Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2228

Search results for: coefficient of friction

2228 Determination of the Friction Coefficient of AL5754 Alloy by Ring Compression Test: Experimental and Numerical Survey

Authors: P. M. Keshtiban, M. Zadshakoyan


One of the important factors that alter different process and geometrical parameters on metal forming processes is friction between contacting surfaces. Some important factors that effected directly by friction are: stress, strain, required load, wear of surfaces and then geometrical parameters. In order to control friction effects permanent lubrication is necessary. In this article, the friction coefficient is elicited by the most effective method, ring compression tests. The tests were done by both finite element method and practical tests. Different friction curves that extracted by finite element simulations and has good conformity with published results, used for obtaining final friction coefficient. In this study Mos2 is used as the lubricant and Al5754 alloy used as the specimens material.

Keywords: experiment, FEM, friction coefficient, ring compression

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
2227 Dry Friction Fluctuations in Plain Journal Bearings

Authors: James Moran, Anusarn Permsuwan


This paper compares oscillations in the dry friction coefficient in different journal bearings. Measurements are made of the average and standard deviation in the coefficient of friction as a function of sliding velocity. The standard deviation of the friction coefficient changed dramatically with sliding velocity. The magnitude and frequency of the oscillations were a function of the velocity. A numerical model was developed for the frictional oscillations. There was good agreement between the model and results. Five different materials were used as the sliding surfaces in the experiments, Aluminum, Bronze, Mild Steel, Stainless Steel, and Nylon.

Keywords: Coulomb friction, dynamic friction, non-lubricated bearings, frictional oscillations

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
2226 Friction Coefficient of Epiphen Epoxy System Filled with Powder Resulting from the Grinding of Pine Needles

Authors: I. Graur, V. Bria, C. Muntenita


Recent ecological interests have resulted in scientific concerns regarding natural-organic powder composites. Because natural-organic powders are cheap and biodegradable, green composites represent a substantial contribution in polymer science area. The aim of this study is to point out the effect of natural-organic powder resulting from the grinding of pine needles used as a modifying agent for Epiphen epoxy resin and is focused on friction coefficient behavior. A pin-on-disc setup is used for friction coefficient experiments. Epiphen epoxy resin was used with the different ratio of organic powder from the grinding of pine needles. Because of the challenges of natural organic powder, more and more companies are looking at organic composite materials.

Keywords: epoxy, friction coefficient, organic powder, pine needles

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
2225 Friction Calculation and Simulation of Column Electric Power Steering System

Authors: Seyed Hamid Mirmohammad Sadeghi, Raffaella Sesana, Daniela Maffiodo


This study presents a procedure for friction calculation of column electric power steering (C-EPS) system which affects handling and comfort in driving. The friction losses estimation is obtained from experimental tests and mathematical calculation. Parts in C-EPS mainly involved in friction losses are bearings and worm gear. In the theoretical approach, the gear geometry and Hertz law were employed to measure the normal load and the sliding velocity and contact areas from the worm gears driving conditions. The viscous friction generated in the worm gear was obtained with a theoretical approach and the result was applied to model the friction in the steering system. Finally, by viscous friction coefficient and Coulomb friction coefficient, values of friction in worm gear were calculated. According to the Bearing Company and the characteristics of each bearing, the friction torques due to load and due to speed were calculated. A MATLAB Simulink model for calculating the friction in bearings and worm gear in C-EPS were done and the total friction value was estimated.

Keywords: friction, worm gear, column electric power steering system, simulink, bearing, EPS

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
2224 Frictional Behavior of Glass Epoxy and Aluminium Particulate Glass Epoxy Composites Sliding against Smooth Stainless Steel Counterface

Authors: Pujan Sarkar


Frictional behavior of glass epoxy and Al particulate glass-epoxy composites sliding against mild steel are investigated experimentally at normal atmospheric condition. Glass epoxy (0 wt% Al) and 5, 10 and 15 wt% Al particulate filled glass-epoxy composites are fabricated in conventional hand lay-up technique followed by light compression moulding process. A pin on disc type friction apparatus is used under dry sliding conditions. Experiments are carried out at a normal load of 5-50 N, and sliding speeds of 0.5-5.0 m/s for a fixed duration. Variations of friction coefficient with sliding time at different loads and speeds for all the samples are considered. Results show that the friction coefficient is influenced by sliding time, normal loads, sliding speeds, and wt% of Al content. In general, with respect to time, friction coefficient increases initially with a lot of fluctuations for a certain duration. After that, it becomes stable for the rest of the experimental time. With the increase of normal load, friction coefficient decreases at all speed levels and for all the samples whereas, friction coefficient increases with the increase of sliding speed at all normal loads for glass epoxy and 5 wt% Al content glass-epoxy composites. But for 10 and 15 wt%, Al content composites at all loads, reverse trend of friction coefficient has been recorded. Under different tribological conditions, the suitability of composites in respect of wt% of Al content is noted, and 5 wt% Al content glass-epoxy composite reports as the lowest frictional material at all loads compared to other samples.

