Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 52

Search results for: insulator

52 Design and Analysis of Extra High Voltage Non-Ceramic Insulator by Finite Element Method

Authors: M. Nageswara Rao, V. S. N. K. Chaitanya, P. Pratyusha

Abstract:

High voltage insulator has to withstand sever electrical stresses. Higher electrical stresses lead to erosion of the insulator surface. Degradation of insulating properties leads to flashover and in some extreme cases it may cause to puncture. For analyzing these electrical stresses and implement necessary actions to diminish the electrical stresses, numerical methods are best. By minimizing the electrical stresses, reliability of the power system will improve. In this paper electric field intensity at critical regions of 400 kV silicone composite insulator is analyzed using finite element method. Insulator is designed using FEMM-2D software package. Electric Field Analysis (EFA) results are analyzed for five cases i.e., only insulator, insulator with two sides arcing horn, High Voltage (HV) end grading ring, grading ring-arcing horn arrangement and two sides grading ring. These EFA results recommended that two sides grading ring is better for minimization of electrical stresses and improving life span of insulator.

Keywords: Polymer insulator, electric field analysis, numerical methods, finite element method, FEMM-2D.

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51 Electric Field and Potential Distributions along Surface of Silicone Rubber Polymer Insulators Using Finite Element Method

Authors: B. Marungsri, W. Onchantuek, A. Oonsivilai

Abstract:

This paper presents the simulation the results of electric field and potential distributions along surface of silicone rubber polymer insulators. Near the same leakage distance subjected to 15 kV in 50 cycle salt fog ageing test, alternate sheds silicone rubber polymer insulator showed better contamination performance than straight sheds silicone rubber polymer insulator. Severe surface ageing was observed on the straight sheds insulator. The objective of this work is to elucidate that electric field distribution along straight sheds insulator higher than alternate shed insulator in salt fog ageing test. Finite element method (FEM) is adopted for this work. The simulation results confirmed the experimental data, as well.

Keywords: Electric field distribution, potential distribution, silicone rubber polymer insulator, finite element method.

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50 Analysis of Electric Field and Potential Distributions along Surface of Silicone Rubber Insulators under Various Contamination Conditions Using Finite Element Method

Authors: B. Marungsri, W. Onchantuek, A. Oonsivilai, T. Kulworawanichpong

Abstract:

This paper presents the simulation results of electric field and potential distributions along surface of silicone rubber polymer insulators under clean and various contamination conditions with/without water droplets. Straight sheds insulator having leakage distance 290 mm was used in this study. Two type of contaminants, playwood dust and cement dust, have been studied the effect of contamination on the insulator surface. The objective of this work is to comparison the effect of contamination on potential and electric field distributions along the insulator surface when water droplets exist on the insulator surface. Finite element method (FEM) is adopted for this work. The simulation results show that contaminations have no effect on potential distribution along the insulator surface while electric field distributions are obviously depended on contamination conditions.

Keywords: electric field distribution, potential distribution, silicone rubber polymer insulator, finite element method

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49 Difference of Properties on Surface Leakage and Discharge Currents of Porcelain Insulator Material

Authors: Waluyo, Ngapuli I. Sinisuka, Suwarno, Maman A. Djauhari

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results of comparison between leakage currents and discharge currents. The leakage currents were obtained on polluted porcelain insulator. Whereas, the discharge currents were obtained on lightly artificial polluted porcelain specimen. The conducted measurements were leakage current or discharge current and applied voltage. The insulator or specimen was in a hermetically sealed chamber, and the current waveforms were analyzed using FFT. The result indicated that the leakage current (LC) on low RH condition the fifth harmonic would be visible, and followed by the seventh harmonic. The insulator had capacitive property. Otherwise, on 99% relative humidity, the fifth harmonic would also be visible, and the phase angle reached up to 12.2 degree. Whereas, on discharge current, the third harmonic would be visible, and followed by fifth harmonic. The third harmonic would increase as pressure reduced. On this condition, the specimen had a non-linear characteristics

Keywords: leakage current, discharge current, third harmonic, fifth harmonic, porcelain.

