Search results for: HTV silicone rubber
122 Ageing Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Polymer Insulator under Salt Water Dip Wheel Test
Authors: J. Grasaesom, S.Thong-om, W. Payakcho, B. Marungsri
This paper presents the experimental results of silicone rubber polymer insulators for 22 kV systems under salt water dip wheel test based on IEC 62217. Straight shed silicone rubber polymer insulators having leakage distance 685 mm were tested continuously 30,000 cycles. One test cycle includes 4 positions, energized, de-energized, salt water dip and deenergized, respectively. For one test cycle, each test specimen remains stationary for about 40 second in each position and takes 8 second for rotate to next position. By visual observation, sever surface erosion was observed on the trunk near the energized end of tested specimen. Puncture was observed on the upper shed near the energized end. In addition, decreasing in hydrophobicity and increasing in hardness were measured on tested specimen comparing with new specimen. Furthermore, chemical analysis by ATR-FTIR was conducted in order to elucidate the chemical change of tested specimens comparing with new specimen.
Keywords: ageing of silicone rubber, salt water dip wheeltest, silicone rubber polymer insulatorProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2512
121 Electric Field and Potential Distributions along Surface of Silicone Rubber Polymer Insulators Using Finite Element Method
Authors: B. Marungsri, W. Onchantuek, A. Oonsivilai
Abstract:This paper presents the simulation the results of electric field and potential distributions along surface of silicone rubber polymer insulators. Near the same leakage distance subjected to 15 kV in 50 cycle salt fog ageing test, alternate sheds silicone rubber polymer insulator showed better contamination performance than straight sheds silicone rubber polymer insulator. Severe surface ageing was observed on the straight sheds insulator. The objective of this work is to elucidate that electric field distribution along straight sheds insulator higher than alternate shed insulator in salt fog ageing test. Finite element method (FEM) is adopted for this work. The simulation results confirmed the experimental data, as well.
Keywords: Electric field distribution, potential distribution, silicone rubber polymer insulator, finite element method.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1971
120 Artificial Accelerated Ageing Test of Silicone Rubber Housing Material for Lightning Arrester
Authors: W. Payakcho, J. Grasaesom, S. Thong-om, B. Marungsri
This paper presents the experimental results of silicone rubber housing material for 24kV lightning arrester under artificial accelerated ageing test based on IEC 61109 specifications. Specimens having inclined and alternated shed made of HTV silicone rubber with ATH content and having leakage distance 625 mm were tested continuously 1000 hrs in artificial salt fog chamber. After 1000 hrs of salt fog ageing test, obviously surface erosion was observed on trunk between the upper large shed and the lower small shed near the energized end. Decreasing in hydrophobicity and increasing in hardness were measured on tested specimen comparing with new specimen. Chemical analysis by ATR-FTIR confirmed the observation results.
Keywords: Accelerated ageing test, Silicone rubber housing material, salt fog test, Lightning Arrester, AgeingProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2815
119 Comparison of Ageing Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Outdoor Polymer Insulator under Salt Water Dip Wheel Test
Authors: J. Grasaesom, S. Thong-om, W. Payakcho, A. Oonsivilai, B. Marungsri
Abstract:This paper presents the experimental results on ageing deterioration of silicone rubber outdoor polymer insulator under salt water dip wheel test based on IEC 62217. In order to comparison effect of chemical contents, silicone rubber outdoor polymer insulators having same configuration and leakage distant from two manufactures were tested together continuously 30,000 test cycles. Many discharge activities were observed in during the test. After 30,000 test cycles, in spite of same configuration, differences in degree of surface aging were observed. Physical analysis such as decreasing in hydrophobicity and increasing in hardness measurement were measured on two-type tested specimen surface in order to confirm degree of surface ageing. Furthermore, chemical analysis by ATR-FTIR to diagnose the chemical change of tested specimen surface was conducted to confirm the physical analysis results.