Keywords: Al powder, composite, epoxy, friction, glass fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
2223 Dry Sliding Wear Boron Microalloyed Austempered Ductile Iron

Authors: S. Gvazava, N. Khidasheli, G. Gordeziani, A. DL. Batako


The work presented in this paper studied the tribological characteristics (wear resistance, friction coefficient) of austempered ductile iron (ADI) with different combinations of structural composition (upper bainite, lower bainite, retained austenite) in dry sliding friction. A range of structural states of the metal matrix was obtained by changing the regimes of isothermal quenching of high-strength cast iron. The tribological tests were carried out using two sets of isothermal quenched cast irons. After austenitization at 900°С for 60 minutes, the specimens from the first group were isothermally quenched at the 300°С temperature and the specimens from the second set – at 400°С. The investigations showed that the isothermal quenching increases the friction coefficient of high-strength cast irons. The friction coefficient was found to be in the range from 0.4 to 0.55 for cast irons, depending on the structures of the metal matrix. The quenched cast irons having lower bainite demonstrate higher wear resistance in dry friction conditions. The dependence of wear resistance on the amount of retained austenite in isothermal quenched cast irons has a nonlinear characteristic and reaches its maximum value when the content of retained austenite is about 15-22%. The boron micro-additives allowed to reduce the friction coefficient of ADI and increase their wear resistance by 1.5-1.7 times.

Keywords: wear resistance, dry sliding, austempering, ADI, friction coefficient, retained austenite, isothermal quenching

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
2222 Tribological Investigation of Piston Ring Liner Assembly

Authors: Bharatkumar Sutaria, Tejaskumar Chaudhari


An engine performance can be increased by minimizing losses. There are various losses observed in the engines. i.e. thermal loss, heat loss and mechanical losses. Mechanical losses are in the tune of 15 to 20 % of the overall losses. Piston ring assembly contributes the highest friction in the mechanical frictional losses. The variation of piston speed in stroke length the friction force development is not uniform. In present work, comparison has been made between theoretical and experimental friction force under different operating conditions. The experiments are performed using variable operating parameters such as load, speed, temperature and lubricants. It is found that reducing trend of friction force and friction coefficient is in good nature with mixed lubrication regime of the Stribeck curve. Overall outcome from the laboratory test performance of segmented piston ring assembly using multi-grade oil offers reasonably good results at room and elevated temperatures.

Keywords: friction force, friction coefficient, piston rings, Stribeck curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
2221 Investigation of the Role of Friction in Reducing Pedestrian Injuries in Accidents at Intersections

Authors: Seyed Abbas Tabatabaei, Afshin Ghanbarzadeh, Mehdi Abidizadeh


Nowadays the subject of road traffic accidents and the high social and economic costs due to them is the most fundamental problem that experts and providers of transport and traffic brought to a challenge. One of the most effective measures is to enhance the skid resistance of road surface. This research aims to study the intersection of one case in Ahwaz and the effect of increasing the skid resistance in reducing pedestrian injuries in accidents at intersections. In this research the device was developed to measure the coefficient of friction and tried the rules and practices of it have a high similarity with the Locked Wheel Trailer. This device includes a steel frame, wheels, hydration systems, and force gauge. The output of the device is that the force gauge registers. By investigate this data and applying the relationships relative surface coefficient of friction is obtained. Friction coefficient data for the current state and the state of the new pavement are obtained and plotted on the graphs based on the graphs we can compare the two situations and speed at the moment of collision between the two modes are compared. The results show that increasing the coefficient of friction to what extent can be effective on the severity and number of accidents.

Keywords: intersection, coefficient of friction, skid resistance, locked wheels, accident, pedestrian

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
2220 Modelling of Atomic Force Microscopic Nano Robot's Friction Force on Rough Surfaces

Authors: M. Kharazmi, M. Zakeri, M. Packirisamy, J. Faraji


Micro/Nanorobotics or manipulation of nanoparticles by Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM) is one of the most important solutions for controlling the movement of atoms, particles and micro/nano metrics components and assembling of them to design micro/nano-meter tools. Accurate modelling of manipulation requires identification of forces and mechanical knowledge in the Nanoscale which are different from macro world. Due to the importance of the adhesion forces and the interaction of surfaces at the nanoscale several friction models were presented. In this research, friction and normal forces that are applied on the AFM by using of the dynamic bending-torsion model of AFM are obtained based on Hurtado-Kim friction model (HK), Johnson-Kendall-Robert contact model (JKR) and Greenwood-Williamson roughness model (GW). Finally, the effect of standard deviation of asperities height on the normal load, friction force and friction coefficient are studied.

