Search results for: magnesium
332 Use of Magnesium as a Renewable Energy Source
Authors: Rafayel K. Kostanyan
Abstract:The opportunities of use of metallic magnesium as a generator of hydrogen gas, as well as thermal and electric energy is presented in the paper. Various schemes of magnesium application are discussed and power characteristics of corresponding devices are presented. Economic estimation of hydrogen price obtained by different methods is made, including the use of magnesium as a source of hydrogen for transportation in comparison with gasoline. Details and prospects of our new inexpensive technology of magnesium production from magnesium hydroxide and magnesium bearing rocks (which are available worldwide and in Armenia) are analyzed. It is estimated the threshold cost of Mg production at which application of this metal in power engineering is economically justified.
Keywords: energy, electrodialysis, magnesium, new technologyProcedia PDF Downloads 207
331 Relationship between Extrusion Ratio and Mechanical Properties of Magnesium Alloy
Authors: C. H. Jeon, Y. H. Kim, G. A. Lee
Abstract:Reducing resource consumption and carbon dioxide emission are recognized as urgent issues. One way of resolving these issues is to reduce product weight. Magnesium alloys are considered promising candidates because of their lightness. Various studies have been conducted on using magnesium alloy instead of conventional iron or aluminum in mechanical parts, due to the light weight and superior specific strength of magnesium alloy. However, even stronger magnesium alloys are needed for mechanical parts. One common way to enhance the strength of magnesium alloy is by extruding the ingot. In order to enhance the mechanical properties, magnesium alloy ingot were extruded at various extrusion ratios. Relationship between extrusion ratio and mechanical properties was examined on extruded material of magnesium alloy. And Textures and microstructures of the extruded materials were investigated.
Keywords: extrusion, extrusion ratio, magnesium, mechanical property, lightweight materialProcedia PDF Downloads 437
330 Dietary Magnesium, Lipids, and Hypertension: New Insights and Unsolved Mysteries
Authors: Elena Pello, Martin Bobak, Yuri Nikitin
Abstract:In current issue we evaluated integration of magnesium with lipids; the attractive findings were obtained in men and women; the crucial ties of magnesium with total cholesterol in hypertensive men, with total cholesterol in concordance with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in hypertensive women were disclosed; unanswered questions were trapped, difficulties were surmounted, and magnesium deficiency perseverance in pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease development was expressed; nutrients as well as risk factors may contribute to cardiovascular complications.
Keywords: dietary, magnesium, hypertension, lipidsProcedia PDF Downloads 450
329 Synthesis of Magnesium Borates from the Slurries of Magnesium Wastes by Microwave Energy
Authors: N. Tugrul, F. T. Senberber, A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin
Abstract:In this research, it is aimed not only microwave synthesis of magnesium borates but also evaluation of magnesium wastes. Synthesis process can be described with the reaction of Mg wastes and boric acid using microwave energy. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) were applied to synthesized minerals. According to XRD results, magnesium borate hydrate mixtures were obtained as mcallisterite (pdf# = 01-070-1902, Mg2(B6O7(OH)6)2.9(H2O)) at higher crystallinity properties was achieved at the mole ratio raw material 1:1. Also, other kinds of magnesium borate hydrates were obtained at lower crystallinity such as admontite (pdf # = 01-076-0540, MgO(B2O3)3.7(H2O)), inderite (pdf # = 01-072-2308, 2MgO.3B2O3.15(H2O)) and magnesium borate hydrates (pdf # = 01-076-0539, MgO(B2O3)3.6(H2O)). FT-IR spectrums indicated that minor changes were seen at the band values of characteristic stretching in each experiment. At the end of experiments it is seen that using microwave energy may contribute positive effects to design of synthesis process such as reducing reaction time and products at higher crystallinity.
Keywords: magnesium wastes, boric acid, magnesium borate, microwave energyProcedia PDF Downloads 286
328 The Effect of the Reaction Time on the Microwave Synthesis of Magnesium Borates from MgCl2.6H2O, MgO and H3BO3
Authors: E. Moroydor Derun, P. Gurses, M. Yildirim, A. S. Kipcak, T. Ibroska, S. Piskin
Abstract:Due to their strong mechanical and thermal properties magnesium borates have a wide usage area such as ceramic industry, detergent production, friction reducing additive and grease production. In this study, microwave synthesis of magnesium borates from MgCl2.6H2O (Magnesium chloride hexahydrate), MgO (Magnesium oxide) and H3BO3 (Boric acid) for different reaction times is researched. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy are used to find out how the reaction time sways on the products. The superficial properties are investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). According to XRD analysis, the synthesized compounds are 00-041-1407 pdf coded Shabinite (Mg5(BO3)4Cl2(OH)5.4(H2O)) and 01-073-2158 pdf coded Karlite (Mg7(BO3)3(OH,Cl)5).
