Search results for: surface erosion
2144 The Automated Soil Erosion Monitoring System (ASEMS)
Authors: George N. Zaimes, Valasia Iakovoglou, Paschalis Koutalakis, Konstantinos Ioannou, Ioannis Kosmadakis, Panagiotis Tsardaklis, Theodoros Laopoulos
Abstract:The advancements in technology allow the development of a new system that can continuously measure surface soil erosion. Continuous soil erosion measurements are required in order to comprehend the erosional processes and propose effective and efficient conservation measures to mitigate surface erosion. Mitigating soil erosion, especially in Mediterranean countries such as Greece, is essential in order to maintain environmental and agricultural sustainability. In this paper, we present the Automated Soil Erosion Monitoring System (ASEMS) that measures surface soil erosion along with other factors that impact erosional process. Specifically, this system measures ground level changes (surface soil erosion), rainfall, air temperature, soil temperature, and soil moisture. Another important innovation is that the data will be collected by remote communication. In addition, stakeholder’s awareness is a key factor to help reduce any environmental problem. The different dissemination activities that were utilized are described. The overall outcomes were the development of a new innovative system that can measure erosion very accurately. These data from the system help study the process of erosion and find the best possible methods to reduce erosion. The dissemination activities enhance the stakeholders and public's awareness on surface soil erosion problems and will lead to the adoption of more effective soil erosion conservation practices in Greece.
Keywords: Soil management, climate change, new technologies, conservation practices.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2269
2143 Investigation of Some Methodologies in Providing Erosion Maps of Surface, Rill and Gully and Erosion Features
Authors: A. Mohammadi Torkashvand, N. Haghighat
Abstract:Some methodologies were compared in providing erosion maps of surface, rill and gully and erosion features, in research which took place in the Varamin sub-basin, north-east Tehran, Iran. A photomorphic unit map was produced from processed satellite images, and four other maps were prepared by the integration of different data layers, including slope, plant cover, geology, land use, rocks erodibility and land units. Comparison of ground truth maps of erosion types and working unit maps indicated that the integration of land use, land units and rocks erodibility layers with satellite image photomorphic units maps provide the best methods in producing erosion types maps.
Keywords: Erosion Features, Geographic Information System, Remote Sensing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1642
2142 Simulation Studies of Solid-Particle and Liquid-Drop Erosion of NiAl Alloy
Authors: Rong Liu, Kuiying Chen, Ju Chen, Jingrong Zhao, Ming Liang
This article presents modeling studies of NiAl alloy under solid-particle erosion and liquid-drop erosion. In the solid-particle erosion simulation, attention is paid to the oxide scale thickness variation on the alloy in high-temperature erosion environments. The erosion damage is assumed to be deformation wear and cutting wear mechanisms, incorporating the influence of the oxide scale on the eroded surface; thus the instantaneous oxide thickness is the result of synergetic effect of erosion and oxidation. For liquid-drop erosion, special interest is in investigating the effects of drop velocity and drop size on the damage of the target surface. The models of impact stress wave, mean depth of penetration, and maximum depth of erosion rate (Max DER) are employed to develop various maps for NiAl alloy, including target thickness vs. drop size (diameter), rate of mean depth of penetration (MDRP) vs. drop impact velocity, and damage threshold velocity (DTV) vs. drop size.
Keywords: Liquid-drop erosion, NiAl alloy, oxide scale thickness, solid-particle erosion.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2526
2141 Measuring the Amount of Eroded Soil and Surface Runoff Water in the Field
Authors: Abdulfatah Faraj Aboufayed
Water erosion is the most important problems of the soil in the Jabel Nefusa area located in northwest of Libya; therefore, erosion station had been established in the Faculty of Veterinary and dryfarming research Station, University of the Al-japel Al-gharbi in Zentan. The length of the station is 72.6 feet, 6 feet width and the percentage of its slope is 3%. The station were established to measure the amount of soil eroded and amount of surface water produced during the seasons 95/96 and 96/97 from each rain storms. The monitoring shows that there was a difference between the two seasons in the number of rainstorms which made differences in the amount of surface runoff water and the amount of soil eroded between the two seasons. Although the slope is low (3%), the soil texture is sandy and the land ploughed twice during each season surface runoff and soil eroded were occurred. The average amount of eroded soil was 3792 grams (gr) per season and the average amount of surface runoff water was 410 liter (L) per season. The amount of surface runoff water would be much greater from Jebel Nefusa upland with steep slopes and collecting of them will save a valuable amount of water which lost as a runoff while this area is in desperate of this water. The regression analysis of variance show strong correlation between rainfall depth and the other two depended variable (the amount of surface runoff water and the amount of eroded soil. It shows also strong correlation between amount of surface runoff water and amount of eroded soil.
