Search results for: Direct current
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3220

Search results for: Direct current

3220 A ZVT-ZCT-PWM DC-DC Boost Converter with Direct Power Transfer

Authors: Naim Suleyman Ting, Yakup Sahin, Ismail Aksoy

Abstract:

This paper presents a zero voltage transition-zero current transition (ZVT-ZCT)-PWM DC-DC boost converter with direct power transfer. In this converter, the main switch turns on with ZVT and turns off with ZCT. The auxiliary switch turns on and off with zero current switching (ZCS). The main diode turns on with ZVS and turns off with ZCS. Besides, the additional current or voltage stress does not occur on the main device. The converter has features as simple structure, fast dynamic response and easy control. Also, the proposed converter has direct power transfer feature as well as excellent soft switching techniques. In this study, the operating principle of the converter is presented and its operation is verified for 1 kW and 100 kHz model.

Keywords: Direct power transfer, boost converter, zero-voltage transition, zero-current transition.

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3219 Analysis of Direct Current Motor in LabVIEW

Authors: E. Ramprasath, P. Manojkumar, P. Veena

Abstract:

DC motors have been widely used in the past centuries which are proudly known as the workhorse of industrial systems until the invention of the AC induction motors which makes a huge revolution in industries. Since then, the use of DC machines has been decreased due to enormous factors such as reliability, robustness and complexity but it lost its fame due to the losses. In this paper a new methodology is proposed to construct a DC motor through the simulation in LabVIEW to get an idea about its real time performances, if a change in parameter might have bigger improvement in losses and reliability.

Keywords: Direct Current motor, LabVIEW software, modelling and analysis, overall characteristics of Direct Current motor.

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3218 Corrosion Evaluation of Zinc Coating Prepared by Two Types of Electric Currents

Authors: M. Sajjadnejad, H. Karimi Abadeh

Abstract:

In this research, zinc coatings were fabricated by electroplating process in a sulfate solution under direct and pulse current conditions. In direct and pulse current conditions, effect of maximum current was investigated on the coating properties. Also a comparison was made between the obtained coatings under direct and pulse current. Morphology of the coatings was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Corrosion behavior of the coatings was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization test. In pulse current conditions, the effect of pulse frequency and duty cycle was also studied. The effect of these conditions and parameters were also investigated on morphology and corrosion behavior. All of DC plated coatings are showing a distinct passivation area in -1 to -0.4 V range. Pulsed current coatings possessed a higher corrosion resistance. The results showed that current density is the most important factor regarding the fabrication process. Furthermore, a rise in duty cycle deteriorated corrosion resistance of coatings. Pulsed plated coatings performed almost 10 times better than DC plated coatings.

Keywords: Corrosion, duty cycle, pulsed current, zinc.

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3217 Performance of an Electrocoagulation Process in Treating Direct Dye: Batch and Continuous Upflow Processes

Authors: C. Phalakornkule, S. Polgumhang, W. Tongdaung

Abstract:

This study presents an investigation of electrochemical variables and an application of the optimal parameters in operating a continuous upflow electrocoagulation reactor in removing dye. Direct red 23, which is azo-based, was used as a representative of direct dyes. First, a batch mode was employed to optimize the design parameters: electrode type, electrode distance, current density and electrocoagulation time. The optimal parameters were found to be iron anode, distance between electrodes of 8 mm and current density of 30 A·m-2 with contact time of 5 min. The performance of the continuous upflow reactor with these parameters was satisfactory, with >95% color removal and energy consumption in the order of 0.6-0.7 kWh·m-3.

Keywords: Decolorization, Direct Dye, Electrocoagulation, Textile Wastewater, Upflow Reactor.