Keywords: magnesium borate, microwave synthesis, XRD, SEMProcedia PDF Downloads 282
327 The Effect of Solution Density on the Synthesis of Magnesium Borate from Boron-Gypsum
Authors: N. Tugrul, E. Sariburun, F. T. Senberber, A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin
Abstract:Boron-gypsum is a waste which occurs in the boric acid production process. In this study, the boron content of this waste is evaluated for the use in synthesis of magnesium borates and such evaluation of this kind of waste is useful more than storage or disposal. Magnesium borates, which are a sub-class of boron minerals, are useful additive materials for the industries due to their remarkable thermal and mechanical properties. Magnesium borates were obtained hydrothermally at different temperatures. Novelty of this study is the search of the solution density effects to magnesium borate synthesis process for the increasing the possibility of boron-gypsum usage as a raw material. After the synthesis process, products are subjected to XRD and FT-IR to identify and characterize their crystal structure, respectively.
Keywords: boron-gypsum, hydrothermal synthesis, magnesium borate, solution densityProcedia PDF Downloads 325
326 Influence of Coenzyme as a Corrosion Barrier for Biodegradable Magnesium
Authors: Minjung Park, Jimin Park, Youngwoon Kim, Hyungseop Han, Myoungryul Ok, Hojeong Jeon, Hyunkwang Seok, Yuchan Kim
Abstract:Magnesium is an essential element in human body and has unique characteristics such as bioabsorbable and biodegradable properties. Therefore, there has been much attention on studies on the implants based on magnesium to avoid subsequent surgery. However, high amount of hydrogen gas is generated by relatively severe corrosion of magnesium especially in aqueous condition with chloride ions. And it contributes to the causes of swelling of skin and causes consequent inflammation of soft tissue where is directly in contact with implants. Therefore, there is still concern about the safety of the using biodegradable magnesium alloys, which is limited to various applications. In this study, we analyzed the influence of coenzyme on corrosion behavior of magnesium. The analysis of corrosion rate was held by using Hanks’ balanced salt solution (HBSS) as a body stimulated fluid and in condition of 37°C. Thus, with deferring the concentration of the coenzyme used in this study, corrosion rates from 0.0654ml/ cm² to 0.0438ml/cm² were observed in immersion tests. Also, comparable results were obtained in electrochemical tests. Results showed that hydrogen gas produced from corrosion of magnesium can be controlled.
Keywords: biodegradable magnesium, biomaterials, coenzyme, corrosionProcedia PDF Downloads 300
325 Review on Wear Behavior of Magnesium Matrix Composites
Authors: Amandeep Singh, Niraj Bala
Abstract:In the last decades, light-weight materials such as magnesium matrix composites have become hot topic for material research due to their excellent mechanical and physical properties. However, relatively very less work has been done related to the wear behavior of these composites. Magnesium matrix composites have wide applications in automobile and aerospace sector. In this review, attempt has been done to collect the literature related to wear behavior of magnesium matrix composites fabricated through various processing techniques such as stir casting, powder metallurgy, friction stir processing etc. Effect of different reinforcements, reinforcement content, reinforcement size, wear load, sliding speed and time have been studied by different researchers in detail. Wear mechanism under different experimental condition has been reviewed in detail. The wear resistance of magnesium and its alloys can be enhanced with the addition of different reinforcements. Wear resistance can further be enhanced by increasing the percentage of added reinforcements. Increase in applied load during wear test leads to increase in wear rate of magnesium composites.