Keywords: Rain, Surface runoff water, Soil, Water erosion, Soil erosion.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1880
2140 NaCl Erosion-Corrosion of Mild Steel under Submerged Impingement Jet
Authors: M. Sadique, S. Ainane, Y. F. Yap, P. Rostron, E. Al Hajri
The presence of sand in production lines in the oil and gas industries causes material degradation due to erosion-corrosion. The material degradation caused by erosion-corrosion in pipelines can result in a high cost of monitoring and maintenance and in major accidents. The process of erosion-corrosion consists of erosion, corrosion, and their interactions. Investigating and understanding how the erosion-corrosion process affects the degradation process in certain materials will allow for a reduction in economic loss and help prevent accidents. In this study, material loss due to erosion-corrosion of mild steel under impingement of sand-laden water at 90˚ impingement angle is investigated using a submerged impingement jet (SIJ) test. In particular, effects of jet velocity and sand loading on TWL due to erosion-corrosion, weight loss due to pure erosion and erosion-corrosion interactions, at a temperature of 29-33 °C in sea water environment (3.5% NaCl), are analyzed. The results show that the velocity and sand loading have a great influence on the removal of materials, and erosion is more dominant under all conditions studied. Changes in the surface characteristics of the specimen after impingement test are also discussed.
Keywords: Erosion-corrosion, flow velocity, jet impingement, sand loading.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1181
2139 Investigation of the Possibility to Prepare Supervised Classification Map of Gully Erosion by RS and GIS
Authors: Ali Mohammadi Torkashvand, Hamid Reza Alipour
Abstract:This study investigates the possibility providing gully erosion map by the supervised classification of satellite images (ETM+) in two mountainous and plain land types. These land types were the part of Varamin plain, Tehran province, and Roodbar subbasin, Guilan province, as plain and mountain land types, respectively. The position of 652 and 124 ground control points were recorded by GPS respectively in mountain and plain land types. Soil gully erosion, land uses or plant covers were investigated in these points. Regarding ground control points and auxiliary points, training points of gully erosion and other surface features were introduced to software (Ilwis 3.3 Academic). The supervised classified map of gully erosion was prepared by maximum likelihood method and then, overall accuracy of this map was computed. Results showed that the possibility supervised classification of gully erosion isn-t possible, although it need more studies for results generalization to other mountainous regions. Also, with increasing land uses and other surface features in plain physiography, it decreases the classification of accuracy.
Keywords: Supervised classification, Gully erosion, Map.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1687
2138 Ion Thruster Grid Lifetime Assessment Based on Its Structural Failure
Authors: Juan Li, Jiawen Qiu, Yuchuan Chu, Tianping Zhang, Wei Meng, Yanhui Jia, Xiaohui Liu
Abstract:This article developed an ion thruster optic system sputter erosion depth numerical 3D model by IFE-PIC (Immersed Finite Element-Particle-in-Cell) and Mont Carlo method, and calculated the downstream surface sputter erosion rate of accelerator grid; compared with LIPS-200 life test data. The results of the numerical model are in reasonable agreement with the measured data. Finally, we predicted the lifetime of the 20cm diameter ion thruster via the erosion data obtained with the model. The ultimate result demonstrated that under normal operating condition, the erosion rate of the grooves wears on the downstream surface of the accelerator grid is 34.6μm⁄1000h, which means the conservative lifetime until structural failure occurring on the accelerator grid is 11500 hours.
