Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2735

Search results for: circulating energy

2735 Zero Voltage Switched Full Bridge Converters for the Battery Charger of Electric Vehicle

Authors: Rizwan Ullah, Abdar Ali, Zahid Ullah

Abstract:

This paper illustrates the study of three isolated zero voltage switched (ZVS) PWM full bridge (FB) converters to charge the high voltage battery in the charger of electric vehicle (EV). EV battery chargers have several challenges such as high efficiency, high reliability, low cost, isolation, and high power density. The cost of magnetic and filter components in the battery charger is reduced when switching frequency is increased. The increase in the switching frequency increases switching losses. ZVS is used to reduce switching losses and to operate the converter in the battery charger at high frequency. The performance of each of the three converters is evaluated on the basis of ZVS range, dead times of the switches, conduction losses of switches, circulating current stress, circulating energy, duty cycle loss, and efficiency. The limitations and merits of each PWM FB converter are reviewed. The converter with broader ZVS range, high efficiency and low switch stresses is selected for battery charger applications in EV.

Keywords: Electric vehicle, PWM FB converter, zero voltage switching, circulating energy, duty cycle loss, battery charger.

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2734 Mathematical Modelling of Partially Filled Fluid Coupling Behaviour

Authors: A. M. Maqableh

Abstract:

Modelling techniques for a fluid coupling taken from published literature have been extended to include the effects of the filling and emptying of the coupling with oil and the variation in losses when the coupling is partially full. In the model, the fluid flow inside the coupling is considered to have two principal velocity components; one circumferentially about the coupling axis (centrifugal head) and the other representing the secondary vortex within the coupling itself (vortex head). The calculation of liquid mass flow rate circulating between the two halves of the coupling is based on: the assumption of a linear velocity variation in the circulating vortex flow; the head differential in the fluid due to the speed difference between the two shafts; and the losses in the circulating vortex flow as a result of the impingement of the flow with the blades in the coupling and friction within the passages between the blades.

Keywords: Fluid Coupling, Mathematical Modelling, partially filled.

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2733 Effect of the Cross-Sectional Geometry on Heat Transfer and Particle Motion of Circulating Fluidized Bed Riser for CO2 Capture

Authors: Seungyeong Choi, Namkyu Lee, Dong Il Shim, Young Mun Lee, Yong-Ki Park, Hyung Hee Cho

Abstract:

Effect of the cross-sectional geometry on heat transfer and particle motion of circulating fluidized bed riser for CO2 capture was investigated. Numerical simulation using Eulerian-eulerian method with kinetic theory of granular flow was adopted to analyze gas-solid flow consisting in circulating fluidized bed riser. Circular, square, and rectangular cross-sectional geometry cases of the same area were carried out. Rectangular cross-sectional geometries were analyzed having aspect ratios of 1: 2, 1: 4, 1: 8, and 1:16. The cross-sectional geometry significantly influenced the particle motion and heat transfer. The downward flow pattern of solid particles near the wall was changed. The gas-solid mixing degree of the riser with the rectangular cross section of the high aspect ratio was the lowest. There were differences in bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient according to rectangular geometry with different aspect ratios.

Keywords: Bed geometry, computational fluid dynamics, circulating fluidized bed riser, heat transfer.

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2732 Roundabout Optimal Entry and Circulating Flow Induced by Road Hump

Authors: Amir Hossein Pakshir, A. Hossein Pour, N. Jahandar, Ali Paydar

Abstract:

Roundabout work on the principle of circulation and entry flows, where the maximum entry flow rates depend largely on circulating flow bearing in mind that entry flows must give away to circulating flows. Where an existing roundabout has a road hump installed at the entry arm, it can be hypothesized that the kinematics of vehicles may prevent the entry arm from achieving optimum performance. Road humps are traffic calming devices placed across road width solely as speed reduction mechanism. They are the preferred traffic calming option in Malaysia and often used on single and dual carriageway local routes. The speed limit on local routes is 30mph (50 km/hr). Road humps in their various forms achieved the biggest mean speed reduction (based on a mean speed before traffic calming of 30mph) of up to 10mph or 16 km/hr according to the UK Department of Transport. The underlying aim of reduced speed should be to achieve a 'safe' distribution of speeds which reflects the function of the road and the impacts on the local community. Constraining safe distribution of speeds may lead to poor drivers timing and delayed reflex reaction that can probably cause accident. Previous studies on road hump impact have focused mainly on speed reduction, traffic volume, noise and vibrations, discomfort and delay from the use of road humps. The paper is aimed at optimal entry and circulating flow induced by road humps. Results show that roundabout entry and circulating flow perform better in circumstances where there is no road hump at entrance.