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48 Study of Hydrophobicity Effect on 220kV Double Tension Insulator String Surface Using Finite Element Method

Authors: M. Nageswara Rao, V. S. N. K. Chaitanya, P. Vijaya Haritha

Abstract:

Insulators are one of the most significant equipment in power system. The insulators’ operation may affect the power flow, line loss and reliability. The electrical parameters that influence the performance of insulator are surface leakage current, corona and dry band arcing. Electric field stresses on the insulator surface will degrade the insulating properties and lead to puncture. Electric filed stresses can be analyzed by numerical methods and experimental evaluation. As per economic aspects, evaluation by numerical methods are best. In outdoor insulation, a hydrophobic surface can facilitate to prevent water film formation on the insulation surface, which is decisive for diminishing leakage currents and partial discharge (PD) under heavy polluted environments and harsh weather conditions. Polymer materials like silicone rubber have an outstanding hydrophobic property among general insulation materials. In this paper, electrical field intensity of 220 kV porcelain and polymer double tension insulator strings at critical regions are analyzed and compared by using Finite Element Method. Hydrophobic conditions of polymer insulator with equal and unequal water molecule conditions are verified by using finite element method.

Keywords: Porcelain insulator, polymer insulator, electric field analysis, EFA, finite element method, FEM, hydrophobicity, FEMM-2D.

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47 CMOS-Compatible Plasmonic Nanocircuits for On-Chip Integration

Authors: Shiyang Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong

Abstract:

Silicon photonics is merging as a unified platform for driving photonic based telecommunications and for local photonic based interconnect but it suffers from large footprint as compared with the nanoelectronics. Plasmonics is an attractive alternative for nanophotonics. In this work, two CMOS compatible plasmonic waveguide platforms are compared. One is the horizontal metal-insulator-Si-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic waveguide and the other is metal-insulator-Si hybrid plasmonic waveguide. Various passive and active photonic devices have been experimentally demonstrated based on these two plasmonic waveguide platforms.

Keywords: Plasmonics, on-chip integration, Silicon photonics.

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46 Study on Leakage Current Waveforms of Porcelain Insulator due to Various Artificial Pollutants

Authors: Waluyo, Parouli M. Pakpahan, Suwarno, Maman A. Djauhari

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results of leakage current waveforms which appears on porcelain insulator surface due to existence of artificial pollutants. The tests have been done using the chemical compounds of NaCl, Na2SiO3, H2SO4, CaO, Na2SO4, KCl, Al2SO4, MgSO4, FeCl3, and TiO2. The insulator surface was coated with those compounds and dried. Then, it was tested in the chamber where the high voltage was applied. Using correspondence analysis, the result indicated that the fundamental harmonic of leakage current was very close to the applied voltage and third harmonic leakage current was close to the yielded leakage current amplitude. The first harmonic power was correlated to first harmonic amplitude of leakage current, and third harmonic power was close to third harmonic one. The chemical compounds of H2SO4 and Na2SiO3 affected to the power factor of around 70%. Both are the most conductive, due to the power factor drastically increase among the chemical compounds.

Keywords: Chemical compound, harmonic, porcelain insulator, leakage current.

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45 Investigation of the Effect of Impulse Voltage to Flashover by Using Water Jet

Authors: Harun Gülan, Muhsin Tunay Gencoglu, Mehmet Cebeci

Abstract:

The main function of the insulators used in high voltage (HV) transmission lines is to insulate the energized conductor from the pole and hence from the ground. However, when the insulators fail to perform this insulation function due to various effects, failures occur. The deterioration of the insulation results either from breakdown or surface flashover. The surface flashover is caused by the layer of pollution that forms conductivity on the surface of the insulator, such as salt, carbonaceous compounds, rain, moisture, fog, dew, industrial pollution and desert dust. The source of the majority of failures and interruptions in HV lines is surface flashover. This threatens the continuity of supply and causes significant economic losses. Pollution flashover in HV insulators is still a serious problem that has not been fully resolved. In this study, a water jet test system has been established in order to investigate the behavior of insulators under dirty conditions and to determine their flashover performance. Flashover behavior of the insulators is examined by applying impulse voltages in the test system. This study aims to investigate the insulator behaviour under high impulse voltages. For this purpose, a water jet test system was installed and experimental results were obtained over a real system and analyzed. By using the water jet test system instead of the actual insulator, the damage to the insulator as a result of the flashover that would occur under impulse voltage was prevented. The results of the test system performed an important role in determining the insulator behavior and provided predictability.

Keywords: Insulator, pollution flashover, high impulse voltage, water jet model.