Keywords: Ion thruster, accelerator gird, sputter erosion, lifetime assessment.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1768
2137 Modeling of Water Erosion in the M'Goun Watershed Using OpenGIS Software
Authors: M. Khal, Ab. Algouti, A. Algouti
Water erosion is the major cause of the erosion that shapes the earth's surface. Modeling water erosion requires the use of software and GIS programs, commercial or closed source. The very high prices for commercial GIS licenses, motivates users and researchers to find open source software as relevant and applicable as the proprietary GIS. The objective of this study is the modeling of water erosion and the hydrogeological and morphophysical characterization of the Oued M'Goun watershed (southern flank of the Central High Atlas) developed by free programs of GIS. The very pertinent results are obtained by executing tasks and algorithms in a simple and easy way. Thus, the various geoscientific and geostatistical analyzes of a digital elevation model (SRTM 30 m resolution) and their combination with the treatments and interpretation of satellite imagery information allowed us to characterize the region studied and to map the area most vulnerable to water erosion.
Keywords: Central High-Atlas, hydrogeology, M’Goun watershed, OpenGIS, water erosion.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 760
2136 Erosion in Abrasive Jet Nozzles: A Comprehensive Study
Authors: D. V. Sreekanth, M. Sreenivasa Rao
Abrasive jet machining is one of the promising non-traditional machining processes which uses mechanical energy (pressure and velocity) for machining various materials. The process parameters that influence the metal removal rate are kerfs, surface finish, depth of cut, air pressure, and distance between nozzle and work piece, nozzle diameter, abrasive type, abrasive shape, and mass flow rate of abrasive particles. The abrasive particles coming out with high pressure not only hits work surface but also passes through the nozzle resulting in erosion. This paper focuses mainly on the effect of different parameters on the erosion of nozzle in Abrasive jet machining. Three different types of nozzles made of sapphire, tungsten carbide, and high carbon high chromium steel (HCHCS) are used for machining glass and the erosion of these nozzles are calculated. The results are shown in tabular form and graphical representation.
Keywords: AJM, nozzle, sapphire, tungsten carbide, chrome steel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 767
2135 Comparison of Ageing Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Housing Material for Outdoor Polymer Insulators
Authors: S.Thong-Om, W. Payakcho, J. Grasasom, A. Oonsivilaiand B. Marungsri
This paper presents the comparison ageing deterioration of silicone rubber housing material for outdoor polymer insulators by using salt fog ageing test based on IEC 61109 and outdoor exposure test.Four types of high temperature silicone vulcanized silicone rubber sheet with different amount of ATH were used as testing specimen. For salt fog ageing test, the specimens were tested continuously 1000 hours with energized in test chamber. For outdoor exposure test, the specimens were hung continuously 18 months without energized. Physical and chemical analyses were conducted to evaluate degree of ageing deterioration of tested specimens. Slightly surface erosion was observed on specimen surface after salt fog ageing test and no erosion was observed on surface of outdoor exposure specimen. However, comparable degree of ageing deterioration can be seen from surface analysis results.
Keywords: Accelerated ageing test, outdoor exposure test, HTV silicone rubber, housing material, salt fog test, surface erosion, polymer insulatorProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3789
2134 A Four Method Framework for Fighting Software Architecture Erosion
Authors: Sundus Ayyaz, Saad Rehman, Usman Qamar
Software Architecture is the basic structure of software that states the development and advancement of a software system. Software architecture is also considered as a significant tool for the construction of high quality software systems. A clean design leads to the control, value and beauty of software resulting in its longer life while a bad design is the cause of architectural erosion where a software evolution completely fails. This paper discusses the occurrence of software architecture erosion and presents a set of methods for the detection, declaration and prevention of architecture erosion. The causes and symptoms of architecture erosion are observed with the examples of prescriptive and descriptive architectures and the practices used to stop this erosion are also discussed by considering different types of software erosion and their affects. Consequently finding and devising the most suitable approach for fighting software architecture erosion and in some way reducing its affect is evaluated and tested on different scenarios.