Keywords: ageing of silicone rubber, salt water dip wheel test, silicone rubber polymer insulatorProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3368
118 Study of Ageing Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Housing Material for Outdoor Polymer Insulators
Authors: S. Thong-om, W. Payakcho, J. Grasasom, B. Marungsri
This paper presents the experimental results of salt fog ageing test of silicone rubber housing material for outdoor polymer insulator based on IEC 61109. Four types of HTV silicone rubber sheet with different amount of ATH were tested continuously 1000<=hours in salt fog chamber. By visual observation after tested, slightly surface erosion was observed on tested specimen surface near the energized end. Furthermore, increasing in hardness and reduction in hydrophobicity were measured on tested specimen comparing with new specimen. In addition, chemical analysis by ATRFTIR was conducted in order to elucidate the chemical change of tested specimens comparing with new specimen. Physical and chemical results confirmed the experimental results as well.
Keywords: Accelerated ageing test, HTV silicone rubber, housing material, salt fog test, surface erosion, polymer insulator.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1968
117 Comparison of Ageing Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Housing Material for Outdoor Polymer Insulators
Authors: S.Thong-Om, W. Payakcho, J. Grasasom, A. Oonsivilaiand B. Marungsri
This paper presents the comparison ageing deterioration of silicone rubber housing material for outdoor polymer insulators by using salt fog ageing test based on IEC 61109 and outdoor exposure test.Four types of high temperature silicone vulcanized silicone rubber sheet with different amount of ATH were used as testing specimen. For salt fog ageing test, the specimens were tested continuously 1000 hours with energized in test chamber. For outdoor exposure test, the specimens were hung continuously 18 months without energized. Physical and chemical analyses were conducted to evaluate degree of ageing deterioration of tested specimens. Slightly surface erosion was observed on specimen surface after salt fog ageing test and no erosion was observed on surface of outdoor exposure specimen. However, comparable degree of ageing deterioration can be seen from surface analysis results.
Keywords: Accelerated ageing test, outdoor exposure test, HTV silicone rubber, housing material, salt fog test, surface erosion, polymer insulatorProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3799
116 Comparison Ageing Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Outdoor Polymer Insulators in Artificial Accelerated Salt Fog Ageing Test
Authors: S.Thong-Om, W. Payakcho, J. Grasaesom, A. Oonsivilai, B. Marungsri
This paper presents the experimental results of silicone rubber outdoor polymer insulators in salt fog ageing test based on IEC 61109. Specimens made ofHTV silicone rubber with ATH content having three different configurations, straight shedsalternated sheds, and incline and alternate sheds, were tested continuously 1000 hrs.in artificial salt fog chamber. Contamination level, reduction of hydrophobicity and hardness measurement were used as physical damaged inspection techniques to evaluate degree of surface deterioration. In addition, chemical changing of tested specimen surface was evaluated by ATR-FTIRto confirm physical damaged inspection. After 1000 hrs.of salt fog test, differences in degree of surface deterioration were observed on all tested specimens. Physical damaged inspection and chemical analysis results confirmed the experimental results as well.
Keywords: Ageing deterioration, Silicone rubber, Polymer Insulator, Salt fog ageing test.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2399
115 Analysis of Electric Field and Potential Distributions along Surface of Silicone Rubber Insulators under Various Contamination Conditions Using Finite Element Method
Authors: B. Marungsri, W. Onchantuek, A. Oonsivilai, T. Kulworawanichpong
This paper presents the simulation results of electric field and potential distributions along surface of silicone rubber polymer insulators under clean and various contamination conditions with/without water droplets. Straight sheds insulator having leakage distance 290 mm was used in this study. Two type of contaminants, playwood dust and cement dust, have been studied the effect of contamination on the insulator surface. The objective of this work is to comparison the effect of contamination on potential and electric field distributions along the insulator surface when water droplets exist on the insulator surface. Finite element method (FEM) is adopted for this work. The simulation results show that contaminations have no effect on potential distribution along the insulator surface while electric field distributions are obviously depended on contamination conditions.