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3216 Iron Recovery from Red Mud as Zero-Valent Iron Metal Powder Using Direct Electrochemical Reduction Method

Authors: Franky Michael Hamonangan Siagian, Affan Maulana, Himawan Tri Bayu Murti Petrus, Panut Mulyono, Widi Astuti

Abstract:

In this study, the feasibility of the direct electrowinning method was used to produce zero-valent iron from red mud. The red mud sample came from the Tayan mine, Indonesia, which contains high hematite (Fe2O3). Before electrolysis, the samples were characterized by various analytical techniques (ICP-AES, SEM, XRD) to determine their chemical composition and mineralogy. The direct electrowinning method of red mud suspended in NaOH was introduced at low temperatures ranging from 30-110 °C. Current density and temperature variations were carried out to determine the optimum operation of the direct electrowinning process. Cathode deposits and residues in electrochemical cells were analyzed using XRD, XRF, and SEM to determine the chemical composition and current recovery. The low-temperature electrolysis current efficiency on Redmud can reach 11.8% recovery at a current density of 796 A/m². The moderate performance of the process was investigated with red mud, which was attributed to the troublesome adsorption of red mud particles on the cathode, making the reduction far less efficient than that with hematite.

Keywords: Alumina, electrochemical reduction, iron production, red mud.

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3215 Design of a Hand-Held, Clamp-on, Leakage Current Sensor for High Voltage Direct Current Insulators

Authors: Morné Roman, Robert van Zyl, Nishanth Parus, Nishal Mahatho

Abstract:

Leakage current monitoring for high voltage transmission line insulators is of interest as a performance indicator. Presently, to the best of our knowledge, there is no commercially available, clamp-on type, non-intrusive device for measuring leakage current on energised high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line insulators. The South African power utility, Eskom, is investigating the development of such a hand-held sensor for two important applications; first, for continuous real-time condition monitoring of HVDC line insulators and, second, for use by live line workers to determine if it is safe to work on energised insulators. In this paper, a DC leakage current sensor based on magnetic field sensing techniques is developed. The magnetic field sensor used in the prototype can also detect alternating current up to 5 MHz. The DC leakage current prototype detects the magnetic field associated with the current flowing on the surface of the insulator. Preliminary HVDC leakage current measurements are performed on glass insulators. The results show that the prototype can accurately measure leakage current in the specified current range of 1-200 mA. The influence of external fields from the HVDC line itself on the leakage current measurements is mitigated through a differential magnetometer sensing technique. Thus, the developed sensor can perform measurements on in-service HVDC insulators. The research contributes to the body of knowledge by providing a sensor to measure leakage current on energised HVDC insulators non-intrusively. This sensor can also be used by live line workers to inform them whether or not it is safe to perform maintenance on energized insulators.

Keywords: Direct current, insulator, leakage current, live line, magnetic field, sensor, transmission lines.

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3214 The Solution of the Direct Problem of Electrical Prospecting with Direct Current under Conditions of Ground Surface Relief

Authors: Balgaisha Mukanova, Tolkyn Mirgalikyzy

Abstract:

Theory of interpretation of electromagnetic fields studied in the electrical prospecting with direct current is mainly developed for the case of a horizontal surface observation. However in practice we often have to work in difficult terrain surface. Conducting interpretation without the influence of topography can cause non-existent anomalies on sections. This raises the problem of studying the impact of different shapes of ground surface relief on the results of electrical prospecting's research. This research examines the numerical solutions of the direct problem of electrical prospecting for two-dimensional and three-dimensional media, taking into account the terrain. The problem is solved using the method of integral equations. The density of secondary currents on the relief surface is obtained.

Keywords: Ground surface relief, method of integral equations, numerical method.

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3213 1 kW Power Factor Correction Soft Switching Boost Converter with an Active Snubber Cell

Authors: Yakup Sahin, Naim Suleyman Ting, Ismail Aksoy

Abstract:

A 1 kW power factor correction boost converter with an active snubber cell is presented in this paper. In the converter, the main switch turns on under zero voltage transition (ZVT) and turns off under zero current transition (ZCT) without any additional voltage or current stress. The auxiliary switch turns on and off under zero current switching (ZCS). Besides, the main diode turns on under ZVS and turns off under ZCS. The output current and voltage are controlled by the PFC converter in wide line and load range. The simulation results of converter are obtained for 1 kW and 100 kHz. One of the most important feature of the given converter is that it has direct power transfer as well as excellent soft switching techniques. Also, the converter has 0.99 power factor with the sinusoidal input current shape.