Keywords: Software Architecture, Architecture Erosion, Prescriptive Architecture, Descriptive Architecture.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2012
2133 Experimental Study of Subsurface Erosion in River Banks
Authors: F. Imanshoar, M. R. M. Tabatabai, Y. Hassanzadeh, M. Rostamipoor
Abstract:Subsurface erosion in river banks and its details, in spite of its occurrence in various parts of the world has rarely been paid attention by researchers. In this paper, quantitative concept of the subsurface bank erosion has been investigated for vertical banks. Vertical banks were simulated experimentally by considering a sandy erodible layer overlaid by clayey one under uniformly distributed constant overhead pressure. Results of the experiments are indicated that rate of sandy layer erosion is decreased by an increase in overburden; likewise, substituting 20% of coarse (3.5 mm) sand layer bed material by fine material (1.4 mm) may lead to a decrease in erosion rate by one-third. This signifies the importance of the bed material composition effect on sandy layers erosion due to subsurface erosion in river banks.
Keywords: Subsurface Erosion, Vertical Banks, Bed Material SizeProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1961
2132 An Erosion-based Modeling of Abrasive Waterjet Turning
Authors: I. Zohourkari, M. Zohoor
Abstract:In this paper, an erosion-based model for abrasive waterjet (AWJ) turning process is presented. By using modified Hashish erosion model, the volume of material removed by impacting of abrasive particles to surface of the rotating cylindrical specimen is estimated and radius reduction at each rotation is calculated. Different to previous works, the proposed model considers the continuous change in local impact angle due to change in workpiece diameter, axial traverse rate of the jet, the abrasive particle roundness and density. The accuracy of the proposed model is examined by experimental tests under various traverse rates. The final diameters estimated by the proposed model are in good accordance with experiments.
Keywords: Abrasive, Erosion, impact, Particle, Waterjet, Turning.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2305
2131 Solid Particle Erosion of Heat Treated TNB-V4 at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures
Authors: Muhammad Naveed, Richard Stechow, Sebastian Bolz, Katharina Hobusch, Sabine Weiß
Solid particle erosion has been identified as a critical wear phenomenon which takes place during operation of aeroengines in dusty environment. The present work discusses the erosion behavior of Ti-44.5Al-6.25Nb-0.8Mo-0.1B alloy (TNB-V4) which finds its application in low pressure gas turbines and can be used for high pressure compressors too. Prior to the erosion tests, the alloy was heat treated to improve the mechanical properties. Afterwards, specimens were eroded at impact angles of 30° and 90° at room and high temperatures (100 °C-400 °C). Volume loss and erosion behavior are studied through gravimetric analysis, whereas erosion mechanisms are characterized through scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate a clear difference in the erosion mechanism for different impact angles. The influence of the test temperature on the erosion behavior of the alloy is also discussed in the present contribution.
Keywords: Solid particle erosion, gamma TiAl, TNB-V4, high temperature erosion.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1368
2130 Application of GIS and Statistical Multivariate Techniques for Estimation of Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield
Authors: Masoud Nasri, Ali Gholami, Ali Najafi
Abstract:In recent years, most of the regions in the world are exposed to degradation and erosion caused by increasing population and over use of land resources. The understanding of the most important factors on soil erosion and sediment yield are the main keys for decision making and planning. In this study, the sediment yield and soil erosion were estimated and the priority of different soil erosion factors used in the MPSIAC method of soil erosion estimation is evaluated in AliAbad watershed in southwest of Isfahan Province, Iran. Different information layers of the parameters were created using a GIS technique. Then, a multivariate procedure was applied to estimate sediment yield and to find the most important factors of soil erosion in the model. The results showed that land use, geology, land and soil cover are the most important factors describing the soil erosion estimated by MPSIAC model.
