Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: Switching frequency

22 Level Shifted Carrier Signal Based Scalar Random Pulse Width Modulation Algorithms for Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive

Authors: M. Nayeemuddin, T. Bramhananda Reddy, M. Vijaya Kumar

Abstract:

Acoustic noise becoming ever more obnoxious radiated by voltage source inverter fed induction motor drive in modern and industrial applications. The drive utilized for industrial and modern applications should use “spread spectrum” innovation known as Random pulse width modulation (PWM) algorithms where acoustic noise emanates through the machine should be critically concerned. This paper illustrates three types of random PWM control algorithms with fixed switching frequency namely 1) Random modulating PWM 2) Random carrier PWM and 3) Random modulating-carrier PWM. The spectrum plots of the motor stator current demonstrate the strength and robustness of the proposed PWM algorithms. To affirm the proposed algorithms, experimental tests have been conducted using dSPACE rt1104 control board on a v/f control three phase induction motor drive fed by DC link cascaded multilevel inverter.

Keywords: Multilevel inverter, acoustic noise, CSVPWM, total harmonic distortion, random PWM algorithm.

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21 A High Time Resolution Digital Pulse Width Modulator Based on Field Programmable Gate Array’s Phase Locked Loop Megafunction

Authors: Jun Wang, Tingcun Wei

Abstract:

The digital pulse width modulator (DPWM) is the crucial building block for digitally-controlled DC-DC switching converter, which converts the digital duty ratio signal into its analog counterpart to control the power MOSFET transistors on or off. With the increase of switching frequency of digitally-controlled DC-DC converter, the DPWM with higher time resolution is required. In this paper, a 15-bits DPWM with three-level hybrid structure is presented; the first level is composed of a7-bits counter and a comparator, the second one is a 5-bits delay line, and the third one is a 3-bits digital dither. The presented DPWM is designed and implemented using the PLL megafunction of FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays), and the required frequency of clock signal is 128 times of switching frequency. The simulation results show that, for the switching frequency of 2 MHz, a DPWM which has the time resolution of 15 ps is achieved using a maximum clock frequency of 256MHz. The designed DPWM in this paper is especially useful for high-frequency digitally-controlled DC-DC switching converters.

Keywords: DPWM, PLL megafunction, FPGA, time resolution, digitally-controlled DC-DC switching converter.

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20 Zero Voltage Switched Full Bridge Converters for the Battery Charger of Electric Vehicle

Authors: Rizwan Ullah, Abdar Ali, Zahid Ullah

Abstract:

This paper illustrates the study of three isolated zero voltage switched (ZVS) PWM full bridge (FB) converters to charge the high voltage battery in the charger of electric vehicle (EV). EV battery chargers have several challenges such as high efficiency, high reliability, low cost, isolation, and high power density. The cost of magnetic and filter components in the battery charger is reduced when switching frequency is increased. The increase in the switching frequency increases switching losses. ZVS is used to reduce switching losses and to operate the converter in the battery charger at high frequency. The performance of each of the three converters is evaluated on the basis of ZVS range, dead times of the switches, conduction losses of switches, circulating current stress, circulating energy, duty cycle loss, and efficiency. The limitations and merits of each PWM FB converter are reviewed. The converter with broader ZVS range, high efficiency and low switch stresses is selected for battery charger applications in EV.

Keywords: Electric vehicle, PWM FB converter, zero voltage switching, circulating energy, duty cycle loss, battery charger.

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19 Performences of Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Control and Neuro-Fuzzy Control Based on DPC for Grid Connected DFIG with Fixed Switching Frequency

Authors: Fayssal Amrane, Azeddine Chaiba

Abstract:

In this paper, type-2 fuzzy logic control (T2FLC) and neuro-fuzzy control (NFC) for a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based on direct power control (DPC) with a fixed switching frequency is proposed for wind generation application. First, a mathematical model of the doubly-fed induction generator implemented in d-q reference frame is achieved. Then, a DPC algorithm approach for controlling active and reactive power of DFIG via fixed switching frequency is incorporated using PID. The performance of T2FLC and NFC, which is based on the DPC algorithm, are investigated and compared to those obtained from the PID controller. Finally, simulation results demonstrate that the NFC is more robust, superior dynamic performance for wind power generation system applications.

