet Karabekir

Abstract:

Attack helicopters (AHs) are usually deployed in conventional warfare to destroy armored and mechanized forces of enemy. In addition, AHs are able to perform various tasks in the deep, and close operations – intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance, air assault operations, and search and rescue operations. Apache helicopters were properly employed in the Gulf Wars and contributed the success of campaign by destroying a large number of armored and mechanized vehicles of Iraq Army. The purpose of this article is to discuss the deployment of AHs in conventional warfare in the light of Gulf Wars. First, the employment of AHs in deep and close operations will be addressed regarding the doctrine. Second, the US armed forces AH-64 doctrinal and tactical usage will be argued in the 1st and 2nd Gulf Wars.

Keywords: attack helicopter, conventional warfare, gulf wars

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245 The First Record of Pseudogrillotia spratti Campbell and Beveridge, 1993 (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) Parasitic in Three Carangid Fishes from Northwest of the Arab Gulf, Iraq

Authors: Khalidah S. Al-Niaeem, Suzan A. Al-Azizz, Fatimah H. Al-Ataby

Abstract:

The first record of Pseudogrillotia spratti Campbell and Beveridge, 1993 (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) was found in body cavity of three species of Carangid fishes, Carangiodes armatus, C. malabaricus and Megalaspis cordyla which were collected from northwest of the Arab Gulf. This species are recorded for the first time in the Iraqi territorial waters of the Arab Gulf. C. armatus, C. malabaricus and M. cordyla are new hosts for this parasite in the Arab Gulf.

Keywords: Pseudogrillotia spratti, Carangiodes armatus, C. malabaricus, Megalaspis cordyla, Arab gulf, Iraq

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244 Determiner Phrase in Persian

Authors: Reza Morad Sahraei, Roghayeh Kazeminahad

Abstract:

Surveying the structure of NP in Persian, this article tries to show that most of NP constituents are either independent of each other or they are dependent to Determiner Phrase (=DP). The writer follows a uniform minimal analysis to illustrate the structural position of relevant constituents of DP, including Possessive Phrase, Ezafat Phrase and Quantifier Phrase, under the tree diagram. The most important point of this article is the claim that NP is mostly one of the dependents of DP. Hence, the final section of the article deals with and analyzes the structure of DP in Persian. The DP analysis undertaken in this article has some advantages. It can explain the internal relevance of all DP constituents and provides them all a uniform analysis. Also, the semantic importance of Persian genitive marker and its role in parsing is borne out.

Keywords: determiner phrase (DP), ezafat phrase (Ezaf P), noun phrase(NP), possessive phrase (PossP), quantifier phrase (QP)

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243 A Comparative Study of Language Learning Strategy Use of Iranian Kurdish Bilingual and Persian Monolingual in EFL Context

Authors: Reza Khani, Ziba Hosseini

Abstract:

This study was an attempt to investigate the difference between learners of Iranian Kurdish–Persian bilingual language and Persian monolinguals, regarding language strategy use (LLS). The participants of the study were 120 monolingual Persian and 120 bilingual Kurdish studying English as a foreign language (EFL). Data were collected using strategy inventory for language learning SILL. The results show bilingual reported higher use of language learning strategies in all categories of SILL except memory strategies.

Keywords: language learning, memory, monolingual, comparative study

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242 Analysis of Persian Fallow Deer Semen Parameters in Breeding and Non-Breeding Seasons

Authors: Hamid Ghasemzadeh-Nava, Behrang Ekrami

Abstract:

Persian fallow deer (Dama dama mesopotamica) is belonging to the family Cervidae and is only found in a few protected areas in the northwest, north, and southwest of Iran. The aims of this study were the analysis of inbreeding and morphometric parameters of semen in male Persian fallow deer to investigate the cause of reduced fertility of this endangered species in Dasht-e-Naz National Refuge, Sari, Iran. The Persian fallow deer semen was collected from four adult bucks randomly during the breeding and non-breeding season from five dehorned and horned deer's by using a ram electroejaculator. The post-mating season collected ejaculates contained abnormal spermatozoa, debris and secretion of accessory glands in horned bucks and accessory glands secretion free of any spermatozoa in dehorned or early velvet budding bucks. Many dag defect abnormalities observed in all samples may be the cause of high rate of polymorphism because of small primary herd size of Persian fallow deer in this area, so needs be evaluated genetically.

Keywords: electroejaculator, Persian fallow deer, reproductive characteristics, spermatozoa

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241 A Contrastive Rhetoric Study: The Use of Textual and Interpersonal Metadiscoursal Markers in Persian and English Newspaper Editorials

Authors: Habibollah Mashhady, Moslem Fatollahi

Abstract:

This study tries to contrast the use of metadiscoursal markers in English and Persian Newspaper Editorials as persuasive text types. These markers are linguistic elements in the text which do not add to the propositional content of it, rather they serve to realize the Halliday’s (1985) textual and interpersonal functions of language. At first, some of the most common markers from five subcategories of Text Connectives, Illocution Markers, Hedges, Emphatics, and Attitude Markers were identified in both English and Persian newspapers. Then, the frequency of occurrence of these markers in both English and Persian corpus consisting of 44 randomly selected editorials (18,000 words in each) from several English and Persian newspapers was recorded. After that, using a two-way chi square analysis, the overall x2 obs was found to be highly significant. So, the null hypothesis of no difference was confidently rejected. Finally, in order to determine the contribution of each subcategory to the overall x 2 value, one-way chi square analyses were applied to the individual subcategories. The results indicated that only two of the five subcategories of markers were statistically significant. This difference is then attributed to the differing spirits prevailing in the linguistic communities involved. Regarding the minor research question it was found that, in contrast to English writers, Persian writers are more writer-oriented in their writings.

Keywords: metadiscoursal markers, textual meta-function, interpersonal meta-function, persuasive texts, English and Persian newspaper editorials

Procedia PDF Downloads 459