Keywords: Power factor correction, direct power transfer, zero-voltage transition, zero-current transition, soft switching.

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3212 Practical Simulation Model of Floating-Gate MOS Transistor in Sub 100nm Technologies

Authors: Zina Saheb, Ezz El-Masry

Abstract:

As the Silicon oxide scaled down in MOSFET technology to few nanometers, gate Direct Tunneling (DT) in Floating gate (FGMOSFET) devices has become a major concern for analog designers. FGMOSFET has been used in many low-voltage and low-power applications, however, there is no accurate model that account for DT gate leakage in nano-scale. This paper studied and analyzed different simulation models for FGMOSFET using TSMC 90-nm technology. The simulation results for FGMOSFET cascade current mirror shows the impact of DT on circuit performance in terms of current and voltage without the need for fabrication. This works shows the significance of using an accurate model for FGMOSFET in nan-scale technologies.

Keywords: CMOS transistor, direct-tunneling current, floatinggate, gate-leakage current, simulation model.

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3211 The Light-Effect in Cylindrical Quantum Wire with an Infinite Potential for the Case of Electrons: Optical Phonon Scattering

Authors: Hoang Van Ngoc, Nguyen Vu Nhan, Nguyen Quang Bau

Abstract:

The light-effect in cylindrical quantum wire with an infinite potential for the case of electrons, optical phonon scattering, is studied based on the quantum kinetic equation. The density of the direct current in a cylindrical quantum wire by a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, a DC electric field, and an intense laser field is calculated. Analytic expressions for the density of the direct current are studied as a function of the frequency of the laser radiation field, the frequency of the linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, the temperature of system, and the size of quantum wire. The density of the direct current in cylindrical quantum wire with an infinite potential for the case of electrons – optical phonon scattering is nonlinearly dependent on the frequency of the linearly polarized electromagnetic wave. The analytic expressions are numerically evaluated and plotted for a specific quantum wire, GaAs/GaAsAl.

Keywords: The light-effect, cylindrical quantum wire with an infinite potential, the density of the direct current, electrons - optical phonon scattering.

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3210 Supergrid Modeling and Operation and Control of Multi Terminal DC Grids for the Deployment of a Meshed HVDC Grid in South Asia

Authors: Farhan Beg, Raymond Moberly

Abstract:

The Indian subcontinent is facing a massive challenge with regards to energy security in its member countries; to provide reliable electricity to facilitate development across various sectors of the economy and consequently achieve the developmental targets. The instability of the current precarious situation is observable in the frequent system failures and blackouts.

The deployment of interconnected electricity ‘Supergrid’ designed to carry huge quanta of power across the Indian sub-continent is proposed in this paper. Not only enabling energy security in the subcontinent it will also provide a platform for Renewable Energy Sources (RES) integration. This paper assesses the need and conditions for a Supergrid deployment and consequently proposes a meshed topology based on Voltage Source High Voltage Direct Current (VSC- HVDC) converters for the Supergrid modeling. Various control schemes for the control of voltage and power are utilized for the regulation of the network parameters. A 3 terminal Multi Terminal Direct Current (MTDC) network is used for the simulations.

Keywords: Super grid, Wind and Solar energy, High Voltage Direct Current, Electricity management, Load Flow Analysis.