Keywords: hardness, magnesium matrix composites, reinforcement, wearProcedia PDF Downloads 244
324 Wear Behaviors of B4C and SiC Particle Reinforced AZ91 Magnesium Matrix Metal Composites
Authors: M. E. Turan, H. Zengin, E. Cevik, Y. Sun, Y. Turen, H. Ahlatci
Abstract:In this study, the effects of B4C and SiC particle reinforcements on wear properties of magnesium matrix metal composites produced by pressure infiltration method were investigated. AZ91 (9%Al-1%Zn) magnesium alloy was used as a matrix. AZ91 magnesium alloy was melted under an argon atmosphere. The melt was infiltrated to the particles with an appropriate pressure. Wear tests, hardness tests were performed respectively. Microstructure characterizations were examined by light optical (LOM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that uniform particle distributions were achieved in both B4C and SiC reinforced composites. Wear behaviors of magnesium matrix metal composites changed as a function of type of particles. SiC reinforced composite has better wear performance and higher hardness than B4C reinforced composite.
Keywords: magnesium matrix composite, pressure infiltration, SEM, wearProcedia PDF Downloads 292
323 Analysis of Magnesium Alloy Wheel Forming Technologies for Light Vehicles
Authors: Anna Dziubinska
Abstract:The applications of magnesium alloys in transport include all kinds of vehicle wheels for cars, motorcycles, bicycles, trolleys, etc. Modern technologies of manufacturing products from these materials have been noticeably improved recently, creating new possibilities for their application. Continuously developed technologies for forming Mg alloys must not be overlooked, which make it possible to manufacture products with better properties compared to those obtained by casting only. The article reviews the specialized literature on magnesium wheel forming and presents a concept of technology for forging magnesium wheels for light vehicles from cast preforms. The research leading to these results has received funding from the Norway Grants 2014-2021 via the National Centre for Research and Development.
Keywords: forming, forging, magnesium alloy, wheels, vehiclesProcedia PDF Downloads 61
322 Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy Studies of Magnesium-Iron Galvanic Couple
Authors: Akram Alfantazi, Tirdad Nickchi
Abstract:Magnesium galvanic corrosion plays an important role in the commercialization of Mg alloys in the automobile industry. This study aims at visualizing the electrochemical activity of the magnesium surface being coupled with pure iron in sulfate-chloride solutions. Scanning electrochemical microscopy was used to monitor the chemical activity of the surface and the data was compared with the conventional corrosion results such as potentiodynamic polarization, linear polarization, and immersion tests. The SECM results showed that the chemical reactivity of Mg is higher than phosphate-permanganate-coated Mg. Regions in the vicinity of the galvanic couple boundary are very active in the magnesium phase and fully protected in the iron phase. Scanning electrochemical microscopy results showed that the conversion coating provided good corrosion resistance for magnesium in the short-term but fails at long-term testing.
Keywords: corrosion, galvanic corrosion, magnesium, scanning electrochemical microscopyProcedia PDF Downloads 205
321 Magnesium Alloys for Biomedical Applications Processed by Severe Plastic Deformation
Authors: Mariana P. Medeiros, Amanda P. Carvallo, Augusta Isaac, Milos Janecek, Peter Minarik, Mayerling Martinez Celis, Roberto. R. Figueiredo
Abstract:The effect of high pressure torsion processing on mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of pure magnesium and Mg-Zn, Mg-Zn-Ca, Mg-Li-Y, and Mg-Y-RE alloys is investigated. Micro-tomography and SEM characterization are used to estimate corrosion rate and evaluate non-uniform corrosion features. The results show the severe plastic deformation processing improves the strength of all magnesium alloys, but deformation localization can take place in the Mg-Zn-Ca and Mg-Y-RE alloys. The occurrence of deformation localization is associated with low strain rate sensitivity in these alloys and with severe corrosion localization. Pure magnesium and Mg-Zn and Mg-Li-Y alloys display good corrosion resistance with low corrosion rate and maintained integrity after 28 days of immersion in Hank`s solution.
Keywords: magnesium alloys, severe plastic deformation, corrosion, biodegradable alloysProcedia PDF Downloads 24
320 Synthesis of Mg/B Containing Compound in a Modified Microwave Oven
Authors: Gülşah Çelik Gül, Figen Kurtuluş
Abstract:Magnesium containing boron compounds with hexagonal structure have been drawn much attention due to their superconductive nature. The main target of this work is new modified microwave oven by on our own has an ability about passing through a gas in the oven medium for attainment of oxygen-free compounds such as c-BN. Mg containing boride was synthesized by modified-microwave method under nitrogen atmosphere using amorphous boron and magnesium source in appropriate molar ratio. Microwave oven with oxygen free environment has been modified to aimed to obtain magnesium boride without oxygen. Characterizations were done by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Mg containing boride, generally named magnesium boride, with amorphous character without oxygen is obtained via designed microwave oven system.