Keywords: Doubly fed induction generetor, direct power control, space vector modulation, type-2 fuzzy logic control, neuro-fuzzy control, maximum power point tracking.

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18 Power Factor Correction Based on High Switching Frequency Resonant Power Converter

Authors: B. Sathyanandhi, P. M. Balasubramaniam

Abstract:

This paper presents Buck-Boost converter topology to maintain the input power factor by using the power factor stage control and regulation stage control. Suppose, if we are using the RL load the power factor will be reduced due to the presence of total harmonic distortion in the current wave. To improve the power factor the current waveform should follow the fundamental component of the voltage waveform. These can be achieved by using the high -frequency power converter. Based on the resonant circuit the converter is able to perform the function of Buck, Boost, and buck-boost converter. Here ,we have used Buck-Boost converter, because, the buck-boost converter has more advantages than the boost converter. Here the switching action of the power converter can  take place by using the external zero comparator PFC stage control. The power converter consisting of the resonant  circuit which is used to control the output voltage gain of the converter. The power converter is operated at a very high switching frequency in the range of 400KHz in order to overcome the switching losses of the power converter. Due to  presence of high switching frequency, the power factor will improve. Therefore, the total harmonics distortion present in the current waveform has also reduced. These results has generated in the form of simulation by using MATLAB/SIMULINK software.  Similar to the Buck and Boost converters, the operation of the Buck-Boost has best understood, in terms of the inductor's "reluctance" for allowing rapid change in current, which also reduces the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) in the input current waveform, which can improve the input Power factor, based on the type of load used.

Keywords: Buck-boost converter, High switching frequency, Power factor correction, power factor correction stage Regulation stage, Total harmonic distortion (THD).

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17 High Performance Direct Torque Control for Induction Motor Drive Fed from Photovoltaic System

Authors: E. E. El-Kholy, Ahamed Kalas, Mahmoud Fauzy, M. El-Shahat Dessouki, Abdou. M. El-Refay, Mohammed El-Zefery

Abstract:

Direct Torque Control (DTC) is an AC drive control method especially designed to provide fast and robust responses. In this paper a progressive algorithm for direct torque control of threephase induction drive system supplied by photovoltaic arrays using voltage source inverter to control motor torque and flux with maximum power point tracking at different level of insolation is presented. Experimental results of the new DTC method obtained by an experimental rapid prototype system for drives are presented. Simulation and experimental results confirm that the proposed system gives quick, robust torque and speed responses at constant switching frequencies.

Keywords: Photovoltaic (PV) array, direct torque control (DTC), constant switching frequency, induction motor, maximum power point tracking (MPPT).

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16 High-Voltage Resonant Converter with Extreme Load Variation: Design Criteria and Applications

Authors: Jose A. Pomilio, Olavo Bet, Mateus P. Vieira

Abstract:

The power converter that feeds high-frequency, highvoltage transformers must be carefully designed due to parasitic components, mainly the secondary winding capacitance and the leakage inductance, that introduces resonances in relatively lowfrequency range, next to the switching frequency. This paper considers applications in which the load (resistive) has an unpredictable behavior, changing from open to short-circuit condition faster than the output voltage control loop could react. In this context, to avoid overvoltage and over current situations, that could damage the converter, the transformer or the load, it is necessary to find an operation point that assure the desired output voltage in spite of the load condition. This can done adjusting the frequency response of the transformer adding an external inductance, together with selecting the switching frequency to get stable output voltage independently of the load.

Keywords: High-voltage transformer, Resonant converter, Softcommutation.