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44 Modeling Electric Field Distribution on Insulator under Electron Bombardment in Vacuum

Authors: A.G.E. Sutjipto, Jufriadi, R. Muhida, Afzeri, E.Y. Adesta

Abstract:

Charging and discharging phenomenon on the surface of materials can be found in plasma display panel, spacecraft charging, high voltage insulator, etc. This report gives a simple explanation on this phenomenon. A scanning electron microscope was used not only as a tool to produce energetic electron beam to charge an insulator without metallic coating and to produce a surface discharging (surface breakdown/flashover) but also to observe the visible charging and discharging on the sample surface. A model of electric field distribution on the surface was developed in order to explain charging and discharging phenomena. Since charging and discharging process involves incubation time, therefore this process can be used to evaluate the insulation property of materials under electron bombardment.

Keywords: Flashover, SEM, Electron Bombardment, Electric Field.

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43 Hydrophobic Characteristics of EPDM Composite Insulators in Simulated Arid Desert Environment

Authors: Yasin Khan

Abstract:

Overhead electrical insulators form an important link in an electric power system. Along with the traditional insulators (i.e. glass and porcelain, etc) presently the polymeric insulators are also used world widely. These polymeric insulators are very sensitive to various environmental parameters such temperature, environmental pollution, UV-radiations, etc. which seriously effect their electrical, chemical and hydrophobic properties. The UV radiation level in the central region of Saudi Arabia is high as compared to the IEC standard for the accelerated aging of the composite insulators. Commonly used suspension type of composite EPDM (Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer) insulator was subjected to accelerated stress aging as per modified IEC standard simulating the inland arid deserts atmospheric condition and also as per IEC-61109 standard. The hydrophobic characteristics were studied by measuring the contact angle along the insulator surface before and after the accelerated aging of the samples. It was found that EPDM insulator loses it hydrophobic properties proportional to the intensity of UV irradiations and its rate of recovery is also very low as compared to Silicone Rubber insulator.KeywordsEPDM, composite insulators, accelerated aging, hydrophobicity, contact angle.

Keywords: EPDM, composite insulators, accelerated aging, hydrophobicity, contact angle.

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42 A Study on Evaluation of Strut Type Suspension Noise Caused by Rubber Degradation

Authors: Gugyong Kim, Sugnsu Kang, Yongjun Lee, Sooncheol Park, Wonwook Jung

Abstract:

When cars are released from the factory, strut noises are very small and therefore it is difficult to perceive them. As the use time and travel distance increase, however, strut noises get larger so as to cause users much uneasiness. The noises generated at the field include engine noises and flow noises and therefore it is difficult to clearly discern the noises generated from struts. This study developed a test method which can reproduce field strut noises in the lab. Using the newly developed noise evaluation test, this study analyzed the effects that insulator performance degradation and failure can have on car noises. The study also confirmed that the insulator durability test by the simple back-and-forth motion cannot completely reflect the state of the parts failure in the field. Based on this, the study also confirmed that field noises can be reproduced through a durability test that considers heat aging.

Keywords: Insulator, noise, performance degradation, strut

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41 Electric Field Analysis and Experimental Evaluation of 400 kV Silicone Composite Insulator

Authors: M. Nageswara Rao, N. Sumathi, V. S. N. K. Chaitanya

Abstract:

In electrical power system, high voltage insulators are necessary for consistent performance. All insulators are exposed to different mechanical and electrical stresses. Mechanical stresses occur due to various loads such as wind load, hardware and conductors weight. Electrical stresses are due to over voltages and operating voltages. The performance analysis of polymer insulators is an essential, as most of the electrical utility companies are employing polymer insulators for new and updated transmission lines. In this paper, electric field is analyzed for 400 kV silicone (SiR) composite insulator by COULOMB 3D software based on boundary element method. The field results are compared with EPRI reference values. Our results proved that values at critical regions are very less compared to EPRI reference values. And also experimentally 400 kV single V suspension string is evaluated as per IEC standards.

Keywords: Electric field analysis, silicone composite insulator, boundary element method, RIV, Corona.