Keywords: magnesium containing boron compounds, modified microwave synthesis, powder X-ray diffraction, FTIRProcedia PDF Downloads 305
319 Ni-B Coating Production on Magnesium Alloy by Electroless Deposition
Authors: Ferhat Bülbül
Abstract:The use of magnesium alloys is limited due to their susceptibility to corrosion although they have many attractive physical and mechanical properties. To increase mechanical and corrosion properties of these alloys, many deposition method and coating types are used. Electroless Ni–B coatings have received considerable interest recently due to its unique properties such as cost-effectiveness, thickness uniformity, good wear resistance, lubricity, good ductility and corrosion resistance, excellent solderability and electrical properties and antibacterial property. In this study, electroless Ni-B coating could been deposited on AZ91 magnesium alloy. The obtained coating exhibited an amorphous and rougher structure.
Keywords: magnesium, electroless Ni–B, X-ray diffraction, amorphousProcedia PDF Downloads 276
318 A Review of Magnesium Air Battery Systems: From Design Aspects to Performance Characteristics
Authors: R. Sharma, J. K. Bhatnagar, Poonam, R. C. Sharma
Abstract:Metal–air batteries have been designed and developed as an essential source of electric power to propel automobiles, make electronic equipment functional, and use them as the source of power in remote areas and space. High energy and power density, lightweight, easy recharge capabilities, and low cost are essential features of these batteries. Both primary and rechargeable magnesium air batteries are highly promising. Our focus will be on the basics of electrode reaction kinetics of Mg–air cell in this paper. Design and development of Mg or Mg alloys as anode materials, design and composition of air cathode, and promising electrolytes for Mg–air batteries have been reviewed. A brief note on the possible and proposed improvements in design and functionality is also incorporated. This article may serve as the primary and premier document in the critical research area of Mg-air battery systems.
Keywords: air cathode, battery design, magnesium air battery, magnesium anode, rechargeable magnesium air batteryProcedia PDF Downloads 140
317 Synthesis of Magnesium Oxide in Spinning Disk Reactor and Its Applications in Cycloaddition of Carbon Dioxide to Epoxides
Authors: Tzu-Wen Liu, Yi-Feng Lin, Yu-Shao Chen
Abstract:CO_2 is believed to be partly responsible for changes to the global climates. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one way to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the past. Recently, how to convert the captured CO_2 into fine chemicals gets lots of attention owing to reducing carbon dioxide emissions and providing greener feedstock for the chemicals industry. A variety of products can be manufactured from carbon dioxide and the most attractive products are cyclic carbonates. Therefore, the kind of catalyst plays an important role in cycloaddition of carbon dioxide to epoxides. Magnesium oxide can be an efficiency heterogeneous catalyst for the cycloaddition of carbon dioxide to epoxides because magnesium oxide has both acid and base active sites and can provide the adsorption of carbon dioxide, promoting ring-opening reaction. Spinning disk reactor (SDR) is one of the device of high-gravity technique and has successfully used for synthesis of nanoparticles by precipitation methods because of the high mass transfer rate. Synthesis of nanoparticles in SDR has advantages of low energy consumption and easy to scale up. The aim of this research is to synthesize magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles in SDR as precursors for magnesium oxide. Experimental results showed that the calcination temperature of magnesium hydroxide to magnesium oxide, and the pressure and temperature of cycloaddition reaction had significantly effect on the conversion and selectivity of the reaction.
Keywords: magnesium oxide, catalyst, cycloaddition, spinning disk reactor, carbon dioxideProcedia PDF Downloads 222
316 Change of Internal Friction on Magnesium Alloy with 5.48% Al Dependence on the Temperature
Authors: Milan Uhríčik, Andrea Soviarová, Zuzana Dresslerová, Peter Palček, Alan Vaško
Abstract:The article is focused on the analysis changes dependence on the temperature on the magnesium alloy with 5,48% Al, 0,813% Zn and 0,398% Mn by internal friction. Internal friction is a property of the material is measured on the ultrasonic resonant aparature at a frequency about f = 20470 Hz. The measured temperature range was from 30 °C up to 420 °C. Precisely measurement of the internal friction can be monitored ongoing structural changes and various mechanisms that prevent these changes.