Keywords: atomic force microscopy, contact model, friction coefficient, Greenwood-Williamson model

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
2219 Wear and Fraction Behavior of Porcelain Coated with Polyurethane/SiO2 Coating Layer

Authors: Ching Yern Chee


Various loading of nano silica is added into polyurethane (PU) and then coated on porcelain substrate. The wear and friction properties of the porcelain substrates coated with polyurethane/nano silica nano composite coatings were investigated using the reciprocating wear testing machine. The friction and wear test of polyurethane/nano silica coated porcelain substrate was studied at different sliding speed and applied load. It was found that the optimum composition of nano silica is 3 wt% which gives the lowest friction coefficient and wear rate in all applied load ranges and sliding speeds. For 3 wt% nano silica filled PU coated porcelain substrate, the increment of sliding speed caused higher wear rates but lower frictions coefficient. Besides, the friction coefficient of nano silica filled PU coated porcelain substrate decreased but the wear rate increased with the applied load.

Keywords: porcelain, nanocomposite coating, morphology, friction, wear behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 409
2218 Study of the Tribological Behavior of a Pin on Disc Type of Contact

Authors: S. Djebali, S. Larbi, A. Bilek


The present work aims at contributing to the study of the complex phenomenon of wear of pin on disc contact in dry sliding friction between two material couples (bronze/steel and unsaturated polyester virgin and charged with graphite powder/steel). The work consists of the determination of the coefficient of friction, the study of the influence of the tribological parameters on this coefficient and the determination of the mass loss and the wear rate of the pin. This study is also widened to the highlighting of the influence of the addition of graphite powder on the tribological properties of the polymer constituting the pin. The experiments are carried out on a pin-disc type tribometer that we have designed and manufactured. Tests are conducted according to the standards DIN 50321 and DIN EN 50324. The discs are made of annealed XC48 steel and quenched and tempered XC48 steel. The main results are described here after. The increase of the normal load and the sliding speed causes the increase of the friction coefficient, whereas the increase of the percentage of graphite and the hardness of the disc surface contributes to its reduction. The mass loss also increases with the normal load. The influence of the normal load on the friction coefficient is more significant than that of the sliding speed. The effect of the sliding speed decreases for large speed values. The increase of the amount of graphite powder leads to a decrease of the coefficient of friction, the mass loss and the wear rate. The addition of graphite to the UP resin is beneficial; it plays the role of solid lubricant.

Keywords: bronze, friction coefficient, graphite, mass loss, polyester, steel, wear rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
2217 Moderation in Temperature Dependence on Counter Frictional Coefficient and Prevention of Wear of C/C Composites by Synthesizing SiC around Surface and Internal Vacancies

Authors: Noboru Wakamoto, Kiyotaka Obunai, Kazuya Okubo, Toru Fujii


The aim of this study is to moderate the dependence of counter frictional coefficient on temperature between counter surfaces and to reduce the wear of C/C composites at low temperature. To modify the C/C composites, Silica (SiO2) powders were added into phenolic resin for carbon precursor. The preform plate of the precursor of C/C composites was prepared by conventional filament winding method. The C/C composites plates were obtained by carbonizing preform plate at 2200 °C under an argon atmosphere. At that time, the silicon carbides (SiC) were synthesized around the surfaces and the internal vacancies of the C/C composites. The frictional coefficient on the counter surfaces and specific wear volumes of the C/C composites were measured by our developed frictional test machine like pin-on disk type. The XRD indicated that SiC was synthesized in the body of C/C composite fabricated by current method. The results of friction test showed that coefficient of friction of unmodified C/C composites have temperature dependence when the test condition was changed. In contrast, frictional coefficient of the C/C composite modified with SiO2 powders was almost constant at about 0.27 when the temperature condition was changed from Room Temperature (RT) to 300 °C. The specific wear rate decreased from 25×10-6 mm2/N to 0.1×10-6 mm2/N. The observations of the surfaces after friction tests showed that the frictional surface of the modified C/C composites was covered with a film produced by the friction. This study found that synthesizing SiC around surface and internal vacancies of C/C composites was effective to moderate the dependence on the frictional coefficient and reduce to the abrasion of C/C composites.

Keywords: C/C composites, friction coefficient, wear, SiC

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
2216 Evaluation of PTFE Composites with Mineral Tailing Considering Friction, Wear and Cost

Authors: Antônio P. de Araújo Neto, Ruy D. A. da Silva Neto, Juliana R. de Souza, Salete K. P. de Medeiros, João T. N. de Medeiros


The tribological test with Pin-On-Disc configuration measures friction and wear properties in dry or lubricated sliding surfaces of a variety of materials and coatings. Polymeric matrix composites loaded with mineral filler were used, 1%, 3%, 10%, 30%, and 50% mass percentage of filler, to reduce the material cost by using mineral tailings. Using a pin-on-disc tribometer to quantify coefficient of friction and wear resistance of the specimens. The parameters known to performing the test were 300 rpm rotation, normal load of 16N and duration of 33.5 minutes. The composite with 10% mineral filler performed better, considering that the wear resistance was good when compared to the other compositions and an average low coefficient of friction, in the order of μ ≤ 0.15.