Keywords: land degradation, Soil erosion, Sediment yield, Aliabad, GIS technique, Land use.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1562
2129 Ageing Deterioration of Hi gh-Density Polyethylene Cable Spacer under Salt Water Dip Wheel Test
Authors: P. Kaewchanthuek, R. Rawonghad, B. Marungsri
This paper presents the experimental results of high-density polyethylene cable spacers for 22 kV distribution systems under salt water dip wheel test based on IEC 62217. The strength of anti-tracking and anti-erosion of cable spacer surface was studied in this study. During the test, dry band arc and corona discharge were observed on cable spacer surface. After 30,000 cycles of salt water dip wheel test, obviously surface erosion and tracking were observed especially on the ground end. Chemical analysis results by fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy showed chemical changed from oxidation and carbonization reaction on tested cable spacer. Increasing of C=O and C=C bonds confirmed occurrence of these reactions.
Keywords: Cable spacer, HDPE, ageing of cable spacer, salt water dip wheel test.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3052
2128 Study of Ageing Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Housing Material for Outdoor Polymer Insulators
Authors: S. Thong-om, W. Payakcho, J. Grasasom, B. Marungsri
This paper presents the experimental results of salt fog ageing test of silicone rubber housing material for outdoor polymer insulator based on IEC 61109. Four types of HTV silicone rubber sheet with different amount of ATH were tested continuously 1000<=hours in salt fog chamber. By visual observation after tested, slightly surface erosion was observed on tested specimen surface near the energized end. Furthermore, increasing in hardness and reduction in hydrophobicity were measured on tested specimen comparing with new specimen. In addition, chemical analysis by ATRFTIR was conducted in order to elucidate the chemical change of tested specimens comparing with new specimen. Physical and chemical results confirmed the experimental results as well.
Keywords: Accelerated ageing test, HTV silicone rubber, housing material, salt fog test, surface erosion, polymer insulator.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1954
2127 Metallic Coating for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite Substrate
Authors: Amine Rezzoug, Said Abdi, Nadjet Bouhelal, Ismail Daoud
Abstract:This paper investigates the application of metallic coatings on high fiber volume fraction carbon/epoxy polymer matrix composites. For the grip of the metallic layer, a method of modifying the surface of the composite by introducing a mixture of copper and steel powder (filler powders) which can reduce the impact of thermal spray particles. The powder was introduced to the surface at the time of the forming. Arc spray was used to project the zinc coating layer. The substrate was grit blasted to avoid poor adherence. The porosity, microstructure, and morphology of layers are characterized by optical microscopy, SEM and image analysis. The samples were studied also in terms of hardness and erosion resistance. This investigation did not reveal any visible evidence damage to the substrates. The hardness of zinc layer was about 25.94 MPa and the porosity was around (∼6.70%). The erosion test showed that the zinc coating improves the resistance to erosion. Based on the results obtained, we can conclude that thermal spraying allows the production of protective coating on PMC. Zinc coating has been identified as a compatible material with the substrate. The filler powders layer protects the substrate from the impact of hot particles and allows avoiding the rupture of brittle carbon fibers.
Keywords: Arc spray, coating, composite, erosion.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3208
2126 Assessments of Internal Erosion in a Landfill Due to Changes in Groundwater Level
Authors: Siamak Feizi, Gunvor Baardvik
Soil erosion has special consequences for landfills that are more serious than those found at conventional construction sites. Different potential heads between two sides of a landfill and the subsequent movement of water through pores within the soil body could trigger the soil erosion and construction instability. Such condition was encountered in a landfill project in the southern part of Norway. To check the risk of internal erosion due changes in the groundwater level (because of seasonal flooding in the river), a series of numerical simulations by means of Geo-Seep software were conducted. Output of this study provides a total picture of the landfill stability, possibilities of erosions and necessary measures to prevent or reduce the risk for the landfill operator.