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3209 The Effect of Electrical Stimulation Intensity on VEGF Expression and Biomechanical Properties during Wound

Authors: M R Asadi, G Torkaman, M Hedayati

Abstract:

We evaluated the effect of sensory (direct current (DC), 600μA) and motor (monophasic current, pulse duration 300μs, 100 Hz, 2.5-3mA) intensities of cathodal electrical stimulation (ES) current to release VEGF and biomechanical properties of wound. 54 male Sprague-dawley rats were randomly assigned into one control and two experimental groups. A full thickness skin incision was made on animals- dorsal region. The experimental groups received ES for 1h/day and every other day. VEGF expression was measured in skin on the 7th day after surgical incision and tensile strength was measured on 21st day. On the 7th day, the values of skin VEGF in the sensory group were significantly greater than those of the other groups (p < 0.05). Sensory and Motor intensity stimulation, can not improve the biomechanical properties of the repaired wounds. It seems the mechanical environment induced by sensory and motor intensity of electrical stimulation, could not simulate the role of normal daily stress and strain to maturation of collagen fibers and their cross links. Further work is needed to determine the relationship between VEGF expression after ES and its effect on tensile strength of healed wound.

Keywords: Biomechanical properties Direct current, Monophasic current, Skin, VEGF

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3208 Fault Detection of Broken Rotor Bars Using Stator Current Spectrum for the Direct Torque Control Induction Motor

Authors: Ridha Kechida, Arezki Menacer, Abdelhamid Benakcha

Abstract:

The numerous qualities of squirrel cage induction machines enhance their use in industry. However, various faults can occur, such as stator short-circuits and rotor failures. In this paper, we use a technique based on the spectral analysis of stator current in order to detect the fault in the machine: broken rotor bars. Thus, the number effect of the breaks has been highlighted. The effect is highlighted by considering the machine controlled by the Direct Torque Control (DTC). The key to fault detection is the development of a simplified dynamic model of a squirrel cage induction motor taking account the broken bars fault and the stator current spectrum analysis (FFT).

Keywords: Rotor faults, diagnosis, induction motor, DTC, statorcurrent spectrum.

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3207 Simulation of Surge Protection for a Direct Current Circuit

Authors: Pedro Luis Ferrer Penalver, Edmundo da Silva Braga

Abstract:

In this paper, the performance of a simple surge protection for a direct current circuit was simulated. The protection circuit was developed from modified electric macro models of a gas discharge tube and a transient voltage suppressor diode. Moreover, a combination wave generator circuit was used as source of energy surges. The simulations showed that the circuit presented ensures immunity corresponding with test level IV of the IEC 61000-4-5:2014 international standard. The developed circuit can be modified to meet the requirements of any other equipment to be protected. Similarly, the parameters of the combination wave generator can be changed to provide different surge amplitudes.

Keywords: Combination wave generator, IEC 61000-4-5, Pspice simulation, surge protection.

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3206 A Strategy of Direct Power Control for PWM Rectifier Reducing Ripple in Instantaneous Power

Authors: T. Mohammed Chikouche, K. Hartani

Abstract:

In order to solve the instantaneous power ripple and achieve better performance of direct power control (DPC) for a three-phase PWM rectifier, a control method is proposed in this paper. This control method is applied to overcome the instantaneous power ripple, to eliminate line current harmonics and therefore reduce the total harmonic distortion and to improve the power factor. A switching table is based on the analysis on the change of instantaneous active and reactive power, to select the optimum switching state of the three-phase PWM rectifier. The simulation result shows feasibility of this control method.

Keywords: Power quality, direct power control, power ripple, switching table, unity power factor.

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3205 Particle Size Effect on Shear Strength of Granular Materials in Direct Shear Test

Authors: R. Alias, A. Kasa, M. R. Taha

Abstract:

The effect of particle size on shear strength of granular materials are investigated using direct shear tests. Small direct shear test (60 mm by 60 mm by 24 mm deep) were conducted for particles passing the sieves with opening size of 2.36 mm. Meanwhile, particles passing the standard 20 mm sieves were tested using large direct shear test (300 mm by 300 mm by 200 mm deep). The large direct shear tests and the small direct shear tests carried out using the same shearing rate of 0.09 mm/min and similar normal stresses of 100, 200 and 300 kPa. The results show that the peak and residual shear strength increases as particle size increases.

Keywords: Particle size, shear strength, granular material, direct shear test.