Keywords: electric field distribution, potential distribution, silicone rubber polymer insulator, finite element methodProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3152
114 Solid-Liquid-Polymer Mixed Matrix Membrane Using Liquid Additive Adsorbed on Activated Carbon Dispersed in Polymeric Membrane for CO2/CH4 Separation
Authors: P. Chultheera, T. Rirksomboon, S. Kulprathipanja, C. Liu, W. Chinsirikul, N. Kerddonfag
Abstract:Gas separation by selective transport through polymeric membranes is one of the rapid growing branches of membrane technology. However, the tradeoff between the permeability and selectivity is one of the critical challenges encountered by pure polymer membranes, which in turn limits their large-scale application. To enhance gas separation performances, mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) have been developed. In this study, MMMs were prepared by a solution-coating method and tested for CO2/CH4 separation through permeability and selectivity using a membrane testing unit at room temperature and a pressure of 100 psig. The fabricated MMMs were composed of silicone rubber dispersed with the activated carbon individually absorbed with polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a liquid additive. PEG emulsified silicone rubber MMMs showed superior gas separation on cellulose acetate membrane with both high permeability and selectivity compared with silicone rubber membrane and alone support membrane. However, the MMMs performed limited stability resulting from the undesirable PEG leakage. To stabilize the MMMs, PEG was then incorporated into activated carbon by adsorption. It was found that the incorporation of solid and liquid was effective to improve the separation performance of MMMs.
Keywords: Mixed matrix membrane, membrane, CO2/CH4 separation, activated carbon.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 935
113 Silicone on Blending Vegetal Petrochemical Based Polyurethane
Authors: Flora E. Firdaus
Abstract:Polyurethane foam (PUF) is formed by a chemical reaction of polyol and isocyanate. The aim is to understand the impact of Silicone on synthesizing polyurethane in differentiate volume of molding. The method used was one step process, which is simultaneously caried out a blending polyol (petroleum polyol and soybean polyol), a TDI (2,4):MDI (4,4-) (80:20), a distilled water, and a silicone. The properties of the material were measured via a number of parameters, which are polymer density, compressive strength, and cellular structures. It is found that density of polyurethane using silicone with volume of molding either 250 ml or 500 ml is lower than without using silicone.
Keywords: soybean, petro, silicone, polyurethaneProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1842
112 Influence of Nano-ATH on Electrical Performance of LSR for HVDC Insulation
Authors: Ju-Na Hwang, Yong-Jun Park, Min-Hae Park, Kee-Joe Lim
Many studies have been conducted on DC transmission. Of power apparatus for DC transmission, high voltage direct current (HVDC) cable systems are being evaluated because of the increase in power demand and transmission distance. Therefore, dc insulation characteristics of liquid silicone rubber (LSR), which has various advantages such as short curing time and the ease of maintenance, were investigated to assess its performance as a HVDC insulation material for cable joints. The electrical performance of LSR added to nano-aluminum trihydrate (ATH) were confirmed by measurements of the breakdown strength and electrical conductivity. In addition, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) was used as a means of confirmation of nanofiller dispersion state. The LSR nanocomposite was prepared by compounding LSR filled nano-sized ATH filler. The dc insulation properties of LSR added to nano-sized ATH fillers were found to be superior to those of the LSR without a filler.
Keywords: Liquid silicone rubber, Nanocomposite, Nano-ATH, HVDC insulation, Cable joints.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2504
111 Nanobiocomposites with Enhanced Cell Proliferation and Improved Mechanical Properties Based on Organomodified-Nanoclay and Silicone Rubber
Authors: M. S. Hosseini, M. Tazzoli-Shadpour, I. Amjadi, A. A. Katbab, E. Jaefargholi-Rangraz
Bionanotechnology deals with nanoscopic interactions between nanostructured materials and biological systems. Polymer nanocomposites with optimized biological activity have attracted great attention. Nanoclay is considered as reinforcing nanofiller in manufacturing of high performance nanocomposites. In current study, organomodified-nanoclay with negatively charged silicate layers was incorporated into biomedical grade silicone rubber. Nanoparticle loading has been tailored to enhance cell behavior. Addition of nanoparticles led to improved mechanical properties of substrate with enhanced strength and stiffness while no toxic effects was observed. Results indicated improved viability and proliferation of cells by addition of nanofillers. The improved mechanical properties of the matrix result in proper cell response through adjustment and arrangement of cytoskeletal fibers. Results can be applied in tissue engineering when enhanced substrates are required for improvement of cell behavior for in vivo applications.