Keywords: internal friction, magnesium alloy, temperature, resonant frequencyProcedia PDF Downloads 573
315 A Review on the Studies on Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Aluminum and Magnesium Alloys Welded by Friction Stir Welding
Authors: Sukhdeep Singh Gill, Gurbhinder Singh Brar
Abstract:In recent years, friction stir welding (FSW) has attracted the main attention of the concerned researcher especially in case of joining of nonferrous alloys like aluminum and magnesium due to its unmatchable properties with respect to other welding techniques. Friction stir welding is a solid state welding process which is most suitable for the welding of nonferrous alloys, especially aluminum and magnesium alloys. Aluminum and magnesium alloys are widely used for structural applications of all types of automobiles due to their superior mechanical properties with their low density. This paper deals with the critical review of the different properties (like tensile strength, microhardness, impact strength, corrosion resistance, and metallurgical investigation on SEM) obtained by the FSW of aluminum and magnesium alloys. After a critical review of the existing published literature on concerned topics, all the properties of welding joins are compared in the tabulated manner to optimize the selection of materials and FSW parameters according to mechanical and tribological properties. Different tool designs used for the FSW process are also thoroughly studied, and the influence of the design of the tool used in FSW on the different properties has also been incorporated in this paper. It has been observed from the existing published literature that FSW is the most effective and practical technique for joining the non ferrous alloys especially aluminum and magnesium alloys, and among the different FSW tools, left hand threaded tri-flute (LHTTF) tool is best for the welding of non ferrous alloys like aluminum and magnesium alloys which gives the superior mechanical properties to welding joint.
Keywords: aluminum, friction stir welding, magnesium, structural applications, tool designProcedia PDF Downloads 107
314 Effects of Alkaline Pretreatment Parameters on the Corrosion Resistance and Wettability of Magnesium Implant
Authors: Mahtab Assadian, Mohd Hasbullah Idris, Mostafa Rezazadeh Shirdar, Mohammad Mahdi Taheri, S. Izman
Abstract:Corrosion behaviour and surface roughness of magnesium substrate were investigated after NaOH pretreatment in different concentrations (1, 5, and 10 molar) and duration of (10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h and 24 h). Creation of Mg(OH)2 barrier layer after pretreatment enhanced corrostion resistance as well as wettability of substrate surface. Characterization including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) was conducted to detect the existence of this barrier layer. Surface roughness and wettability of substrate was evaluated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurement respectively. It is found that magnesium treated by 1M NaOH for 30 min reveals higher corrosion resistance and lower water contact angle of substrate surface. In addition, this investigation indicates that pH value of SBF solution is strongly influenced by different time and concentration of alkaline pretreatment.
Keywords: magnesium, NaOH pretreatment, corrosion resistance, wettabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 389
313 Selective Solvent Extraction of Calcium and Magnesium from Concentrate Nickel Solutions Using Mixtures of Cyanex 272 and D2EHPA
Authors: Alexandre S. Guimarães, Marcelo B. Mansur
Abstract:The performance of organophosphorus extractants Cyanex 272 and D2EHPA on the purification of concentrate nickel sulfate solutions was evaluated. Batch scale tests were carried out at pH range of 2 to 7 using a laboratory solution simulating concentrate nickel liquors as those typically obtained when sulfate intermediates from nickel laterite are re-leached and treated for the selective removal of cobalt, zinc, manganese and copper with Cyanex 272 ([Ca] = 0.57 g/L, [Mg] = 3.2 g/L, and [Ni] = 88 g/L). The increase on the concentration of D2EHPA favored the calcium extraction. The extraction of magnesium is dependent on the pH and of ratio of extractants D2EHPA and Cyanex 272 in the organic phase. The composition of the investigated organic phase did not affect nickel extraction. The number of stages is dependent on the magnesium extraction. The most favorable operating condition to selectively remove calcium and magnesium was determined.