Keywords: Erosion, seepage, landfill, stability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 189
2125 Backward Erosion Piping through Vertically Layered Sands
Authors: K. Vandenboer, L. Dolphen, A. Bezuijen
Abstract:Backward erosion piping is an important failure mechanism for water-retaining structures, a phenomenon that results in the formation of shallow pipes at the interface of a sandy or silty foundation and a cohesive cover layer. This paper studies the effect of two soil types on backward erosion piping; both in case of a homogeneous sand layer, and in a vertically layered sand sample, where the pipe is forced to subsequently grow through the different layers. Two configurations with vertical sand layers are tested; they both result in wider pipes and higher critical gradients, thereby making this an interesting topic in research on measures to prevent backward erosion piping failures.
Keywords: Backward erosion piping, embankments, physical modelling, sand.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 844
2124 Using Field Indices of Rill and Gully in order to Erosion Estimating and Sediment Analysis (Case Study: Menderjan Watershed in Isfahan Province, Iran)
Authors: Masoud Nasri, Sadat Feiznia, Mohammad Jafari, Hasan Ahmadi
Abstract:Today, incorrect use of lands and land use changes, excessive grazing, no suitable using of agricultural farms, plowing on steep slopes, road construct, building construct, mine excavation etc have been caused increasing of soil erosion and sediment yield. For erosion and sediment estimation one can use statistical and empirical methods. This needs to identify land unit map and the map of effective factors. However, these empirical methods are usually time consuming and do not give accurate estimation of erosion. In this study, we applied GIS techniques to estimate erosion and sediment of Menderjan watershed at upstream Zayandehrud river in center of Iran. Erosion faces at each land unit were defined on the basis of land use, geology and land unit map using GIS. The UTM coordinates of each erosion type that showed more erosion amounts such as rills and gullies were inserted in GIS using GPS data. The frequency of erosion indicators at each land unit, land use and their sediment yield of these indices were calculated. Also using tendency analysis of sediment yield changes in watershed outlet (Menderjan hydrometric gauge station), was calculated related parameters and estimation errors. The results of this study according to implemented watershed management projects can be used for more rapid and more accurate estimation of erosion than traditional methods. These results can also be used for regional erosion assessment and can be used for remote sensing image processing.
Keywords: Erosion and sedimentation, Gully, Rill, GIS, GPS, Menderjan WatershedProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1784
2123 Effect of Sand Particle Transportation in Oil and Gas Pipeline Erosion
Authors: Christopher Deekia Nwimae, Nigel Simms, Liyun Lao
Erosion in a pipe bends caused by particles is a major concern in the oil and gas fields and might cause breakdown to production equipment. This work investigates the effect of sand particle transport in an elbow using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. Two-way coupled Euler-Lagrange and discrete phase model is employed to calculate the air/solid particle ﬂow in the elbow. Generic erosion model in Ansys fluent and three particle rebound models are used to predict the erosion rate on the 90° elbows. The model result is compared with experimental data from the open literature validating the CFD-based predictions which reveals that due to the sand particles impinging on the wall of the elbow at high velocity, a point on the pipe elbow were observed to have started turning red due to velocity increase and the maximum erosion locations occur at 48°.
Keywords: Erosion, prediction, elbow, computational fluid dynamics, CFD.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 10
2122 Morphology of Machined Surfaces from Electro Discharge Sawing and Sinking Electro Discharge Machining
Authors: N. Nagabhushana Ramesh, Kalley Harinarayana, T. Raghavender Reddy, B. Balu Naik
Abstract:Electro Discharge Sawing is a hybrid process combining the features of SEDM and ECM. Its major characteristic is extremely fast erosion rate compare to either of the above processes. This paper brings out its relative feature of SEDM and EDS about their erosion rates, surface roughness, and morphology of machined surfaces.