Keywords: Road hump, Roundabout, Speed Reduction

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2731 Cold Model Experimental Research on Particle Velocity Distribution in Gas-Solid Circulating Fluidized Bed for Methanol-to-Olefins Process

Authors: Yongzheng Li, Hongfang Ma, Qiwen Sun, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Radial profiles of particle velocities were investigated in a 6.1m high methanol-to-olefins cold model experimental device using a TSI laser Doppler velocimeter. The effect of axial height on flow development was not obvious in fully developed region under the same operating condition. Superficial gas velocity and solid circulating rate had significant influence on particle velocity in the center region of the riser. Besides, comparisons among rising, descending and average particle velocity were conducted. The particle average velocity was similar to the rising particle velocity and higher than the descending particle velocity in radial locations except the wall region of riser.

Keywords: Circulating fluidized bed, laser doppler velocimeter, particle velocity, radial profile.

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2730 Correlation to Predict the Effect of Particle Type on Axial Voidage Profile in Circulating Fluidized Beds

Authors: M. S. Khurram, S. A. Memon, S. Khan

Abstract:

Bed voidage behavior among different flow regimes for Geldart A, B, and D particles (fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FCC), particle A and glass beads) of diameter range 57-872 μm, apparent density 1470-3092 kg/m3, and bulk density range 890-1773 kg/m3 were investigated in a gas-solid circulating fluidized bed of 0.1 m-i.d. and 2.56 m-height of plexi-glass. Effects of variables (gas velocity, particle properties, and static bed height) were analyzed on bed voidage. The axial voidage profile showed a typical trend along the riser: a dense bed at the lower part followed by a transition in the splash zone and a lean phase in the freeboard. Bed expansion and dense bed voidage increased with an increase of gas velocity as usual. From experimental results, a generalized model relationship based on inverse fluidization number for dense bed voidage from bubbling to fast fluidization regimes was presented.

Keywords: Axial voidage, circulating fluidized bed, splash zone, static bed.

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2729 Optimization of Breast Tumor Cells Isolation Efficiency and Purity by Membrane Filtration

Authors: Bhuvanendran Nair Gourikutty Sajay, Liu Yuxin, Chang Chia-Pin, Poenar Daniel Puiu, Abdur Rub Abdur Rahman

Abstract:

Size based filtration is one of the common methods employed to isolate circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from whole blood. It is well known that this method suffers from isolation efficiency to purity tradeoff. However, this tradeoff is poorly understood. In this paper, we present the design and manufacturing of a special rectangular slit filter. The filter was designed to retain maximal amounts of nucleated cells, while minimizing the pressure on cells, thereby preserving their morphology. The key parameter, namely, input pressure, was optimized to retain the maximal number of tumor cells, whilst maximizing the depletion of normal blood cells (red and white blood cells and platelets). Our results indicate that for a slit geometry of 5 × 40 μm on a 13 mm circular membrane with a fill factor of 21%, a pressure of 6.9 mBar yields the optimum for maximizing isolation of MCF-7 and depletion of normal blood cells.

Keywords: Circulating tumor cells, Parylene slit membrane, Retention, White Blood Cell depletion.

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2728 Optimizing of Gas Consumption in Gas-burner Space Heater

Authors: Saead Negahdari, Davood Jalali Vahid

Abstract:

Nowadays, the importance of energy saving is clearance to everyone. By attention to increasing price of fuels and also the problems of environment pollutions, there are the most efforts for using fuels littler and more optimum in everywhere. This essay studies optimizing of gas consumption in gas-burner space heaters. In oven of each gas-burner space heaters there is two snags to prevent the hot air (the result of combustion of natural gas) to go out of oven of the gas-burner space heaters directly without delivering its heat to the space of favorite environment like a room. These snags cause a excess circulating that helps hot air deliver its heat to the space of favorite environment. It means the exhaust air temperature will be decreased then when there are no snags. This is the aim of this essay to use maximum potential energy of the natural gas to make heat. In this study, by the help of a finite volume software (FLUENT) consumption of the gas-burner space heaters is simulated and optimized. At the end of this writing, by comparing the results of software and experimental results, it will be proved the authenticity of this method.

Keywords: FLUENT, Heat transfer, Oven of Gas-burner spaceheaters, Simulation.