Keywords: microcomposites, microparticles tailings of scheelite, PTFE, tribology

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
2215 Structure and Tribological Properties of Moisture Insensitivity Si Containing Diamond-Like Carbon Film

Authors: Mingjiang Dai, Qian Shi, Fang Hu, Songsheng Lin, Huijun Hou, Chunbei Wei


A diamond-like carbon (DLC) is considered as a promising protective film since its high hardness and excellent tribological properties. However, DLC films are very sensitive to the environmental condition, its friction coefficient could dramatic change in high humidity, therefore, limited their further application in aerospace, the watch industry, and micro/nano-electromechanical systems. Therefore, most studies focus on the low friction coefficient of DLC films at a high humid environment. However, this is out of satisfied in practical application. An important thing was ignored is that the DLC coated components are usually used in the diversed environment, which means its friction coefficient may evidently change in different humid condition. As a result, the invalidation of DLC coated components or even sometimes disaster occurred. For example, DLC coated minisize gears were used in the watch industry, and the customer may frequently transform their locations with different weather and humidity even in one day. If friction coefficient is not stable in dry and high moisture conditions, the watch will be inaccurate. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the stable tribological behavior of DLC films in various environments. In this study, a-C:H:Si films were deposited by multi-function magnetron sputtering system, containing one ion source device and a pair of SiC dual mid-frequent targets and two direct current Ti/C targets. Hydrogenated carbon layers were manufactured by sputtering the graphite target in argon and methane gasses. The silicon was doped in DLC coatings by sputtering silicon carbide targets and the doping content were adjusted by mid-frequent sputtering current. The microstructure of the film was characterized by Raman spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy while its friction behavior under different humidity conditions was studied using a ball-on-disc tribometer. The a-C:H films with Si content from 0 to 17at.% were obtained and the influence of Si content on the structure and tribological properties under the relative humidity of 50% and 85% were investigated. Results show that the a-C:H:Si film has typical diamond-like characteristics, in which Si mainly existed in the form of Si, SiC, and SiO2. As expected, the friction coefficient of a-C:H films can be effectively changed after Si doping, from 0.302 to 0.176 in RH 50%. The further test shows that the friction coefficient value of a-C:H:Si film in RH 85% is first increase and then decrease as a function of Si content. We found that the a-C:H:Si films with a Si content of 3.75 at.% show a stable friction coefficient of 0.13 in different humidity environment. It is suggestion that the sp3/sp2 ratio of a-C:H films with 3.75 at.% Si was higher than others, which tend to form the silica-gel-like sacrificial layers during friction tests. Therefore, the films deliver stable low friction coefficient under controlled RH value of 50 and 85%.

Keywords: diamond-like carbon, Si doping, moisture environment, table low friction coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
2214 The Effects of Boronizing Treatment on the Friction and Wear Behavior of 0.35 VfTiC- Ti3SiC2 Composite

Authors: M. Hadji, A. Haddad, Y. Hadji


The effects of boronizing treatment on the friction coefficient and wear behavior of 0.35 Vf TiC- Ti3 SiC2 composite were investigated. In order to modity the surface properties of Ti3SiC2, boronizing treatment was carried out through powder pack cementation in the 1150-1350 °C temperature range. After boronizing treatment, one mixture layer, composed of TiB2 and SiC, forms on the surface of Ti3SiC2. The growth of the coating is processed by inward diffusion of Boron and obeys a linear rule. The Boronizing treatment increases the hardness of Ti3SiC2 from 6 GPa to 13 GPa. In the pin-on-disc test, i twas found that the material undergoes a steady-state coefficient of friction of around 0.8 and 0.45 in case of Ti3SiC2/Al2O3 tribocouple under 7N load for the non treated and the boronized samples, respectively. The wear resistance of Ti3SiC2 underAl2O3 ball sliding has been significantly improved, which indicated that the boronizing treatment is a promising surface modification way of Ti3SiC2.

Keywords: MAX phase, wearing, friction, boronizing

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
2213 Effect of Longitudinal Fins on Air-Flow Characteristics for Wing-Shaped Tubes in Cross Flow