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40 Investigation of Multiple Material Gate Impact on Short Channel Effects and Reliability of Nanoscale SOI MOSFETs

Authors: Paniz Tafakori, Ali A. Orouji

Abstract:

In this paper the features of multiple material gate silicon-on-insulator MOSFETs are presented and compared with single material gate silicon-on-insulator MOSFET structures. The results indicate that the multiple material gate structures reduce short channel effects such as drain induce barrier lowering, hot electron effect and better current characteristics in comparison with single material structures

Keywords: Short-channel effects (SCEs), Dual material gate (DMG), Triple material gate (TMG), Pentamerous material gate (PMG).

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39 Comparison of Ageing Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Outdoor Polymer Insulator under Salt Water Dip Wheel Test

Authors: J. Grasaesom, S. Thong-om, W. Payakcho, A. Oonsivilai, B. Marungsri

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results on ageing deterioration of silicone rubber outdoor polymer insulator under salt water dip wheel test based on IEC 62217. In order to comparison effect of chemical contents, silicone rubber outdoor polymer insulators having same configuration and leakage distant from two manufactures were tested together continuously 30,000 test cycles. Many discharge activities were observed in during the test. After 30,000 test cycles, in spite of same configuration, differences in degree of surface aging were observed. Physical analysis such as decreasing in hydrophobicity and increasing in hardness measurement were measured on two-type tested specimen surface in order to confirm degree of surface ageing. Furthermore, chemical analysis by ATR-FTIR to diagnose the chemical change of tested specimen surface was conducted to confirm the physical analysis results.

Keywords: ageing of silicone rubber, salt water dip wheel test, silicone rubber polymer insulator

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38 Simulation of High Performance Nanoscale Partially Depleted SOI n-MOSFET Transistors

Authors: Fatima Zohra Rahou, A. Guen Bouazza, B. Bouazza

Abstract:

Invention of transistor is the foundation of electronics industry. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) has been the key for the development of nanoelectronics technology. In the first part of this manuscript, we present a new generation of MOSFET transistors based on SOI (Silicon-On-Insulator) technology. It is a partially depleted Silicon-On-Insulator (PD SOI MOSFET) transistor simulated by using SILVACO software. This work was completed by the presentation of some results concerning the influence of parameters variation (channel length L and gate oxide thickness Tox) on our PDSOI n-MOSFET structure on its drain current and kink effect.

Keywords: SOI technology, PDSOI MOSFET, FDSOI MOSFET, Kink Effect, SILVACO TCAD.

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37 Porcelain Insulator Performance under Different Condition of Installation around Aligarh

Authors: Asfar Ali Khan, Ekram Husain

Abstract:

Modern Society is strongly dependent on a reliable power supply. The availability of cheap and reliable supply of electrical energy is an indicator of societal welfare. Uninterrupted reliable operation of a modern power system depends to a great extent on reliable and satisfactory performance of insulators under different environmental conditions. This paper reports result of natural pollution tests that have been done at sites around city of Aligarh (India). Flashover voltage per insulation distance (FOVUID) of porcelain disc insulator for different pH values, ESDD has been recorded for proper correlation between electrical and chemical parameters. The pH of the contaminants has been suggested to be an effective pollution severity indicator and may be used as a diagnostic parameter for proper maintenance of porcelain insulators.

Keywords: Porcelain insulators, Flashover Voltage, pH value, Conductivity, ESDD.

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36 Exploiting Silicon-on-Insulator Microring Resonator Bistability Behavior for All Optical Set-Reset Flip-Flop

Authors: P. Nadimi, D. D. Caviglia, E. Di Zitti

Abstract:

We propose an all optical flip-flop circuit composedof two Silicon-on-insulator microring resonators coupled to straightwaveguides by exploiting the optical bistability behavior due to thenonlinear Kerr effect. We used the transfer matrix analysis toinvestigate continuous wave propagation through microrings, as wellwe considered the nonlinear switching characteristics of an opticaldevice using a double-coupler silicon ring resonator in presence ofthe Kerr nonlinearity, thus obtaining the bistability behavior of theoutput port, the drop port and also inside the silicon microringresonator. It is shown that the bistability behavior depends on thecontrol of the input wavelength.KeywordsAll optical flip-flops, Kerr effect, microringresonator, optical bistability.

Keywords: All optical flip-flops, Kerr effect, microring resonator, optical bistability.