Keywords: solvent extraction, organophosphorus extractants, alkaline earth metals, nickelProcedia PDF Downloads 438
312 Sleep Disturbance in Indonesian School-Aged Children and Its Relationship to Nutritional Aspect
Authors: William Cheng, Rini Sekartini
Abstract:Background: Sleep is essential for children because it provides enhancement for the neural system activities that give physiologic effects for the body to support growth and development. One of the modifiable factors that relates with sleep is nutrition, which includes nutritional status, iron intake, and magnesium intake. Nutritional status represents the balance between nutritional intake and expenditure, while iron and magnesium are micronutrients that are related to sleep regulation. The aim of this study is to identify prevalence of sleep disturbance among Indonesian children and to evaluate its relation with aspect to nutrition. Methods : A cross-sectional study involving children aged 5 to 7-years-old in an urban primary health care between 2012 and 2013 was carried out. Related data includes anthropometric status, iron intake, and magnesium intake. Iron and magnesium intake was obtained by 24-hours food recall procedure. Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) was used as the diagnostic tool for sleep disturbance, with score under 39 indicating presence of problem. Results: Out of 128 school-aged children included in this study, 28 (23,1%) of them were found to have sleep disturbance. The majority of children had good nutritional status, with only 15,7% that were severely underweight or underweight, and 12,4% that were identified as stunted. On the contrary, 99 children (81,8%) were identified to have inadequate magnesium intake and 56 children (46,3%) with inadequate iron intake. Our analysis showed there was no significant relation between all of the nutritional status indicators and sleep disturbance (p>0,05%). Moreover, inadequate iron and magnesium intake also failed to prove significant relation with sleep disturbance in this population. Conclusion: Almost fourth of school-aged children in Indonesia were found to have sleep disturbance and further study are needed to overcome this problem. According to our finding, there is no correlation between nutritional status, iron intake, magnesium intake, and sleep disturbance.
Keywords: iron intake, magnesium intake, nutritional status, school-aged children, sleep disturbanceProcedia PDF Downloads 404
311 Drying Shrinkage of Magnesium Silicate Hydrate Gel Cements
Authors: T. Zhang, X. Liang, M. Lorin, C. Cheeseman, L. J. Vandeperre
Abstract:Cracks were observed when the magnesium silicate hydrate gel cement (prepared by 40% MgO/ 60% silica fume) was dried. This drying cracking is believed to be caused when unbound water evaporates from the binder. The shrinkage upon forced drying to 200 °C of mortars made up from a reactive magnesium oxide, silica fume and sand was measured using dilatometry. The magnitude of the drying shrinkage was found to decrease when more sand or less water was added to the mortars and can be as low as 0.16% for a mortar containing 60 wt% sand and a water to cement ratio of 0.5, which is of a similar order of magnitude as observed in Portland cement based mortars and concretes. A simple geometrical interpretation based on packing of the particles in the mortar can explain the observed drying shrinkages and based on this analysis the drying shrinkage of the hydration products at zero added solid is estimated to be 7.3% after 7 days of curing.
Keywords: magnesium silicate hydrate, shrinkage, dilatometry, gel cementsProcedia PDF Downloads 249
310 Investigation on the Thermal Properties of Magnesium Oxychloride Cement Prepared with Glass Powder
Authors: Rim Zgueb, Noureddine Yacoubi
Abstract:The objective of this study was to investigate the thermal property of magnesium oxychloride cement (MOC) using glass powder as a substitute. Glass powder by proportion 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of cement’s weight was added to specimens. At the end of a drying time of 28 days, thermal properties, compressive strength and bulk density of samples were determined. Thermal property is measured by Photothermal Deflection Technique by comparing the experimental of normalized amplitude and the phase curves of the photothermal signal to the corresponding theoretical ones. The findings indicate that incorporation of glass powder decreases the thermal properties of MOC.
Keywords: magnesium oxychloride cement (MOC), phototharmal deflection technique, thermal properties, DdensityProcedia PDF Downloads 236
309 Clinical Comparative Study Comparing Efficacy of Intrathecal Fentanyl and Magnesium as an Adjuvant to Hyperbaric Bupivacaine in Mild Pre-Eclamptic Patients Undergoing Caesarean Section
Authors: Sanchita B. Sarma, M. P. Nath
Abstract:Adequate analgesia following caesarean section decreases morbidity, hastens ambulation, improves patient outcome and facilitates care of the newborn. Intrathecal magnesium, an NMDA antagonist, has been shown to prolong analgesia without significant side effects in healthy parturients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the onset and duration of sensory and motor block, hemodynamic effect, postoperative analgesia, and adverse effects of magnesium or fentanyl given intrathecally with hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine in patients with mild preeclampsia undergoing caesarean section. Sixty women with mild preeclampsia undergoing elective caesarean section were included in a prospective, double blind, controlled trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive spinal anesthesia with 2 mL 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with 12.5 µg fentanyl (group F) or 0.1 ml of 50% magnesium sulphate (50 mg) (group M) with 0.15ml preservative free distilled water. Onset, duration and recovery of sensory and motor block, time to maximum sensory block, duration of spinal anaesthesia and postoperative analgesic requirements were studied. Statistical comparison was carried out using the Chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests and Independent Student’s t-test where appropriate. The onset of both sensory and motor block was slower in the magnesium group. The duration of spinal anaesthesia (246 vs. 284) and motor block (186.3 vs. 210) were significantly longer in the magnesium group. Total analgesic top up requirement was less in group M. Hemodynamic parameters were similar in both the groups. Intrathecal magnesium caused minimal side effects. Since Fentanyl and other opioid congeners are not available throughout the country easily, magnesium with its easy availability and less side effect profile can be a cost effective alternative to fentanyl in managing pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) patients given along with Bupivacaine intrathecally in caesarean section.