Authors: Sayed Ahmed El Sayed, Osama M. Mesalhy, Mohamed A. Abdelatief


A numerical study has been conducted to clarify fluid flow characteristics, pressure distributions, and skin friction coefficient over a wing-shaped tubes bundle in staggered arrangement with the placement of longitudinal fins (LF) at downstream position of the tube. The air-side Rea were at 1.8 x 103 to 9.7 x 103. The tubes bundle were employed with various fin height [hf] and fin thickness (δ) from (2 mm ≤ hf ≤ 12 mm) and (1.5 mm ≤ δ ≤ 3.5 mm) respectively at the considered Rea range. The flow pattern around the staggered wing-shaped tubes bundle was predicted using the commercial CFD FLUENT 6.3.26 software package. The distribution of average skin friction coefficient around wing-shaped tubes bundle is studied. Correlation of pressure drop coefficient Pdc and skin friction coefficient (Cf) in terms of Rea, design parameters for the studied cases were presented. Results indicated that the values of Pdc for hf = 6 mm are lower than these of NOF and hf = 2 mm by about 11 % and 13 % respectively for considered Rea range. Cf decreases as Rea increases. LFTH with hf = 6 mm offers lower form drag than that with hf = 12 mm and that of NOF. The lowest values of the pumping power are achieved for arrangements of hf = 6 mm for the considered Rea range. δ has negligible effect on skin friction coefficient, while has a slightly variation in ∆Pa. The wing-shaped tubes bundle heat exchanger with hf = 6 mm has the lowest values of ∆Pa, Pdc, Cf, and pumping power and hence the best performance comparing with the other bundles. Comparisons between the experimental and numerical results of the present study and those obtained by similar previous studies showed good agreements.

Keywords: longitudinal fins, skin friction, flow characteristics, FLUENT, wing-shaped tubes

Procedia PDF Downloads 404
2212 An Experimental Study of Automotive Drum Brake Vibrations

Authors: Nouby Ghazaly


The present paper investigates experimentally the effect coefficient of friction at different operation conditions on the variation of the brake temperature, brake force, and brake vibration with the braking time. All the experimental tests were carried out using brake dynamometer which designed and constructed in Vehicle Dynamic Laboratory. The results indicate that the brake temperature increases with the increase of the normal force and sliding speed especially with the increase of the braking time. The normal force has the effect on increasing the brake force. On the contrary, the vehicle speed has the effect on decreasing the brake force. Both the normal force and sliding speed affect the brake vibration according to the friction behavior.

Keywords: brake dynamometer, coefficient of friction, drum brake vibrations, friction behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
2211 Simulation of Kinetic Friction in L-Bending of Sheet Metals

Authors: Maziar Ramezani, Thomas Neitzert, Timotius Pasang


This paper aims at experimental and numerical investigation of springback behavior of sheet metals during L-bending process with emphasis on Stribeck-type friction modeling. The coefficient of friction in Stribeck curve depends on sliding velocity and contact pressure. The springback behavior of mild steel and aluminum alloy 6022-T4 sheets was studied experimentally and using numerical simulations with ABAQUS software with two types of friction model: Coulomb friction and Stribeck friction. The influence of forming speed on springback behavior was studied experimentally and numerically. The results showed that Stribeck-type friction model has better results in predicting springback in sheet metal forming. The FE prediction error for mild steel and 6022-T4 AA is 23.8%, 25.5% respectively, using Coulomb friction model and 11%, 13% respectively, using Stribeck friction model. These results show that Stribeck model is suitable for simulation of sheet metal forming especially at higher forming speed.

Keywords: friction, L-bending, springback, Stribeck curves

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
2210 Tribological Properties of Non-Stick Coatings Used in Bread Baking Process

Authors: Maurice Brogly, Edwige Privas, Rajesh K. Gajendran, Sophie Bistac


Anti-sticky coatings based on perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) coatings are widely used in food processing industry especially for bread making. Their tribological performance, such as low friction coefficient, low surface energy and high heat resistance, make them an appropriate choice for anti-sticky coating application in moulds for food processing industry. This study is dedicated to evidence the transfer of contaminants from the coating due to wear and thermal ageing of the mould. The risk of contamination is induced by the damage of the coating by bread crust during the demoulding stage. The study focuses on the wear resistance and potential transfer of perfluorinated polymer from the anti-sticky coating. Friction between perfluorinated coating and bread crust is modeled by a tribological pin-on-disc test. The cellular nature of the bread crust is modeled by a polymer foam. FTIR analysis of the polymer foam after friction allow the evaluation of the transfer from the perfluorinated coating to polymer foam. Influence of thermal ageing on the physical, chemical and wear properties of the coating are also investigated. FTIR spectroscopic results show that the increase of PFA transfer onto the foam counterface is associated to the decrease of the friction coefficient. Increasing lubrication by film transfer results in the decrease of the friction coefficient. Moreover increasing the friction test parameters conditions (load, speed and sliding distance) also increase the film transfer onto the counterface. Thermal ageing increases the hydrophobic character of the PFA coating and thus also decreases the friction coefficient.