Keywords: Biocompatibility, Composite, Organomodified- Nanoclay, ProliferationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1817
110 FEM Analysis of the Interaction between a Piezoresistive Tactile Sensor and Biological Tissues
Authors: Ahmad Atieh, Masoud Kalantari, Roozbeh Ahmadi, Javad Dargahi, Muthukumaran Packirisamy, Mehrdad Hosseini Zadeh
Abstract:The present paper presents a finite element model and analysis for the interaction between a piezoresistive tactile sensor and biological tissues. The tactile sensor is proposed for use in minimally invasive surgery to deliver tactile information of biological tissues to surgeons. The proposed sensor measures the relative hardness of soft contact objects as well as the contact force. Silicone rubbers were used as the phantom of biological tissues. Finite element analysis of the silicone rubbers and the mechanical structure of the sensor were performed using COMSOL Multiphysics (v3.4) environment. The simulation results verify the capability of the sensor to be used to differentiate between different kinds of silicone rubber materials.
Keywords: finite element analysis, minimally invasive surgery, Neo-Hookean hyperelastic materials, tactile sensor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2630
109 Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch as a New Organic Filler for Electrical Tree Inhibition
Authors: M. H. Ahmad, A. A. A. Jamil, H. Ahmad, M. A. M. Piah, A. Darus, Y. Z. Arief, N. Bashir
Abstract:The use of synthetic retardants in polymeric insulated cables is not uncommon in the high voltage engineering to study electrical treeing phenomenon. However few studies on organic materials for the same investigation have been carried. .This paper describes the study on the effects of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) microfiller on the tree initiation and propagation in silicone rubber with different weight percentages (wt %) of filler to insulation bulk material. The weight percentages used were 0 wt % and 1 wt % respectively. It was found that the OPEFB retards the propagation of the electrical treeing development. For tree inception study, the addition of 1(wt %) OPEFB has increase the tree inception voltage of silicone rubber. So, OPEFB is a potential retardant to the initiation and growth of electrical treeing occurring in polymeric materials for high voltage application. However more studies on the effects of physical and electrical properties of OPEFB as a tree retardant material are required.
Keywords: Oil palm empty fruit bunch, electrical tree, siliconerubber, fillers.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2219
108 Useful Lifetime Prediction of Chevron Rubber Spring for Railway Vehicle
Authors: Chang Su Woo, Hyun Sung Park
Abstract:Useful lifetime evaluation of chevron rubber spring was very important in design procedure to assure the safety and reliability. It is, therefore, necessary to establish a suitable criterion for the replacement period of chevron rubber spring. In this study, we performed characteristic analysis and useful lifetime prediction of chevron rubber spring. Rubber material coefficient was obtained by curve fittings of uniaxial tension equibiaxial tension and pure shear test. Computer simulation was executed to predict and evaluate the load capacity and stiffness for chevron rubber spring. In order to useful lifetime prediction of rubber material, we carried out the compression set with heat aging test in an oven at the temperature ranging from 50°C to 100°C during a period 180 days. By using the Arrhenius plot, several useful lifetime prediction equations for rubber material was proposed.
Keywords: Chevron rubber spring, material coefficient, finite element analysis, useful lifetime prediction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2720
107 Rubber Wood as a Potential Biomass Feedstock for Biochar via Slow Pyrolysis
Authors: Adilah Shariff, Radin Hakim, Nurhayati Abdullah
Abstract:Utilisation of biomass feedstock for biochar has received increasing attention because of their potential for carbon sequestration and soil amendment. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of rubber wood as a biomass feedstock for biochar via slow pyrolysis process. This was achieved by using proximate, ultimate, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) as well as heating value, pH and lignocellulosic determination. Rubber wood contains 4.13 mf wt.% moisture, 86.30 mf wt.% volatile matter, 0.60 mf wt.% ash content, and 13.10 mf wt.% fixed carbon. The ultimate analysis shows that rubber wood consists of 44.33 mf wt.% carbon, 6.26 mf wt.% hydrogen, 19.31 mf wt.% nitrogen, 0.31 mf wt.% sulphur, and 29.79 mf wt.% oxygen. The higher heating value of rubber wood is 22.5 MJ/kg, and its lower heating value is 21.2 MJ/kg. At 27 °C, the pH value of rubber wood is 6.83 which is acidic. The lignocellulosic analysis revealed that rubber wood composition consists of 2.63 mf wt.% lignin, 20.13 mf wt.% cellulose, and 65.04 mf wt.% hemicellulose. The volatile matter to fixed carbon ratio is 6.58. This led to a biochar yield of 25.14 wt.% at 500 °C. Rubber wood is an environmental friendly feedstock due to its low sulphur content. Rubber wood therefore is a suitable and a potential feedstock for biochar production via slow pyrolysis.