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15 Modelling and Simulation of Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Single Source Inverter Using PSIM

Authors: Gaddafi S. Shehu, T. Yalcinoz, Abdullahi B. Kunya

Abstract:

Multilevel inverters such as flying capacitor, diodeclamped, and cascaded H-bridge inverters are very popular particularly in medium and high power applications. This paper focuses on a cascaded H-bridge module using a single direct current (DC) source in order to generate an 11-level output voltage. The noble approach reduces the number of switches and gate drivers, in comparison with a conventional method. The anticipated topology produces more accurate result with an isolation transformer at high switching frequency. Different modulation techniques can be used for the multilevel inverter, but this work features modulation techniques known as selective harmonic elimination (SHE).This modulation approach reduces the number of carriers with reduction in Switching Losses, Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), and thereby increasing Power Quality (PQ). Based on the simulation result obtained, it appears SHE has the ability to eliminate selected harmonics by chopping off the fundamental output component. The performance evaluation of the proposed cascaded multilevel inverter is performed using PSIM simulation package and THD of 0.94% is obtained.

Keywords: Cascaded H-bridge Multilevel Inverter, Power Quality, Selective Harmonic Elimination.

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14 Performances Assessment of Direct Torque Controlled IM Drives Using Fuzzy Logic Control and Space Vector Modulation Strategy

Authors: L. Moussaoui, L. Rahmani

Abstract:

This paper deals with the direct torque control (DTC) of the induction motor. This type of control allows decoupling control between the flux and the torque without the need for a transformation of coordinates. However, as with other hysteresis-based systems, the classical DTC scheme represents a high ripple, in both the electromagnetic torque and the stator flux and a distortion in the stator current. As well, it suffers from variable switching frequency. To solve these problems various modifications, in conventional DTC scheme, have been made during the last decade. Indeed the DTC based on space vector modulation (SVM) has proved to generate very low ripples in torque and flux with constant switching frequency. It also shows almost the same dynamic performances as the classical DTC system. On the other hand, fuzzy logic is considered as an interesting alternative approach for its advantages: Analysis close to the exigencies of user, ability of nonlinear systems control, best dynamic performances and inherent quality of robustness.

Therefore, two fuzzy direct torque control approaches, for the induction motor fed by SVM-voltage source inverter, are proposed in this paper. By using these two approaches of DTC, the advantages of fuzzy logic control, space vector modulation, and direct torque control method are combined. The performances of these DTC schemes are evaluated through digital simulation using Matlab/Simulink platform and fuzzy logic tools. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness and the superiority of the proposed Fuzzy DTC-SVM schemes in comparison to the classical DTC.

Keywords: Direct torque control, Fuzzy logic control, Induction motor, Switching frequency, Space vector modulation, Torque and flux ripples.

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13 A Maximum Power Point Tracker for PV Panels Using SEPIC Converter

Authors: S. Ganesh, J. Janani, G. Besliya Angel

Abstract:

Photovoltaic (PV) energy is one of the most important renewable energy sources. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) techniques should be used in photovoltaic systems to maximize the PV panel output power by tracking continuously the maximum power point which depends on panel’s temperature and on irradiance conditions. Incremental conductance control method has been used as MPPT algorithm. The methodology is based on connecting a pulse width modulated dc/dc SEPIC converter, which is controlled by a microprocessor based unit. The SEPIC converter is one of the buck-boost converters which maintain the output voltage as constant irrespective of the solar isolation level. By adjusting the switching frequency of the converter the maximum power point has been achieved. The main difference between the method used in the proposed MPPT systems and other technique used in the past is that PV array output power is used to directly control the dc/dc converter thus reducing the complexity of the system. The resulting system has high efficiency, low cost and can be easily modified. The tracking capability has been verified experimentally with a 10 W solar panel under a controlled experimental setup. The SEPIC converter and their control strategies has been analyzed and simulated using Simulink/Matlab software.