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3204 The Effect of Insurance on Foreign Direct Investments Inflow to Nigeria

Authors: Chimaobi V. Okolo, Afamefuna J. Ani, Ebere U. Okolo

Abstract:

This paper seeks to assess the implications of insurance to foreign direct investment inflow in Nigeria. Multiple linear regression technique and correlation matrix test were employed to measure the extent to which foreign direct investment was influenced. The result showed that insurance premium (IP), asset size of insurance industry (AS), and total investment of the industry (TI) impacted significantly and positively on foreign direct investment inflow in Nigeria. There should be effective risk transfer mechanism and financial intermediation, which gives the investor confidence in the risk management strength of the host country.

Keywords: Foreign direct investment, insurance.

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3203 Fast and Accurate Reservoir Modeling: Genetic Algorithm versus DIRECT Method

Authors: Mohsen Ebrahimi, Milad M. Rabieh

Abstract:

In this paper, two very different optimization algorithms, Genetic and DIRECT algorithms, are used to history match a bottomhole pressure response for a reservoir with wellbore storage and skin with the best possible analytical model. No initial guesses are available for reservoir parameters. The results show that the matching process is much faster and more accurate for DIRECT method in comparison with Genetic algorithm. It is furthermore concluded that the DIRECT algorithm does not need any initial guesses, whereas Genetic algorithm needs to be tuned according to initial guesses.

Keywords: DIRECT algorithm, Genetic algorithm, Analytical modeling, History match

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3202 Strip Decomposition Parallelization of Fast Direct Poisson Solver on a 3D Cartesian Staggered Grid

Authors: Minh Vuong Pham, Frédéric Plourde, Son Doan Kim

Abstract:

A strip domain decomposition parallel algorithm for fast direct Poisson solver is presented on a 3D Cartesian staggered grid. The parallel algorithm follows the principles of sequential algorithm for fast direct Poisson solver. Both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions are addressed. Several test cases are likewise addressed in order to shed light on accuracy and efficiency in the strip domain parallelization algorithm. Actually the current implementation shows a very high efficiency when dealing with a large grid mesh up to 3.6 * 109 under massive parallel approach, which explicitly demonstrates that the proposed algorithm is ready for massive parallel computing.

Keywords: Strip-decomposition, parallelization, fast directpoisson solver.

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3201 Current Distribution and Cathode Flooding Prediction in a PEM Fuel Cell

Authors: A. Jamekhorshid, G. Karimi, I. Noshadi, A. Jahangiri

Abstract:

Non-uniform current distribution in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells results in local over-heating, accelerated ageing, and lower power output than expected. This issue is very critical when fuel cell experiences water flooding. In this work, the performance of a PEM fuel cell is investigated under cathode flooding conditions. Two-dimensional partially flooded GDL models based on the conservation laws and electrochemical relations are proposed to study local current density distributions along flow fields over a wide range of cell operating conditions. The model results show a direct association between cathode inlet humidity increases and that of average current density but the system becomes more sensitive to flooding. The anode inlet relative humidity shows a similar effect. Operating the cell at higher temperatures would lead to higher average current densities and the chance of system being flooded is reduced. In addition, higher cathode stoichiometries prevent system flooding but the average current density remains almost constant. The higher anode stoichiometry leads to higher average current density and higher sensitivity to cathode flooding.

Keywords: Current distribution, Flooding, Hydrogen energysystem, PEM fuel cell.

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3200 Phase Transformation Temperatures for Shape Memory Alloy Wire

Authors: Tan Wee Choon, Abdul Saad Salleh, Saifulnizan Jamian, Mohd. Imran Ghazali

Abstract:

Phase transformation temperature is one of the most important parameters for the shape memory alloys (SMAs). The most popular method to determine these phase transformation temperatures is the Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), but due to the limitation of the DSC testing itself, it made it difficult for the finished product which is not in the powder form. A novel method which uses the Universal Testing Machine has been conducted to determine the phase transformation temperatures. The Flexinol wire was applied with force and maintained throughout the experiment and at the same time it was heated up slowly until a temperature of approximately 1000C with direct current. The direct current was then slowly decreased to cool down the temperature of the Flexinol wire. All the phase transformation temperatures for Flexinol wire were obtained. The austenite start at 52.540C and austenite finish at 60.900C, while martensite start at 44.780C and martensite finish at 32.840C.