Keywords: Biochar, biomass, rubber wood, slow pyrolysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1715
106 Wind-tunnel Measurement of the Drag-reducing Effect of Compliant Coating
Authors: Inwon Lee, Victor M. Kulik, Andrey V. Boiko, Ho Hwan Chun
Abstract:A specially designed flat plate was mounted vertically over the axial line in the wind tunnel of the Aerospace Department of the Pusan National University. The plate is 2 m long, 0.8 m high and 8 cm thick. The measurements were performed in velocity range from 15 to 60 m/s. A sand paper turbulizer was placed close to the plate nose to provide fully developed turbulent boundary layer over the most part of the plate. Strain balances were mounted in the trailing part of the plate to measure the skin friction drag over removable insertions of 0.55×0.25m2 size. A set of the insertions was designed and manufactured: 3mm thick polished metal surface and three compliant surfaces. The compliant surfaces were manufactured of a silicone rubber Silastic® S2 (Dow Corning company). To modify the viscoelastic properties of the rubber, its composition was varied: 90% of the rubber + 10% catalyst (standard), 92.5% + 7.5% (weak), 85% + 15% (strong). Modulus of elasticity and the loss tangent were measured accurately for these materials in the frequency range from 40 Hz to 3 KHz using the unique proposed technique.
Keywords: boundary layer, compliant coating, drag reduction, hot wire, wind tunnel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1569
105 Experimental Study on the Vibration Isolation Performance of Metal-Net Rubber Vibration Absorber
Authors: Su Yi Ming, Hou Ying, Zou Guang Ping
Abstract:Metal-net rubber is a new dry friction damping material, compared with the traditional metal rubber, which has high mechanization degree, and the mechanical performance of metal-net rubber is more stable. Through the sine sweep experiment and random vibration experiment of metal-net rubber vibration isolator, the influence of several important factors such as the lines slope, relative density and wire diameter on the transfer rate, natural frequency and root-mean-square response acceleration of metal-net rubber vibration isolation system, were studied through the method of control variables. Also, several relevant change curves under different vibration levels were derived, and the effects of vibration level on the natural frequency and root-mean-square response acceleration were analyzed through the curves.
Keywords: Metal-net rubber vibration isolator, relative density, vibration level, wire diameter.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1140
104 Evaluation of Shear Strength Parameters of Rudsar Sandy Soil Stabilized with Waste Rubber Chips
Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, M. Hamidzadeh
The use of waste rubber chips not only can be of great importance in terms of the environment, but also can be used to increase the shear strength of soils. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variation of the internal friction angle of liquefiable sandy soil using waste rubber chips. For this purpose, the geotechnical properties of unmodified and modified soil samples by waste lining rubber chips have been evaluated and analyzed by performing the triaxial consolidated drained test. In order to prepare the laboratory specimens, the sandy soil in part of Rudsar shores in Gilan province, north of Iran with high liquefaction potential has been replaced by two percent of waste rubber chips. Samples have been compressed until reaching the two levels of density of 15.5 and 16.7 kN/m3. Also, in order to find the optimal length of chips in sandy soil, the rectangular rubber chips with the widths of 0.5 and 1 cm and the lengths of 0.5, 1, and 2 cm were used. The results showed that the addition of rubber chips to liquefiable sandy soil greatly increases the shear resistance of these soils. Also, it can be seen that decreasing the width and increasing the length-to-width ratio of rubber chips has a direct impact on the shear strength of the modified soil samples with rubber chips.