Keywords: analgesia, magnesium, pre eclampsia, spinal anaesthesiaProcedia PDF Downloads 267
308 Using the Micro Computed Tomography to Study the Corrosion Behavior of Magnesium Alloy at Different pH Values
Authors: Chia-Jung Chang, Sheng-Che Chen, Ming-Long Yeh, Chih-Wei Wang, Chih-Han Chang
Abstract:Introduction and Motivation: In recent years, magnesium alloy is used to be a kind of medical biodegradable materials. Magnesium is an essential element in the body and is efficiently excreted by the kidneys. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of magnesium alloy is closest to human bone. However, in some cases magnesium alloy corrodes so quickly that it would release hydrogen on surface of implant. The other product is hydroxide ion, it can significantly increase the local pH value. The above situations may have adverse effects on local cell functions. On the other hand, nowadays magnesium alloy corrode too fast to maintain the function of implant until the healing of tissue. Therefore, much recent research about magnesium alloy has focused on controlling the corrosion rate. The in vitro corrosion behavior of magnesium alloys is affected by many factors, and pH value is one of factors. In this study, we will study on the influence of pH value on the corrosion behavior of magnesium alloy by the Micro-CT (micro computed tomography) and other instruments.Material and methods: In the first step, we make some guiding plates for specimens of magnesium alloy AZ91 by Rapid Prototyping. The guiding plates are able to be a standard for the degradation of specimen, so that we can use it to make sure the position of specimens in the CT image. We can also simplify the conditions of degradation by the guiding plates.In the next step, we prepare the solution with different pH value. And then we put the specimens into the solution to start the corrosion test. The CT image, surface photographs and weigh are measured on every twelve hours. Results: In the primary results of the test, we make sure that CT image can be a way to quantify the corrosion behavior of magnesium alloy. Moreover we can observe the phenomenon that corrosion always start from some erosion point. It’s possibly based on some defect like dislocations and the voids with high strain energy in the materials. We will deal with the raw data into Mass Loss (ML) and corrosion rate by CT image, surface photographs and weigh in the near future. Having a simple prediction, the pH value and degradation rate will be negatively correlated. And we want to find out the equation of the pH value and corrosion rate. We also have a simple test to simulate the change of the pH value in the local region. In this test the pH value will rise to 10 in a short time. Conclusion: As a biodegradable implant for the area with stagnating body fluid flow in the human body, magnesium alloy can cause the increase of local pH values and release the hydrogen. Those may damage the human cell. The purpose of this study is finding out the equation of the pH value and corrosion rate. After that we will try to find the ways to overcome the limitations of medical magnesium alloy.
Keywords: magnesium alloy, biodegradable materials, corrosion, micro-CTProcedia PDF Downloads 401
307 A Proposal of Local Indentation Techniques for Mechanical Property Evaluation
Authors: G. B. Lim, C. H. Jeon, K. H. Jung
Abstract:General light metal alloys are often developed in the material of transportation equipment such as automobiles and aircraft. Among the light metal alloys, magnesium is the lightest structural material with superior specific strength and many attractive physical and mechanical properties. However, magnesium alloys were difficult to obtain the mechanical properties at warm temperature. The aims of present work were to establish an analytical relation between mechanical properties and plastic flow induced by local indentation. An experimental investigation of the local strain distribution was carried out using a specially designed local indentation equipment in conjunction with ARAMIS based on digital image correlation method.