Keywords: Phase transformation temperature, Robotic, Shapememory alloy, Universal Testing Machine.

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3199 A Schur Method for Solving Projected Continuous-Time Sylvester Equations

Authors: Yiqin Lin, Liang Bao, Qinghua Wu, Liping Zhou

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a direct method based on the real Schur factorization for solving the projected Sylvester equation with relatively small size. The algebraic formula of the solution of the projected continuous-time Sylvester equation is presented. The computational cost of the direct method is estimated. Numerical experiments show that this direct method has high accuracy.

Keywords: Projected Sylvester equation, Schur factorization, Spectral projection, Direct method.

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3198 Comparative Analysis of DTC Based Switched Reluctance Motor Drive Using Torque Equation and FEA Models

Authors: P. Srinivas, P. V. N. Prasad

Abstract:

Since torque ripple is the main cause of noise and vibrations, the performance of Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) can be improved by minimizing its torque ripple using a novel control technique called Direct Torque Control (DTC). In DTC technique, torque is controlled directly through control of magnitude of the flux and change in speed of the stator flux vector. The flux and torque are maintained within set hysteresis bands.

The DTC of SRM is analyzed by two methods. In one method, the actual torque is computed by conducting Finite Element Analysis (FEA) on the design specifications of the motor. In the other method, the torque is computed by Simplified Torque Equation. The variation of peak current, average current, torque ripple and speed settling time with Simplified Torque Equation model is compared with FEA based model.

Keywords: Direct Toque Control, Simplified Torque Equation, Finite Element Analysis, Torque Ripple.

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3197 Design and Analysis of a Piezoelectric-Based AC Current Measuring Sensor

Authors: Easa Ali Abbasi, Akbar Allahverdizadeh, Reza Jahangiri, Behnam Dadashzadeh

Abstract:

Electrical current measurement is a suitable method for the performance determination of electrical devices. There are two contact and noncontact methods in this measuring process. Contact method has some disadvantages like having direct connection with wire which may endamage the system. Thus, in this paper, a bimorph piezoelectric cantilever beam which has a permanent magnet on its free end is used to measure electrical current in a noncontact way. In mathematical modeling, based on Galerkin method, the governing equation of the cantilever beam is solved, and the equation presenting the relation between applied force and beam’s output voltage is presented. Magnetic force resulting from current carrying wire is considered as the external excitation force of the system. The results are compared with other references in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the mathematical model. Finally, the effects of geometric parameters on the output voltage and natural frequency are presented.

Keywords: Cantilever beam, electrical current measurement, forced excitation, piezoelectric.

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3196 Optimization of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Equivalent Circuit Parameters by Direct Search Method

Authors: Mamidi Ramakrishna Rao

Abstract:

Doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) is currently the choice for many wind turbines. These generators, when connected to the grid through a converter, is subjected to varied power system conditions like voltage variation, frequency variation, short circuit fault conditions, etc. Further, many countries like Canada, Germany, UK, Scotland, etc. have distinct grid codes relating to wind turbines. Accordingly, following the network faults, wind turbines have to supply a definite reactive current. To satisfy the requirements including reactive current capability, an optimum electrical design becomes a mandate for DFIG to function. This paper intends to optimize the equivalent circuit parameters of an electrical design for satisfactory DFIG performance. Direct search method has been used for optimization of the parameters. The variables selected include electromagnetic core dimensions (diameters and stack length), slot dimensions, radial air gap between stator and rotor and winding copper cross section area. Optimization for 2 MW DFIG has been executed separately for three objective functions - maximum reactive power capability (Case I), maximum efficiency (Case II) and minimum weight (Case III). In the optimization analysis program, voltage variations (10%), power factor- leading and lagging (0.95), speeds for corresponding to slips (-0.3 to +0.3) have been considered. The optimum designs obtained for objective functions were compared. It can be concluded that direct search method of optimization helps in determining an optimum electrical design for each objective function like efficiency or reactive power capability or weight minimization.