Keywords: Improvement, shear strength, internal friction angle, sandy soil, rubber chip.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 549
103 Cellulolytic Microbial Activator Influence on Decomposition of Rubber Factory Waste Composting
Authors: Thaniya Kaosol, Sirinthrar Wandee
Abstract:In this research, an aerobic composting method is studied to reuse organic waste from rubber factory waste as soil fertilizer and to study the effect of cellulolytic microbial activator (CMA) as the activator in the rubber factory waste composting. The performance of the composting process was monitored as a function of carbon and organic matter decomposition rate, temperature and moisture content. The results indicate that the rubber factory waste is best composted with water hyacinth and sludge than composted alone. In addition, the CMA is more affective when mixed with the rubber factory waste, water hyacinth and sludge since a good fertilizer is achieved. When adding CMA into the rubber factory waste composted alone, the finished product does not achieve a standard of fertilizer, especially the C/N ratio. Finally, the finished products of composting rubber factory waste and water hyacinth and sludge (both CMA and without CMA), can be an environmental friendly alternative to solve the disposal problems of rubber factory waste. Since the C/N ratio, pH, moisture content, temperature, and nutrients of the finished products are acceptable for agriculture use.
Keywords: composting, rubber waste, C/N ratio, sludge, cellulolytic microbial activatorProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1995
102 Polyisoprene-coated Silica/Natural Rubber Composite
Authors: Chatwarin Poochai, Puttichai Pae-on, Thirawudh Pongpayoon
The commercial white tyres are usually used for forklifts in food and medicine industries. Conventionally, silica is used as reinforcement in the tyres. However, the adhesion between silica particles and rubber is remarkably poor. To improve the problem of adhesion and hence enhance wear resistance, modification of silica surface is one of the solutions. In this work, the natural rubber compound blending with polyisoprene-coated silica prepared by admicellar polymerization technique was studied to compare with the natural rubber compound of unmodified silica. The surface characterization of modified silica was also examined by SEM, FTIR, and TGA. The results show that polyisoprene-coated silica/natural rubber compound gave better overall mechanical properties, especially wear resistance with the improvement of the adhesion between silica and natural rubber matrix that can be seen in the SEM micrograph.
Keywords: White tyre, admicellar polymerization, modified silica, wear resistance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2898
101 The Potential of Strain M Protease in Degradations of Protein in Natural Rubber Latex
Authors: Norlin Pauzi, Ahmad R.M. Yahya, Zairossani Nor, Amirul A. Abdullah
Strain M was isolated from the latex of Hevea brasiliensis that grow in the rubber farm area of Malaysia Rubber Board. Strain M was tentatively identified as Bacillus sp. Strain M demonstrated high protease production at pH 9, and this was suitable to be applied in rubber processing that was in alkaline conditions. The right and suitable proportion to be used in applying supernatant into the latex was two parts of latex and one part of enzyme. In this proportion, the latex was stable throughout the 72 hours of treatment. The potential of strain M to degrade protein in the natural rubber latex was proven with the reduction of 79.3% nitrogen in 24 hours treatment. Centrifugation process of the latex before undergoing the treatment had increased the protein degradation in latex. Although the centrifugation process did not achieve zero nitrogen content, it had improved the performance of protein denaturing in the natural rubber.
Keywords: Hevea brasiliensis, Bacillus sp., protease, latex.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2295
100 Material Characterization and Numerical Simulation of a Rubber Bumper
Authors: Tamás Mankovits, Dávid Huri, Imre Kállai, Imre Kocsis, Tamás Szabó
Non-linear FEM calculations are indispensable when important technical information like operating performance of a rubber component is desired. Rubber bumpers built into air-spring structures may undergo large deformations under load, which in itself shows non-linear behavior. The changing contact range between the parts and the incompressibility of the rubber increases this non-linear behavior further. The material characterization of an elastomeric component is also a demanding engineering task. In this paper a comprehensive investigation is introduced including laboratory measurements, mesh density analysis and complex finite element simulations to obtain the load-displacement curve of the chosen rubber bumper. Contact and friction effects are also taken into consideration. The aim of this research is to elaborate a FEM model which is accurate and competitive for a future shape optimization task.