Keywords: Electro Chemical Machining (ECM), Electro Discharge Sawing (EDS), Sinking Electro Discharge Machining (SEDM).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2036
2121 A Study of the Relation of Wave Height and Erosion at Bangkhuntien Shoreline, Thailand
Authors: Prasertsak Ekphisutsuntorn, Prungchan Wongwises, Chaiyuth Chinnarasri, Usa Humphries, Suphat Vongvisessomjai
In this paper, the significant wave height at the Upper Gulf of Thailand and the changing of wave height at Bangkhuntien shoreline were simulated by using the Simulating WAves Nearshore Model (SWAN) version 40.51. The simulated results indicated that the significant wave height by SWAN model corresponded with the observed data. The results showed that the maximum significant wave height at the Bangkhuntien shoreline were 1.06-2.05 m. and the average significant wave height at the Bangkhuntien shoreline were 0.30-0.47 m. The significant wave height can be used to calculate the erosion through the Bangkhuntien shoreline. The erosion rates at the Bangkhuntien shoreline were prepared by using the aerial photo and they were about 1.80 m/yr. from 1980- 1986, 4.75 m/yr from 1987-1993, 15.28 m/yr from 1994-1996 and 10.03 m/yr from 1997-2002. The relation between the wave energy and the erosion were in good agreement. Therefore, the significant wave height was one of the major factors of the erosion at the Bangkhuntien shoreline.
Keywords: significant wave height, erosion, SWAN, relation, Bangkhuntien shorelineProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1895
2120 On the Fixed Rainfall Intensity: Effects on Overland Flow Resistance, Shear Velocity and on Soil Erosion
Authors: L. Mouzai, M. Bouhadef
Raindrops and overland flow both are erosive parameters but they do not act by the same way. The overland flow alone tends to shear the soil horizontally and concentrates into rills. In the presence of rain, the soil particles are removed from the soil surface in the form of a uniform sheet layer. In addition to this, raindrops falling on the flow roughen the water and soil surface depending on the flow depth, and retard the velocity, therefore influence shear velocity and Manning’s factor. To investigate this part, agricultural sandy soil, rainfall simulator and a laboratory soil tray of 0.2x1x3 m were the base of this work. Five overland flow depths of 0; 3.28; 4.28; 5.16; 5.60; 5.80 mm were generated under a rainfall intensity of 217.2 mm/h. Sediment concentration control is based on the proportionality of depth/microtopography. The soil loose is directly related to the presence of rain splash on thin sheet flow. The effect of shear velocity on sediment concentration is limited by the value of 5.28 cm/s. In addition to this, the rain splash reduces the soil roughness by breaking the soil crests. The rainfall intensity is the major factor influencing depth and soil erosion. In the presence of rainfall, the shear velocity of the flow is due to two simultaneous effects. The first, which is horizontal, comes from the flow and the second, vertical, is due to the raindrops.
Keywords: Flow resistance, laboratory experiments, rainfall simulator, sediment concentration, shear velocity, soil erosion.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 490
2119 Reviewing Soil Erosion in Greece
Authors: Paschalis Koutalakis, George N. Zaimes, Valasia Iakovoglou, Konstantinos Ioannou
Abstract:Mitigating soil erosion, especially in Mediterranean countries such as Greece, is essential in order to maintain environmental and agricultural sustainability. In this paper, scientific publications related to soil erosion studies in Greece were reviewed and categorized. To accomplish this, the online search engine of Scopus was used. The key words were “soil”, “erosion” and “Greece.” An analysis of the published articles was conducted at three levels: i) type of publication, ii) chronologic and iii) thematic. A hundred and ten publications published in scientific journals were reviewed. The results showed that the awareness regarding the soil erosion in Greece has increased only in the last decades. The publications covered a wide range of thematic categories such as the type of studied areas, the physical phenomena that trigger and influence the soil erosion, the negative anthropogenic impacts on them, the assessment tools that were used in order to examine the threat and the proper management. The analysis of these articles was significant and necessary in order to find the scientific gaps of soil erosion studies in Greece and help enhance the sustainability of soil management in the future.
Keywords: Climate change, agricultural sustainability, environmental sustainability, soil management.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3190
2118 Modeling Erosion Control in Oil Production Wells
Authors: Kenneth I.Eshiet, Yong Sheng
The sand production problem has led researchers into making various attempts to understand the phenomenon. The generally accepted concept is that the occurrence of sanding is due to the in-situ stress conditions and the induced changes in stress that results in the failure of the reservoir sandstone during hydrocarbon production from wellbores. By using a hypothetical cased (perforated) well, an approach to the problem is presented here by using Finite Element numerical modelling techniques. In addition to the examination of the erosion problem, the influence of certain key parameters is studied in order to ascertain their effect on the failure and subsequent erosion process. The major variables investigated include: drawdown, perforation depth, and the erosion criterion. Also included is the determination of the optimal mud pressure for given operational and reservoir conditions. The improved understanding between parameters enables the choice of optimal values to minimize sanding during oil production.