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35 C-V Characterization and Analysis of Temperature and Channel Thickness Effects on Threshold Voltage of Ultra-thin SOI MOSFET by Self-Consistent Model

Authors: Shuvro Chowdhury, Esmat Farzana, Rizvi Ahmed, A. T. M. Golam Sarwar, M. Ziaur Rahman Khan

Abstract:

The threshold voltage and capacitance voltage characteristics of ultra-thin Silicon-on-Insulator MOSFET are greatly influenced by the thickness and doping concentration of the silicon film. In this work, the capacitance voltage characteristics and threshold voltage of the device have been analyzed with quantum mechanical effects using the Self-Consistent model. Reduction of channel thickness and adding doping impurities cause an increase in the threshold voltage. Moreover, the temperature effects cause a significant amount of threshold voltage shift. The temperature dependence of threshold voltage has also been observed with Self- Consistent approach which are well supported from experimental performance of practical devices.

Keywords: C-V characteristics, Self-Consistent Analysis, Siliconon-Insulator, Ultra-thin film.

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34 Optical and Dielectric Properties of Self-Assembled 0D Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Insulator

Authors: S. Kassou, R. El Mrabet, A. Belaaraj, P. Guionneau, N. Hadi, T. Lamcharfi

Abstract:

The organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite-like [C6H5C2H4NH3]2ZnCl4 (PEA-ZnCl4) was synthesized by saturated solutions method. X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible transmittance, and capacitance meter measurements have been used to characterize the structure, the functional groups, the optical parameters, and the dielectric constants of the material. The material has a layered structure. The optical transmittance (T %) was recorded and applied to deduce the absorption coefficient (α) and optical band gap (Eg). The hybrid shows an insulator character with a direct band gap about 4.46 eV, and presents high dielectric constants up to a frequency of about 105 Hz, which suggests a ferroelectric behavior. The reported optical and dielectric properties can help to understand the fundamental properties of perovskite materials and also to be used for optimizing or designing new devices.

Keywords: Dielectric constants, optical band gap (Eg), optical parameters, Raman spectroscopy, self-assembly organic inorganic hybrid.

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33 Improvement in Silicon on Insulator Devices using Strained Si/SiGe Technology for High Performance in RF Integrated Circuits

Authors: Morteza Fathipour, Samira Omidbakhsh, Kimia Khodayari

Abstract:

RF performance of SOI CMOS device has attracted significant amount of interest recently. In order to improve RF parameters, Strained Si/Relaxed Si0.8Ge0.2 investigated as a replacement for Si technology .Enhancement of carrier mobility associated with strain engineering makes Strained Si a promising candidate for improving RF performance of CMOS technology. From the simulation, the cut-off frequency is estimated to be 224 GHZ, whereas in SOI at similar bias is about 188 GHZ. Therefore, Strained Si exhibits 19% improvement in cut-off frequency over similar Si counterpart. In this paper, Ion/Ioff ratio is studied as one of the key parameters in logic and digital application. Strained Si/SiGe demonstrates better Ion/Ioff characteristic than SOI, in similar channel length of 100 nm.Another important key analog figures of merit such as Early Voltage (VEA) ,transconductance vs drain current (gm /Ids) are studied. They introduce the efficiency of the devices to convert dc power into ac frequency.

Keywords: cut-off frequency, RF application, Silicon oninsulator, Strained Si/SiGe on insulator.

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32 Study of Ageing Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Housing Material for Outdoor Polymer Insulators

Authors: S. Thong-om, W. Payakcho, J. Grasasom, B. Marungsri

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results of salt fog ageing test of silicone rubber housing material for outdoor polymer insulator based on IEC 61109. Four types of HTV silicone rubber sheet with different amount of ATH were tested continuously 1000<=hours in salt fog chamber. By visual observation after tested, slightly surface erosion was observed on tested specimen surface near the energized end. Furthermore, increasing in hardness and reduction in hydrophobicity were measured on tested specimen comparing with new specimen. In addition, chemical analysis by ATRFTIR was conducted in order to elucidate the chemical change of tested specimens comparing with new specimen. Physical and chemical results confirmed the experimental results as well.

Keywords: Accelerated ageing test, HTV silicone rubber, housing material, salt fog test, surface erosion, polymer insulator.