Keywords: Rubber bumper, finite element analysis, compression test, Mooney-Rivlin material model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3483
99 Advanced Materials Based on Ethylene-Propylene-Diene Terpolymers and Organically Modified Montmorillonite
Authors: M. D. Stelescu, E. Manaila, G. Pelin, M. Georgescu, M. Sonmez
This paper presents studies on the development and characterization of nanocomposites based on ethylene-propylene terpolymer rubber (EPDM), chlorobutyl rubber (IIR-Cl) and organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT). Mixtures were made containing 0, 3 and 6 phr (parts per 100 parts rubber) OMMT, respectively. They were obtained by melt intercalation in an internal mixer - Plasti-Corder Brabender, in suitable blending parameters, at high temperature for 11 minutes. Curing agents were embedded on a laboratory roller at 70-100 ºC, friction 1:1.1, processing time 5 minutes. Rubber specimens were obtained by compression, using a hydraulic press at 165 ºC and a pressing force of 300 kN. Curing time, determined using the Monsanto rheometer, decreases with the increased amount of OMMT in the mixtures. At the same time, it was noticed that mixtures containing OMMT show improvement in physical-mechanical properties. These types of nanocomposites may be used to obtain rubber seals for the space application or for other areas of application.
Keywords: Chlorobutyl rubber, ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymers, montmorillonite, rubber seals, space application.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 590
98 Comparison of Different Data Acquisition Techniques for Shape Optimization Problems
Authors: Attila Vámosi, Tamás Mankovits, Dávid Huri, Imre Kocsis, Tamás Szabó
Non-linear FEM calculations are indispensable when important technical information like operating performance of a rubber component is desired. For example rubber bumpers built into air-spring structures may undergo large deformations under load, which in itself shows non-linear behavior. The changing contact range between the parts and the incompressibility of the rubber increases this non-linear behavior further. The material characterization of an elastomeric component is also a demanding engineering task. The shape optimization problem of rubber parts led to the study of FEM based calculation processes. This type of problems was posed and investigated by several authors. In this paper the time demand of certain calculation methods are studied and the possibilities of time reduction is presented.
Keywords: Rubber bumper, data acquisition, finite element analysis, support vector regression.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2040
97 Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Epoxy-Rubber Dust Composites
Authors: Antaryami Mishra
Abstract:Composite pins of rubber dust collected from tyre retreading centres of trucks, cars and buses etc.and epoxy with weight percentages of 10. 15, and 20 % of rubber (weight fractions of 9, 13 and 17 % respectively) have been prepared in house with the help of a split wooden mould. The pins were tested in a pin-on-disc wear monitor to determine the co-efficient of friction and weight losses with varying speeds, loads and time. The wear volume and wear rates have also been found out for all these three specimens.. It is observed that all the specimens have exhibited very low coefficient of friction and low wear rates under dry sliding condition. Out of the above three samples tested, the specimen with 10 % rubber dust by weight has shown lowest wear rates. However a peculiar result i.e decreasing trend has been obtained with 20% reinforcement of rubber in epoxy while rubbed against steel at varying speeds. This might have occurred due to high surface finish of the disc and formation of a thin transfer layer from the composite
Keywords: epoxy, rubber dust, composites, weight fractions, pin-on-disc wear tests, wear volume and wear rate calculations.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2038
96 Effect of Rubber Treatment on Compressive Strength and Modulus of Elasticity of Self-Compacting Rubberized Concrete
Authors: I. Miličević, M. Hadzima Nyarko, R. Bušić, J. Simonović Radosavljević, M. Prokopijević, K. Vojisavljević
This paper investigates the effects of different treatment methods of rubber aggregates for self-compacting concrete (SCC) on compressive strength and modulus of elasticity. SCC mixtures with 10% replacement of fine aggregate with crumb rubber by total aggregate volume and with different aggregate treatment methods were investigated. The rubber aggregate was treated in three different methods: dry process, water-soaking, and NaOH treatment plus water soaking. Properties of SCC in a fresh and hardened state were tested and evaluated. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of three different SCC patches were made and discussed. It was observed that applying the proposed NaOH plus water soaking method resulted in the improvement of fresh and hardened concrete properties. It resulted in a more uniform distribution of rubber particles in the cement matrix, a better bond between rubber particles and the cement matrix, and higher compressive strength of SCC rubberized concrete.