Keywords: Maximum Power Point Tracking, Microprocessor, PV Module, SEPIC Converter.

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12 A Comparative Analysis of Modulation Control Strategies for Cascade H-Bridge 11-Level Inverter

Authors: Joshi Manohar. V., Sujatha. P., Anjaneyulu K. S. R

Abstract:

The range of the output power is a very important and evident limitation of two-level inverters. In order to overcome this disadvantage, multilevel inverters are introduced. Recently, Cascade H-Bridge inverters have emerged as one of the popular converter topologies used in numerous industrial applications. The modulation switching strategies such as phase shifted carrier based Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique and Stair case modulation with Selective Harmonic Elimination (SHE) PWM technique are generally used. NR method is used to solve highly non linear transcendental equations which are formed by SHEPWM method. Generally NR method has a drawback of requiring good initial guess but in this paper a new approach is implemented for NR method with any random initial guess. A three phase CHB 11-level inverter is chosen for analysis. MATLAB/SIMULINK programming environment and harmonic profiles are compared. Finally this paper presents a method at fundamental switching frequency with least % THDV.

Keywords: Cascade H-bridge 11- level Inverter, NR method, Phase shifted carrier based pulse width modulation (PSCPWM), Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation (SHEPWM), Total Harmonic Distortion (%THDv).

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11 Lower Order Harmonics Minimisation in CHB Inverter Using GA and Decomposition by WT

Authors: V. Joshi Manohar, P. Sujatha, K. S. R. Anjaneyulu

Abstract:

Nowadays Multilevel inverters are widely using in various applications. Modulation strategy at fundamental switching frequency like, SHEPWM is prominent technique to eliminate lower order of harmonics with less switching losses and better harmonic profile. The equations which are formed by SHE are highly nonlinear transcendental in nature, there may exist single, multiple or even no solutions for a particular MI. However, some loads such as electrical drives, it is required to operate in whole range of MI. In order to solve SHE equations for whole range of MI, intelligent techniques are well suited to solve equations so as to produce lest %THDV. Hence, this paper uses Continuous genetic algorithm for minimising harmonics. This paper also presents wavelet based analysis of harmonics. The developed algorithm is simulated and %THD from FFT analysis and Wavelet analysis are compared. MATLAB programming environment and SIMULINK models are used whenever necessary.

Keywords: Cascade H-Bridge Inverter (CHB), Continuous Genetic Algorithm (C-GA), Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation (SHEPWM), Total Harmonic Distortion (%THDv), Wavelet Transform (WT).

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10 Loss Analysis of Half Bridge DC-DC Converters in High-Current and Low-Voltage Applications

Authors: A. Faruk Bakan, İsmail Aksoy, Nihan Altintaş

Abstract:

In this paper, half bridge DC-DC converters with transformer isolation presented in the literature are analyzed for highcurrent and low-voltage applications under the same operation conditions, and compared in terms of losses and efficiency. The conventional and improved half-bridge DC-DC converters are simulated, and current and voltage waveforms are obtained for input voltage Vdc=500V, output current IO=450A, output voltage VO=38V and switching frequency fS=20kHz. IGBTs are used as power semiconductor switches. The power losses of the semiconductor devices are calculated from current and voltage waveforms. From simulation results, it is seen that the capacitor switched half bridge converter has the best efficiency value, and can be preferred at high power and high frequency applications.

Keywords: Isolated half bridge DC-DC converter, high-current low-voltage applications, soft switching, high efficiency.

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9 Implementation and Simulation of Half-Bridge Series Resonant Inverter in Zero Voltage Switching

Authors: Buket Turan Azizoğlu

Abstract:

In switch mode power inverters, small sized inverters can be obtained by increasing the switching frequency. Switching frequency increment causes high driver losses. Also, high dt di and dt dv produced by the switching action creates high Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and Radio Frequency Interference (RFI). In this paper, a series half bridge series resonant inverter circuit is simulated and evaluated practically to demonstrate the turn-on and turn-off conditions during zero or close to zero voltage switching. Also, the reverse recovery current effects of the body diode of the MOSFETs were investigated by operating above and below resonant frequency.