Keywords: fluorobased polymer coatings, FTIR spectroscopy, non-stick food moulds, wear and friction

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
2209 Characterization of Nano Coefficient of Friction through Lfm of Superhydrophobic/Oleophobic Coatings Applied on 316l Ss

Authors: Hamza Shams, Sajid Saleem, Bilal A. Siddiqui


This paper investigates the coefficient of friction at nano-levels of commercially available superhydrophobic/oleophobic coatings when applied over 316L SS. 316L Stainless Steel or Marine Stainless Steel has been selected for its widespread uses in structures, marine and biomedical applications. The coatings were investigated in harsh sand-storm and sea water environments. The particle size of the sand during the procedure was carefully selected to simulate sand-storm conditions. Sand speed during the procedure was carefully modulated to simulate actual wind speed during a sand-storm. Sample preparation was carried out using prescribed methodology by the coating manufacturer. The coating’s adhesion and thickness was verified before and after the experiment with the use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The value for nano-level coefficient of friction has been determined using Lateral Force Microscopy (LFM). The analysis has been used to formulate a value of friction coefficient which in turn is associative of the amount of wear the coating can bear before the exposure of the base substrate to the harsh environment. The analysis aims to validate the coefficient of friction value as marketed by the coating manufacturers and more importantly test the coating in real-life applications to justify its use. It is expected that the coating would resist exposure to the harsh environment for a considerable amount of time. Further, it would prevent the sample from getting corroded in the process.

Keywords: 316L SS, scanning electron microscopy, lateral force microscopy, marine stainless steel, oleophobic coating, superhydrophobic coating

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
2208 High-Temperature Tribological Characterization of Nano-Sized Silicon Nitride + 5% Boron Nitride Ceramic Composite

Authors: Mohammad Farooq Wani


Tribological studies on nano-sized ß-silicon nitride+5% BN were carried out in dry air at high temperatures to clarify the lack of consensus in the bibliographic data concerning the Tribological behavior of Si3N4 ceramics and effect of doped hexagonal boron nitride on coefficient of friction and wear coefficient at different loads and elevated temperatures. The composites were prepared via high energy mechanical milling and subsequent spark plasma sintering using Y2O3 and Al2O3 as sintering additives. After sintering, the average crystalline size of Si3N4 was observed to be 50 nm. Tribological tests were performed with temperature and Friction coefficients 0.16 to 1.183 and 0.54 to 0.71 were observed for Nano-sized ß-silicon nitride+5% BN composite under normal load of 10N-70 N and over high temperature range of 350 ºC-550 ºC respectively. Specific wear coefficients from 1.33x 10-4 mm3N-1m-1 to 4.42x 10-4 mm3N-1m-1 were observed for Nano-sized Si3N4 + 5% BN composite against Si3N4 ball as tribo-pair counterpart over high temperature range of 350 ºC-550 ºC while as under normal load of 10N to70N Specific wear coefficients of 6.91x 10-4 mm3N-1m-1 to 1.70x 10-4 were observed. The addition of BN to the Si3N4 composite resulted in a slight reduction of the friction coefficient and lower values of wear coefficient.

Keywords: ceramics, tribology, friction and wear, solid lubrication

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
2207 Effect of Roughness and Microstructure on Tribological Behaviour of 35NCD16 Steel

Authors: A. Jourani, C. Trevisiol, S. Bouvier


The aim of this work is to study the coupled effect of microstructure and surface roughness on friction coefficient, wear resistance and wear mechanisms. Friction tests on 35NCD16 steel are performed under different normal loads (50-110 N) on a pin-on-plane configuration at cyclic sliding with abrasive silicon carbide grains ranging from 35 µm to 200 µm. To vary hardness and microstructure, the specimens are subjected to water quenching and tempering at various temperatures from 200°C to 600°C. The evolution of microstructures and wear mechanisms of worn surfaces are analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For a given microstructure and hardness, the friction coefficient decreases with increasing of normal load and decreasing of the abrasive particle size. The wear rate increase with increasing of normal load and abrasive particle size. The results also reveal that there is a critical hardness Hcᵣᵢₜᵢcₐₗ around 430 Hv which maximizes the friction coefficient and wear rate. This corresponds to a microstructure transition from martensite laths to carbides and equiaxed grains, for a tempering around 400°C. Above Hcᵣᵢₜᵢcₐₗ the friction coefficient and the amount of material loss decrease with an increase of hardness and martensite volume fraction. This study also shows that the debris size and the space between the abrasive particles decrease with a reduction in the particle size. The coarsest abrasive grains lost their cutting edges, accompanied by particle damage and empty space due to the particle detachment from the resin matrix. The compact packing nature of finer abrasive papers implicates lower particle detachment and facilitates the clogging and the transition from abrasive to adhesive wear.

Keywords: martensite, microstructure, friction, wear, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
2206 Sliding Velocity in Impact with Friction in Three-Dimensional Multibody Systems

Authors: Hesham A. Elkaranshawy, Amr Abdelrazek, Hosam Ezzat


This paper analyzes a single point rough collision in three dimensional rigid-multibody systems. A set of nonlinear different equations describing the progress and outcome of the impact are obtained. Specifically in case of the tangential, referred to as sliding, component of impact velocity is of great importance. Numerical methods are used to solve this problem. In this work, all these possible sliding behaviors during impact are identified, conditions leading to each behavior are specified, and an appropriate numerical procedure is suggested. A case of a four-degrees-of-freedom spatial robot that collides with its environment is investigated. The phase portrait of the tangential velocity, which presents the flow trajectories for different initial conditions, is calculated. Using the coefficient of friction as a control parameter, few phase portraits are drawn, each for a specific value of this coefficient. In addition, the bifurcation associated with the variation of this coefficient will be investigated.