Keywords: Direct search, DFIG, equivalent circuit parameters, optimization.

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3195 New Robust Approach of Direct Field Oriented Control of Induction Motor

Authors: T. Benmiloud, A. Omari

Abstract:

This paper presents a new technique of compensation of the effect of variation parameters in the direct field oriented control of induction motor. The proposed method uses an adaptive tuning of the value of synchronous speed to obtain the robustness for the field oriented control. We show that this adaptive tuning allows having robustness for direct field oriented control to changes in rotor resistance, load torque and rotational speed. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is verified by numerical simulations. The numerical validation results of the proposed scheme have presented good performances compared to the usual direct-field oriented control.

Keywords: Induction motor, direct field-oriented control, compensation of variation parameters, fuzzy logic controller.

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3194 The Effect of Entrepreneurship on Foreign Direct Investment

Authors: Wissam B. Fahed

Abstract:

Entrepreneurship has become an important and extensively researched concept in business studies. Research on foreign direct investment (FDI) has become widespread due to the growth of FDI and its importance in globalization. Most entrepreneurship studies examined the importance and influence of entrepreneurial orientation in a micro-level context. On the other hand, studies and research concerning FDI used statistical techniques to analyze the effect, determinants, and motives of FDI on a macroeconomic level, ignoring empirical studies on other noneconomic determinants. In order to bridge the gap between the theory and empirical evidence on FDI and the theory and research on entrepreneurship, this study examines the impact of entrepreneurship on inward foreign direct investment. The relationship between entrepreneurship and foreign direct investment is investigated through regression analysis of pooled time-series and cross-sectional data. The results suggest that entrepreneurship has a significant effect on FDI.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, foreign direct investment, globalization, economic freedom.

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3193 Diameter of Zero Divisor Graphs of Finite Direct Product of Lattices
3192 Improving the Voltage Level in High Voltage Direct Current Systems by Using Modular Multilevel Converter

Authors: G. Kishor Babu, B. Madhu Kiran

Abstract:

This paper presented an intend scheme of Modular-Multilevel-Converter (MMC) levels for move towering the practical conciliation flanked by the precision and divisional competence. The whole process is standard by a Thevenin-equivalent 133-level MMC model. Firstly the computation scheme of the fundamental limit imitation time step is offered to faithfully represent each voltage level of waveforms. Secondly the earlier industrial Improved Analytic Hierarchy Process (IAHP) is adopted to integrate the relative errors of all the input electrical factors interested in one complete virtual fault on each converter level. Thirdly the stable AC and DC ephemeral condition in virtual faults effects of all the forms stabilize and curve integral stand on the standard form. Finally the optimal MMC level will be obtained by the drown curves and it will give individual weights allowing for the precision and efficiency. And the competence and potency of the scheme are validated by model on MATLAB Simulink.

Keywords: Modular multilevel converter, improved analytic hierarchy process, ac and dc transient, high voltage direct current, voltage sourced converter.

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3191 Compensation–Based Current Decomposition

Authors: Mihaela Popescu, Alexandru Bitoleanu, Mircea Dobriceanu

Abstract:

This paper deals with the current space-vector decomposition in three-phase, three-wire systems on the basis of some case studies. We propose four components of the current spacevector in terms of DC and AC components of the instantaneous active and reactive powers. The term of supplementary useless current vector is also pointed out. The analysis shows that the current decomposition which respects the definition of the instantaneous apparent power vector is useful for compensation reasons only if the supply voltages are sinusoidal. A modified definition of the components of the current is proposed for the operation under nonsinusoidal voltage conditions.

Keywords: Active current, Active filtering, p–q theory, Reactive current.

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