Keywords: Driver losses, Half Bridge series resonant inverter, Zero Voltage Switching

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8 Pulse Skipping Modulated DC to DC Step Down Converter Under Discontinuous Conduction Mode

Authors: Ramamurthy S, Ranjan P V, Raghavendiran T A

Abstract:

Reduced switching loss favours Pulse Skipping Modulation mode of switching dc-to-dc converters at light loads. Under certain conditions the converter operates in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM). Inductor current starts from zero in each switching cycle as the switching frequency is constant and not adequately high. A DC-to-DC buck converter is modelled and simulated in this paper under DCM. Effect of ESR of the filter capacitor in input current frequency components is studied. The converter is studied for its operation under input voltage and load variation. The operating frequency is selected to be close to and above audio range.

Keywords: Buck converter, Discontinuous conduction mode, Electromagnetic Interference, Pulse Skipping Modulation.

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7 A ZVS Flyback DC-DC Converter using Multilayered Coreless Printed-Circuit Board(PCB) Step-down Power Transformer

Authors: Hari Babu Kotte, Radhika Ambatipudi, Dr. Kent Bertilsson

Abstract:

The experimental and theoretical results of a ZVS (Zero Voltage Switching) isolated flyback DC-DC converter using multilayered coreless PCB step down 2:1 transformer are presented. The performance characteristics of the transformer are shown which are useful for the parameters extraction. The measured energy efficiency of the transformer is found to be more than 94% with the sinusoidal input voltage excitation. The designed flyback converter has been tested successfully upto the output power level of 10W, with a switching frequency in the range of 2.7MHz-4.3MHz. The input voltage of the converter is varied from 25V-40V DC. Frequency modulation technique is employed by maintaining constant off time to regulate the output voltage of the converter. The energy efficiency of the isolated flyback converter circuit under ZVS condition in the MHz frequency region is found to be approximately in the range of 72-84%. This paper gives the comparative results in terms of the energy efficiency of the hard switched and soft switched flyback converter in the MHz frequency region.

Keywords: Coreless PCB step down transformer, DC-DCconverter, Flyback, Hard Switched Converter, MHz frequencyregion, Multilayered PCB transformer, Zero Voltage Switching

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6 DTC-SVM Scheme for Induction Motors Fedwith a Three-level Inverter

Authors: Ehsan Hassankhan, Davood A. Khaburi

Abstract:

Direct Torque Control is a control technique in AC drive systems to obtain high performance torque control. The conventional DTC drive contains a pair of hysteresis comparators. DTC drives utilizing hysteresis comparators suffer from high torque ripple and variable switching frequency. The most common solution to those problems is to use the space vector depends on the reference torque and flux. In this Paper The space vector modulation technique (SVPWM) is applied to 2 level inverter control in the proposed DTC-based induction motor drive system, thereby dramatically reducing the torque ripple. Then the controller based on space vector modulation is designed to be applied in the control of Induction Motor (IM) with a three-level Inverter. This type of Inverter has several advantages over the standard two-level VSI, such as a greater number of levels in the output voltage waveforms, Lower dV/dt, less harmonic distortion in voltage and current waveforms and lower switching frequencies. This paper proposes a general SVPWM algorithm for three-level based on standard two-level SVPWM. The proposed scheme is described clearly and simulation results are reported to demonstrate its effectiveness. The entire control scheme is implemented with Matlab/Simulink.

Keywords: Direct torque control, space vector Pulsewidthmodulation(SVPWM), neutral point clamped(NPC), two-levelinverter.