Keywords: friction impact, three-dimensional rigid multibody systems, sliding velocity, nonlinear ordinary differential equations, phase portrait

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
2205 Asymptotic Analysis of the Viscous Flow through a Pipe and the Derivation of the Darcy-Weisbach Law

Authors: Eduard Marusic-Paloka


The Darcy-Weisbach formula is used to compute the pressure drop of the fluid in the pipe, due to the friction against the wall. Because of its simplicity, the Darcy-Weisbach formula became widely accepted by engineers and is used for laminar as well as the turbulent flows through pipes, once the method to compute the mysterious friction coefficient was derived. Particularly in the second half of the 20th century. Formula is empiric, and our goal is to derive it from the basic conservation law, via rigorous asymptotic analysis. We consider the case of the laminar flow but with significant Reynolds number. In case of the perfectly smooth pipe, the situation is trivial, as the Navier-Stokes system can be solved explicitly via the Poiseuille formula leading to the friction coefficient in the form 64/Re. For the rough pipe, the situation is more complicated and some effects of the roughness appear in the friction coefficient. We start from the Navier-Stokes system in the pipe with periodically corrugated wall and derive an asymptotic expansion for the pressure and for the velocity. We use the homogenization techniques and the boundary layer analysis. The approximation derived by formal analysis is then justified by rigorous error estimate in the norm of the appropriate Sobolev space, using the energy formulation and classical a priori estimates for the Navier-Stokes system. Our method leads to the formula for the friction coefficient. The formula involves resolution of the appropriate boundary layer problems, namely the boundary value problems for the Stokes system in an infinite band, that needs to be done numerically. However, theoretical analysis characterising their nature can be done without solving them.

Keywords: Darcy-Weisbach law, pipe flow, rough boundary, Navier law

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
2204 The Friction and Wear Behaviour of Ti2AlC MAX Phase

Authors: M. Hadji, A. Haddad, Y. Hadji


The effects of boronizing treatment on the friction coefficient and wear behavior of Ti2AlC were investigated. In order to modify the surface properties of Ti2AlC, boronizing treatment was carried out through powder pack cementation in the 1150-1350 °C temperature range. After boronizing treatment, one mixture layer, composed of TiB2 and SiC, forms on the surface of Ti2AlC. The growth of the coating is processed by inward diffusion of Boron and obeys a linear rule. The Boronizing treatment increases the hardness of Ti2AlC from 6 GPa to 13GPa. In the pin-on-disc test, it was found that the material undergoes a steady-state coefficient of friction of around 0.8 and 0.45 in case of Ti2AlC/Al2O3 tribocouple under 7N load for the non treated and the boronized samples, respectively. The wear resistance of Ti2AlC under Al2O3 ball sliding has been significantly improved, which indicated that the boronizing treatment is a promising surface modification way of Ti2AlC.

Keywords: MAX phase, wear, hardness, boronizing

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
2203 Improving Lubrication Efficiency at High Sliding Speeds by Plasma Surface Texturing

Authors: Wei Zha, Jingzeng Zhang, Chen Zhao, Ran Cai, Xueyuan Nie


Cathodic plasma electrolysis (CPE) is used to create surface textures on cast iron samples for improving the tribological properties. Micro craters with confined size distribution were successfully formed by CPE process. These craters can generate extra hydrodynamic pressure that separates two sliding surfaces, increase the oil film thickness and accelerate the transition from boundary to mixed lubrication. It was found that the optimal crater size was 1.7 μm, at which the maximum lubrication efficiency was achieved. The Taguchi method was used to optimize the process parameters (voltage and roughness) for CPE surface texturing. The orthogonal array and the signal-to-noise ratio were employed to study the effect of each process parameter on the coefficient of friction. The results showed that with higher voltage and lower roughness, the lower friction coefficient can be obtained, and thus the lubrication can be more efficiently used for friction reduction.