Keywords: Equivalent Plastic Strain, Erosion, Hydrocarbon Production.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1332
2117 Performance Investigation of Solid-Rocket Motor with Nozzle Throat Erosion
Authors: Suwicha Chankapoe, Nattawat Winya, Narupon Pittayaprasertkul
In order to determine the performance and key design parameters of rocket, the erosion of nozzle throat during solid rocket motor burning have to be calculated. This study aims to predict the nozzle throat erosion in solid rocket motors according to the thrust profile of motor in operating conditions and develop a model for optimum performance of rocket. We investigate the throat radius change in the static test programs. The standard method and thrust coefficient are used for adjusting into the ideal performance for conical nozzles. Pressure and thrust data acquired from the tests are analyzed to determine the instantaneous nozzle throat diameter variation throughout the test duration. The result shows good agreement of calculated correlation comparing with measured erosion rate data showing agreement within 1.6 mm/s. Nozzle thrust coefficient loss is found approximately 24% form nozzle throat erosion during burning.
Keywords: Erosion, nozzle throat, thrust coefficient.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4876
2116 Modeling of Thermal Processes Associated to an Electric Arc
Authors: Allagui Hatem, Ghodbane Fathi
The primary objective of this paper is to study the thermal effects of the electric arc on the breaker apparatus contacts for forecasting and improving the contact durability. We will propose a model which takes account of the main influence factors on the erosion contacts. This phenomenon is very complicated because the amount of ejected metal is not necessarily constituted by the whole melted metal bath but this depends on the balance of forces on the contact surface. Consequently, to calculate the metal ejection coefficient, we propose a method which consists in comparing the experimental results with the calculated ones. The proposed model estimates the mass lost by vaporization, by droplets ejection and by the extraction mechanism of liquid or solid metal. In the one-dimensional geometry, to calculate of the contact heating, we used Green’s function which expresses the point source and allows the transition to the surface source. However, for the two- dimensional model we used explicit and implicit numerical methods. The results are similar to those found by Wilson’s experiments.
Keywords: Electric arc, thermal effect, erosion, contact, durability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1966
2115 Fatigue Life Consumption for Turbine Blades-Vanes Accelerated by Erosion-Contour Modification
Authors: Julio C. Gómez-Mancilla, Luis M. Palacios-Pineda, Yunuén López-Grijalba
Abstract:A new mechanism responsible for structural life consumption due to resonant fatigue in turbine blades, or vanes, is presented and explained. A rotating blade or vane in a gas turbine can change its contour due to erosion and/or material build up, in any of these instances, the surface pressure distribution occurring on the suction and pressure sides of blades-vanes can suffer substantial modification of their pressure and temperatures envelopes and flow characteristics. Meanwhile, the relative rotation between the blade and duct vane while the pressurized gas flows and the consequent wake crossings, will induce a fluctuating thrust force or lift that will excite the blade. An actual totally used up set of vane-blade components in a HP turbine power stage in a gas turbine is analyzed. The blade suffered some material erosion mostly at the trailing edge provoking a peculiar surface pressure envelope which evolved as the relative position between the vane and the blade passed in front of each other. Interestingly preliminary modal analysis for this eroded blade indicates several natural frequencies within the aeromechanic power spectrum, moreover, the highest frequency component is 94% of one natural frequency indicating near resonant condition. Independently of other simultaneously occurring fatigue cycles (such as thermal, centrifugal stresses).
Keywords: Aeromechanic induced vibration, potential flowinteraction, turbine unsteady flow, rotor/stator interaction, turbinevane-blade aerodynamic interaction, airfoil clockingProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2406