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5 Digital Power Management Hardware Realization Using FPGA

Authors: Kar Foo Chong, Andreas Lee Astuti, Pradeep K. Gopalakrishnan, T. Hui Teo

Abstract:

This paper describes design of a digital feedback loop for a low switching frequency dc-dc switching converters. Low switching frequencies were selected in this design. A look up table for the digital PID (proportional integrator differentiator) compensator was implemented using Altera Stratix II with built-in ADC (analog-to-digital converter) to achieve this hardware realization. Design guidelines are given for the PID compensator, high frequency DPWM (digital pulse width modulator) and moving average filter.

Keywords: dc-dc converter, FPGA, PID, power management, .

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4 DC Link Floating for Grid Connected PV Converters

Authors: Attila Balogh, Eszter Varga, István Varjasi

Abstract:

Nowadays there are several grid connected converter in the grid system. These grid connected converters are generally the converters of renewable energy sources, industrial four quadrant drives and other converters with DC link. These converters are connected to the grid through a three phase bridge. The standards prescribe the maximal harmonic emission which could be easily limited with high switching frequency. The increased switching losses can be reduced to the half with the utilization of the wellknown Flat-top modulation. The suggested control method is the expansion of the Flat-top modulation with which the losses could be also reduced to the half compared to the Flat-top modulation. Comparing to traditional control these requirements can be simultaneously satisfied much better with the DLF (DC Link Floating) method.

Keywords: DC link floating, high efficiency, PV converter, control method.

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3 Synchronization Technique for Random Switching Frequency Pulse-Width Modulation

Authors: Apinan Aurasopon, Worawat Sa-ngiavibool

Abstract:

This paper proposes a synchronized random switching frequency pulse width modulation (SRSFPWM). In this technique, the clock signal is used to control the random noise frequency which is produced by the feedback voltage of a hysteresis circuit. These make the triangular carrier frequency equaling to the random noise frequency in each switching period with the symmetrical positive and negative slopes of triangular carrier. Therefore, there is no error voltage in PWM signal. The PSpice simulated results shown the proposed technique improved the performance in case of low frequency harmonics of PWM signal comparing with conventional random switching frequency PWM.

Keywords: Random switching frequency pulse - width modulation.

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2 Optimal Switching Strategies for Tracking of Currents of Voltage Source Converters

Authors: R. Oloomi, M. A. Sadrnia

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new optimal feedback controller for voltage source converters VSC's, for current regulated voltage source converters, which allows compensate the harmonics of current produced by nonlinear loads and load reactive power. The aim of the present paper is to describe a novel switching signal generation technique called optimal controller which guarantees that the injected currents follow the reference currents determined by the compensation strategy, with the smallest possible tracking error and fixed switching frequency. It is compared with well-known hysteresis current controller HCC. The validity of presented method and its comparison with HCC is studied through simulation results.

Keywords: Hysteresis Current Controller, Optimal Controller, Switching pattern, Voltage Source Converter.

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1 Performance Evaluation of a Neural Network based General Purpose Space Vector Modulator

Authors: A.Muthuramalingam, S.Himavathi

Abstract:

Space Vector Modulation (SVM) is an optimum Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique for an inverter used in a variable frequency drive applications. It is computationally rigorous and hence limits the inverter switching frequency. Increase in switching frequency can be achieved using Neural Network (NN) based SVM, implemented on application specific chips. This paper proposes a neural network based SVM technique for a Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). The network proposed is independent of switching frequency. Different architectures are investigated keeping the total number of neurons constant. The performance of the inverter is compared for various switching frequencies for different architectures of NN based SVM. From the results obtained, the network with minimum resource and appropriate word length is identified. The bit precision required for this application is identified. The network with 8-bit precision is implemented in the IC XCV 400 and the results are presented. The performance of NN based general purpose SVM with higher bit precision is discussed.

Keywords: NN based SVM, FPGA Implementation, LayerMultiplexing, NN structure and Resource Reduction, PerformanceEvaluation

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