Keywords: cathodic plasma electrolysis, friction, lubrication, plasma surface texturing

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
2202 The Friction and Wear Behavior of 0.35 VfTiC-Ti3SiC2 Composite

Authors: M. Hadji, A. Haddad, Y. Hadji


The effects of boronizing treatment on the friction coefficient and wear behavior of 0.35 Vf TiC- Ti3 SiC2 composite were investigated. In order to modify the surface properties of Ti3SiC2, boronizing treatment was carried out through powder pack cementation in the 1150-1350 °C temperature range. After boronizing treatment, one mixture layer, composed of TiB2 and SiC, forms on the surface of Ti3SiC2. The growth of the coating is processed by inward diffusion of Boron and obeys a linear rule. The Boronizing treatment increases the hardness of Ti3SiC2 from 6 GPa to 13 GPa. In the pin-on-disc test, i twas found that the material undergoes a steady-state coefficient of friction of around 0.8 and 0.45 in case of Ti3SiC2/Al2O3 tribocouple under 7 N load for the non treated and the boronized samples, respectively. The wear resistance of Ti3SiC2 under Al2O3 ball sliding has been significantly improved, which indicated that the boronizing treatment is a promising surface modification way of Ti3SiC2.

Keywords: MAX phase, boronizing, hardness, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
2201 Experimental Modelling Gear Contact with TE77 Energy Pulse Setup

Authors: Zainab Mohammed Shukur, Najlaa Ali Alboshmina, Ali Safa Alsaegh


The project was investigated tribological behavior of polyether ether ketone (PEEK1000) against PEEK1000 rolling sliding (non-conformal) configuration with slip ratio 83.3%, were tested applications using a TE77 wear mechanisms and friction coefficient test rig. Under marginal lubrication conditions and the absence of film thick conditions, load 100 N was used to simulate the torque in gears 7 N.m. The friction coefficient and wear mechanisms of PEEK were studied under reciprocating roll/slide conditions with water, ethylene glycol, silicone, and base oil. Tribological tests were conducted on a TE77 high-frequency tribometer, with a disc-on-plate slide/roll (the energy pulse criterion) configuration. An Alicona G5 optical 3D micro-coordinate measurement microscope was used to investigate the surface topography and wear mechanisms. The surface roughness had been a significant effect on the friction coefficient for the PEEK/PEEK the rolling sliding contact test ethylene glycol and on the wear mechanisms. When silicone, ethylene glycol, and oil were used as a lubricant, the steady state of friction coefficient was reached faster than the other lubricant. Results describe the effect of the film thick with slip ratio of 83.3% on the tribological performance.

Keywords: polymer, rolling- sliding, energy pulse, gear contact

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
2200 Comparative Study of Wear and Friction Behavior of Tricalcium Phosphate-Fluorapatite Bioceramic

Authors: Rym Taktak, Achwek Elghazel, Jamel Bouaziz


In the present work, we explored the potential of tribological behavior of tricalcium phosphate-Fluorapatite (β Tcp-Fap) bioceramic which has attracted considerable attention for orthopedics and dental applications. The approximate representatives Fap-βTcp were respectively [{13.26 wt%, 86.74 wt%} {19.9 wt%, 80.1 wt%},{ 26.52 wt%, 73.48 wt%}, {33.16 wt%, 66.84 wt%} and {40 wt%, 60 wt%}. The effects of Fluorapatite additives on friction and wear behavior were studied and discussed. The wear test was conducted using pion-disk tribometer at room temperature under dry condition using a constant sliding speed of 0,063 m/s, and three loads 3, 5 and 8 N. The wear rate and friction coefficient of β Tcp with different additive amounts were compared. An Alumina ball specimens were used as the pin and flat surface β Tcp-Fap specimens as the antagonist counterface. The results show a huge difference between the wear rate of β TCP samples and the other β TCP-Fap composites for all normal forces applied. This result shows the beneficial effect of fluorapatite on the tribological behavior of the β TCP. Moreover, we note that β Tcp-26% Fap specimens exhibit, under dry condition, the lower friction coefficient and the smaller wear rate than other biocomposites. Thereby, the friction and wear behavior is influenced by the addition of fluorapatite, the applied normal force, and the sliding velocity. To extend the understanding of the wear process, the surface topography of β Tcp-26% Fap specimens and the wear track obtained during the wear tests were studied using a surface profilometer, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy.

Keywords: alumina, bioceramic, friction and wear test, tricalcium phosphate

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
2199 Wear Damage of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyimide Composites with the Addition of Graphite

Authors: Mahmoudi Noureddine


The glass fiber (GF) reinforced polyimide (PL) composites filled with graphite powders were fabricated by means of hot press molding technique. The friction and wear properties of the resulting composites sliding against GCr15 steel were investigated on a model ring-on-block test rig at dry sliding condition. The wear mechanisms were also discussed, based on scanning electron microscopic examination of the worn surface of the PL composites and the transfer film formed on the counterpart. With the increasing normal loads, the friction coefficient of the composites increased under the dry sliding, owing to inconsistent influences of shear strength and real contact areas. Experimental results revealed that the incorporation of graphite significantly improve the wear resistance of the glass fibers reinforced polyimide composites. For best combination of friction coefficient and wear rate, the optimal volume content of graphite in the composites appears to be 45 %. It was also found that the tribological properties of the glass fiber reinforced PL composites filled with graphite powders were closely related with the sliding condition such as sliding rate and applied load.

Keywords: composites, fiber, friction, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 255