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31 CMOS-Compatible Silicon Nanoplasmonics for On-Chip Integration

Authors: Shiyang Zhu, Guo-Qiang Lo, Dim-Lee Kwong

Abstract:

Although silicon photonic devices provide a significantly larger bandwidth and dissipate a substantially less power than the electronic devices, they suffer from a large size due to the fundamental diffraction limit and the weak optical response of Si. A potential solution is to exploit Si plasmonics, which may not only miniaturize the photonic device far beyond the diffraction limit, but also enhance the optical response in Si due to the electromagnetic field confinement. In this paper, we discuss and summarize the recently developed metal-insulator-Si-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic waveguide as well as various passive and active plasmonic components based on this waveguide, including coupler, bend, power splitter, ring resonator, MZI, modulator, detector, etc. All these plasmonic components are CMOS compatible and could be integrated with electronic and conventional dielectric photonic devices on the same SOI chip. More potential plasmonic devices as well as plasmonic nanocircuits with complex functionalities are also addressed.

Keywords: Silicon nanoplasmonics, Silicon nanophotonics, Onchip integration, CMOS

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30 Ageing Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Polymer Insulator under Salt Water Dip Wheel Test

Authors: J. Grasaesom, S.Thong-om, W. Payakcho, B. Marungsri

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results of silicone rubber polymer insulators for 22 kV systems under salt water dip wheel test based on IEC 62217. Straight shed silicone rubber polymer insulators having leakage distance 685 mm were tested continuously 30,000 cycles. One test cycle includes 4 positions, energized, de-energized, salt water dip and deenergized, respectively. For one test cycle, each test specimen remains stationary for about 40 second in each position and takes 8 second for rotate to next position. By visual observation, sever surface erosion was observed on the trunk near the energized end of tested specimen. Puncture was observed on the upper shed near the energized end. In addition, decreasing in hydrophobicity and increasing in hardness were measured on tested specimen comparing with new specimen. Furthermore, chemical analysis by ATR-FTIR was conducted in order to elucidate the chemical change of tested specimens comparing with new specimen.

Keywords: ageing of silicone rubber, salt water dip wheeltest, silicone rubber polymer insulator

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29 Study of Tower Grounding Resistance Effected Back Flashover to 500 kV Transmission Line in Thailand by using ATP/EMTP

Authors: B. Marungsri, S. Boonpoke, A. Rawangpai, A. Oonsivilai, C. Kritayakornupong

Abstract:

This study describes analysis of tower grounding resistance effected the back flashover voltage across insulator string in a transmission system. This paper studies the 500 kV transmission lines from Mae Moh, Lampang to Nong Chok, Bangkok, Thailand, which is double circuit in the same steel tower with two overhead ground wires. The factor of this study includes magnitude of lightning stroke, and front time of lightning stroke. Steel tower uses multistory tower model. The assumption of studies based on the return stroke current ranged 1-200 kA, front time of lightning stroke between 1 μs to 3 μs. The simulations study the effect of varying tower grounding resistance that affect the lightning current. Simulation results are analyzed lightning over voltage that causes back flashover at insulator strings. This study helps to know causes of problems of back flashover the transmission line system, and also be as a guideline solving the problem for 500 kV transmission line systems, as well.

Keywords: Tower grounding resistance, back flashover, multistory tower model, lightning stroke current.

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28 Seasonal Based Pollution Performance of 11kV and 33kV Silicon Composite Insulators

Authors: N. Sumathi, R. Srinivasa Rao

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results of 11 kV and 33 kV silicon composite insulators under artificial salt and urea polluted conditions. The tests were carried out under different seasons like summer, winter, and monsoon. The artificial pollution is prepared by properly dissolving the salt and urea in the water. The prepared salt and urea pollutions are sprayed on the insulators and dried up for sufficiently large time. The process is continued until a uniform layer is formed on the surface of insulator. For each insulator rating, four samples were tested. The maximum leakage current and breakdown voltage were measured. From experimental data, performance of test specimen is evaluated by comparing breakdown voltage and leakage current during different seasons when exposed to salt and urea polluted conditions. From these results the performance of the insulators can be predicted when they are installed in industrial, agricultural, and coastal areas. The experimental tests were carried out in the High Voltage laboratory using two stage cascade transformer having the rating of 1000 kVA, 500 kV.

Keywords: Silicon composite insulators, Urea pollution, Leakage current, Breakdown voltage, salt pollution, artificial pollution.