Keywords: Compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, NaOH treatment, rubber aggregate, self-compacting rubberized concrete, scanning electron microscope analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 442
95 Assessment of Analytical Equations for the Derivation of Young’s Modulus of Bonded Rubber Materials
Authors: Z. N. Haji, S. O. Oyadiji, H. Samami, O. Farrell
The prediction of the vibration response of rubber products by analytical or numerical method depends mainly on the predefined intrinsic material properties such as Young’s modulus, damping factor and Poisson’s ratio. Such intrinsic properties are determined experimentally by subjecting a bonded rubber sample to compression tests. The compression tests on such a sample yield an apparent Young’s modulus which is greater in magnitude than the intrinsic Young’s modulus of the rubber. As a result, many analytical equations have been developed to determine Young’s modulus from an apparent Young’s modulus of bonded rubber materials. In this work, the applicability of some of these analytical equations is assessed via experimental testing. The assessment is based on testing of vulcanized nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR70) samples using tensile test and compression test methods. The analytical equations are used to determine the intrinsic Young’s modulus from the apparent modulus that is derived from the compression test data of the bonded rubber samples. Then, these Young’s moduli are compared with the actual Young’s modulus that is derived from the tensile test data. The results show significant discrepancy between the Young’s modulus derived using the analytical equations and the actual Young’s modulus.
Keywords: Bonded rubber, quasi-static test, shape factor, apparent Young’s modulus.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 589
94 An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Press Force and Weld Line Displacement of Tailor Welded Blanks in Conventional and Rubber Pad Sheet Metal Forming
Authors: Amir Ansari, Ehsan Shahrjerdi, Ehsan Amini
Abstract:To investigate the behavior of sheet metals during forming tailor welded blanks (TWB) of various thickness made via Co2 Laser welding are under consideration. These blanks are formed used two different forming methods of rubber as well as the conventional punch and die methods. The main research objective is the effects of using a rubber die instead of a solid one the displacement of the weld line and the press force needed for forming. Specimens with thicknesses of 0.5, 0.6, 0.8 and 1mm are subjected to Erichsen two dimensional tests and the resulted force for each case are compared. This is followed by a theoretical and numerical study of press force and weld line displacement. It is concluded that using rubber pad forming (RPF) causes a reduction in weld line displacement and an increase in the press force.
Keywords: Rubber pad forming, Tailor welded blank, Thickness ratio, Weld line displacement.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1482
93 Improvement of Frictional Coefficient of Modified Shoe Soles onto Icy and Snowy Road by Tilting of Added Glass Fibers into Rubber
Authors: Shunya Wakayama, Kazuya Okubo, Toru Fujii, Daisuke Sakata, Noriyuki Kado, Hiroshi Furutachi
Abstract:The purpose of this study is to propose an effective method to improve frictional coefficient between shoe rubber soles with added glass fibers and the surfaces of icy and snowy road in order to prevent slip-and-fall accidents by the users. The additional fibers into the rubber were uniformly tilted to the perpendicular direction of the frictional surface, where tilting angles were -60, -30, +30, +60, 90 degrees and 0 (as normal specimen), respectively. It was found that parallel arraignment was effective to improve the frictional coefficient when glass fibers were embedded in the shoe rubber, while perpendicular to normal direction of the embedded glass fibers on the shoe surface was also effective to do that once after they were exposed from the shoe rubber with its abrasion. These improvements were explained by the increase of stiffness against the shear deformation of the rubber at critical frictional state and adequate scratching of fibers when fibers were protruded in perpendicular to frictional direction, respectively. Most effective angle of tilting of frictional coefficient between rubber specimens and a stone was perpendicular (= 0 degree) to frictional direction. Combinative modified rubber specimen having 2 layers was fabricated where tilting angle of protruded fibers was 0 degree near the contact surface and tilting angle of embedded fibers was 90 degrees near back surface in thickness direction to further improve the frictional coefficient. Current study suggested that effective arraignments in tilting angle of the added fibers should be applied in designing rubber shoe soles to keep the safeties for users in regions of cold climates.
Keywords: Frictional coefficient, icy and snowy road, shoe rubber soles, tilting angle.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1584