Keywords: indentation, magnesium, mechanical property, lightweight material, ARAMISProcedia PDF Downloads 415
306 Growth of Struvite Crystals in Synthetic Urine Using Magnesium Nitrate
Authors: Reneiloe Seodigeng, John Kabuba, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng
Abstract:Urine diversion toilets have become popular as a means of solving the challenges in sanitation. As a result, the source-separated urine must be adequately treated so that it can be disposed of safely and valuable struvite can be extracted for use as fertilizer. In this study, synthetic urine was prepared, and struvite crystallisation experiments carried out using magnesium nitrate. The effect of residence time on crystal growth was studied. At residence time of 10, 30 and 60 minutes, mean particle sizes were 17, 34 and 53 µm showing that with higher residence times, larger crystal sizes can be achieved. SEM analysis of the crystal showed that the resultant crystals had the typical morphology of struvite crystals.
Keywords: struvite, magnesium nitrate, crystallisation, urine treatmentProcedia PDF Downloads 101
305 Melt Conditioned-Twin Roll Casting of Magnesium Alloy
Authors: Sanjeev Das
Abstract:In the present investigation, magnesium strips were produced by twin roll casting (TRC) and melt conditioned twin roll casting (MC-TRC) processes. The microstructures showed uniform fine equiaxed grain morphology in the case of MC-TRC cast samples. In the case of TRC samples elongated grains with centerline segregation was observed. Further investigation showed both the process has different solidification mechanism. Tensile tests were performed at 250–400ºC for both TRC and MCTRC samples. At 250ºC, MC-TRC sample showed significant improvement in strength and ductility. However, at higher temperatures the tensile properties were almost comparable, despite of TRC samples having larger grains compared to MC-TRC samples. It was observed that homogenized MC-TRC samples were easily hot stamped compared to TRC samples.
Keywords: MC-TRC, magnesium alloy, solidification, nucleationProcedia PDF Downloads 132
304 Biological Organic or Inorganic Sulfur Sources Feeding Effects on Intake and Some Blood Metabolites of Close-Up Holstein Cows
Authors: Mehdi Kazemi-Bonchenari, Esmaeil Manidari, Vahid Keshavarz
Abstract:This study was carried out to investigate the effects of increased level of sulfur by supplementing magnesium sulfate with or without biologically organic source in dairy cow close-up diets on dry matter intake (DMI) and some blood metabolites. The 24 multiparous close-up Holstein cows averaging body weight 687.94 kg and days until expected calving date 21.89 d were allocated in three different treatments (8 cows per each) in a completely randomized design. The first treatment (T1) has contained 0.21% sulfur (DM basis), the second treatment (T2) has contained 0.41% sulfur which entirely supplied through magnesium sulfate and the third treatment (T3) has contained 0.41% sulfur which supplied through combination of magnesium sulfate and an organic source of sulfur. All the cows were fed same diet after parturition until 21 d. The DMI for both pre-calving (P < 0.001) and post-calving was affected by treatments (P < 0.004) and T2 showed the lowest DMI among treatments. Among the blood metabolites, glucose, calcium, and copper were decreased in T2 (P < 0.05). However, blood concentrations of BHBA, NEFA, urea, CPK, and AST were increased in T2 (P < 0.05). The results of the present study indicate that although magnesium sulfate has negative effect on dairy cow health and performance, a combination of magnesium sulfate and biological organic source of sulfur in close-up diets could have positive effects on DMI and performance of Holstein dairy cows.
Keywords: organic sulfur, dairy cow, intake, blood metabolitesProcedia PDF Downloads 242
303 Influence of Titanium Addition on Wear Properties of AM60 Magnesium Alloy
Authors: H. Zengin, M. E. Turan, Y. Turen, H. Ahlatci, Y. Sun
Abstract:This study aimed for improving wear resistance of AM60 magnesium alloy by Ti addition (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1wt%Ti). An electric resistance furnace was used to produce alloys. Pure Mg together with Al, Al-Ti and Al-Mn were melted at 750 0C in a stainless steel crucible under controlled Ar gas atmosphere and then poured into a metal mould preheated at 250 0C. Microstructure characterizations were performed by light optical (LOM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) after the wear test. Wear rates and friction coefficients were measured with a pin-on-disk type UTS-10 Tribometer test device under a load of 20N. The results showed that Ti addition altered the morphology and the amount of b-Mg17Al12 phase in the microstructure of AM60 alloy. b-Mg17Al12 phases on the grain boundaries were refined with increasing amount of Ti. An improvement in wear resistance of AM60 alloy was observed due to the alteration in the microstructure by Ti addition.
Keywords: magnesium alloy, titanium, SEM, wearProcedia PDF Downloads 267