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27 Design of a Hand-Held, Clamp-on, Leakage Current Sensor for High Voltage Direct Current Insulators

Authors: Morné Roman, Robert van Zyl, Nishanth Parus, Nishal Mahatho

Abstract:

Leakage current monitoring for high voltage transmission line insulators is of interest as a performance indicator. Presently, to the best of our knowledge, there is no commercially available, clamp-on type, non-intrusive device for measuring leakage current on energised high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line insulators. The South African power utility, Eskom, is investigating the development of such a hand-held sensor for two important applications; first, for continuous real-time condition monitoring of HVDC line insulators and, second, for use by live line workers to determine if it is safe to work on energised insulators. In this paper, a DC leakage current sensor based on magnetic field sensing techniques is developed. The magnetic field sensor used in the prototype can also detect alternating current up to 5 MHz. The DC leakage current prototype detects the magnetic field associated with the current flowing on the surface of the insulator. Preliminary HVDC leakage current measurements are performed on glass insulators. The results show that the prototype can accurately measure leakage current in the specified current range of 1-200 mA. The influence of external fields from the HVDC line itself on the leakage current measurements is mitigated through a differential magnetometer sensing technique. Thus, the developed sensor can perform measurements on in-service HVDC insulators. The research contributes to the body of knowledge by providing a sensor to measure leakage current on energised HVDC insulators non-intrusively. This sensor can also be used by live line workers to inform them whether or not it is safe to perform maintenance on energized insulators.

Keywords: Direct current, insulator, leakage current, live line, magnetic field, sensor, transmission lines.

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26 Improved Plasmonic Demultiplexer Based on Tapered and Rectangular Slot MIM Waveguide

Authors: Aso Rahimzadegan, Seyyed Poorya Hosseini, Kamran Qaderi

Abstract:

In this paper, we have proposed two novel plasmonic demultiplexing structures based on metal-insulator-metal surfaces which, beside their compact size, have a very good transmission spectrum. The impact of the key internal parameters on the transmission spectrum is numerically analyzed by using the twodimensional (2D) finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The proposed structures could be used to develop ultra-compact photonic wavelength demultiplexing devices for large-scale photonic integration.

Keywords: Photonic integrated devices, Plasmonics, Metalinsulator- metal (MIM) waveguide, Demultiplexers.

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25 Thermal Carpet Cloaking Achieved by Layered Metamaterial

Authors: Bang-Shiuh Chen, Lien-Wen Chen

Abstract:

We have devised a thermal carpet cloak theoretically and implemented in silicon using layered metamaterial. The layered metamaterial is composed of single crystalline silicon and its phononic crystal. The design is based on a coordinate transformation. We demonstrate the result with numerical simulation. Great cloaking performance is achieved as a thermal insulator is well hidden under the thermal carpet cloak. We also show that the thermal carpet cloak can even the temperature on irregular surface. Using thermal carpet cloak to manipulate the heat conduction is effective because of its low complexity.

Keywords: Metamaterial, heat conduction, cloaking, phononic crystal.

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24 Theoretical Calculation of Electrical and Optical Properties of BaZrO3

Authors: Leyla Safaie Kouchaksaraie

Abstract:

In this project electrical and optical properties of BaZrO3 have been accomplished through the full-potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) by applying Wein2k software. In this study band structure, density of state, gap energy, refractive index and optical conduction have been studied. The results of calculations show that BaZrO3 is an insulator with an indirect gap in which 3.2 ev and studied refractive index equal 2.07. These results are in accordance with the ones obtained in experimental researches.

Keywords: Density Functional Theory (DFT), Full PotentialLinearized Augmented Plane Wave (Fp-LAPW), GeneralizedGradient Approximation (GGA), Linearized Augmented Plane Wave(LAPW), Local Density Approximation (LDA)

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23 Energy Saving of the Paint with Mineral Insulators: Simulation and Study on Different Climates

Authors: A. A. Azemati, H. Hosseini, B. Shirkavand Hadavand

Abstract:

By using an adequate thermal barrier coating in buildings the energy saving will be happened. In this study, a range of wall paints with different absorption coefficient in different climates has been investigated. In order to study these effects, heating and cooling loads of a common building with different ordinary paints and paint with mineral coating have been calculated. The effect of building paint in different climatic condition was studied and comparison was done between ordinary paints and paint with mineral insulators in temperate climate to obtain optimized energy consumption. The results have been shown that coatings with inorganic micro particles as insulation reduce the energy consumption of buildings around 14%.

Keywords: Insulator, coating, climate, energy consumption.

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