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2727 Triple Intercell Bar for Electrometallurgical Processes: A Design to Increase PV Energy Utilization

Authors: Eduardo P. Wiechmann, Jorge A. Henríquez, Pablo E. Aqueveque, Luis G. Muñoz

Abstract:

PV energy prices are declining rapidly. To take advantage of the benefits of those prices and lower the carbon footprint, operational practices must be modified. Undoubtedly, it challenges the electrowinning practice to operate at constant current throughout the day. This work presents a technology that contributes in providing modulation capacity to the electrode current distribution system. This is to raise the day time dc current and lower it at night. The system is a triple intercell bar that operates in current-source mode. The design is a capping board free dogbone type of bar that ensures an operation free of short circuits, hot swapability repairs and improved current balance. This current-source system eliminates the resetting currents circulating in equipotential bars. Twin auxiliary connectors are added to the main connectors providing secure current paths to bypass faulty or impaired contacts. All system conductive elements are positioned over a baseboard offering a large heat sink area to the ventilation of a facility. The system works with lower temperature than a conventional busbar. Of these attributes, the cathode current balance property stands out and is paramount for day/night modulation and the use of photovoltaic energy. A design based on a 3D finite element method model predicting electric and thermal performance under various industrial scenarios is presented. Preliminary results obtained in an electrowinning facility with industrial prototypes are included.

Keywords: Electrowinning, intercell bars, PV energy, current modulation.

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2726 Closed Greenhouse Production Systems for Smart Plant Production in Urban Areas

Authors: U. Schmidt, D. Dannehl, I. Schuch, J. Suhl, T. Rocksch, R. Salazar-Moreno, E. Fitz-Rodrigues, A. Rojano Aquilar, I. Lopez Cruz, G. Navas Gomez, R. A. Abraham, L. C. Irineo, N. G. Gilberto

Abstract:

The integration of agricultural production systems into urban areas is a challenge for the coming decades. Because of increasing greenhouse gas emission and rising resource consumption as well as costs in animal husbandry, the dietary habits of people in the 21st century have to focus on herbal foods. Intensive plant cultivation systems in large cities and megacities require a smart coupling of information, material and energy flow with the urban infrastructure in terms of Horticulture 4.0. In recent years, many puzzle pieces have been developed for these closed processes at the Humboldt University. To compile these for an urban plant production, it has to be optimized and networked with urban infrastructure systems. In the field of heat energy production, it was shown that with closed greenhouse technology and patented heat exchange and storage technology energy can be provided for heating and domestic hot water supply in the city. Closed water circuits can be drastically reducing the water requirements of plant production in urban areas. Ion sensitive sensors and new disinfection methods can help keep circulating nutrient solutions in the system for a longer time in urban plant production greenhouses.

Keywords: Semi closed, greenhouses, urban farming, solar heat collector, closed water cycles, aquaponics.

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2725 Antibody-Conjugated Nontoxic Arginine-Doped Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Magnetic Circulating Tumor Cells Separation

Authors: F. Kashanian, M. M. Masoudi, A. Akbari, A. Shamloo, M. R. Zand, S. S. Salehi

Abstract:

Nano-sized materials present new opportunities in biology and medicine and they are used as biomedical tools for investigation, separation of molecules and cells. To achieve more effective cancer therapy, it is essential to select cancer cells exactly. This research suggests that using the antibody-functionalized nontoxic Arginine-doped magnetic nanoparticles (A-MNPs), has been prosperous in detection, capture, and magnetic separation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in tumor tissue. In this study, A-MNPs were synthesized via a simple precipitation reaction and directly immobilized Ep-CAM EBA-1 antibodies over superparamagnetic A-MNPs for Mucin BCA-225 in breast cancer cell. The samples were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), FT-IR spectroscopy, Tunneling Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). These antibody-functionalized nontoxic A-MNPs were used to capture breast cancer cell. Through employing a strong permanent magnet, the magnetic separation was achieved within a few seconds. Antibody-Conjugated nontoxic Arginine-doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles have the potential for the future study to capture CTCs which are released from tumor tissue and for drug delivery, and these results demonstrate that the antibody-conjugated A-MNPs can be used in magnetic hyperthermia techniques for cancer treatment.

Keywords: Tumor tissue, antibody, magnetic nanoparticle, CTCs capturing.

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2724 Impact of Design Choices on the Life Cycle Energy of Modern Buildings

Authors: Mahsa Karimpour, Martin Belusko, Ke Xing, Frank Bruno

Abstract:

Traditionally, the embodied energy of design choices which reduce operational energy were assumed to have a negligible impact on the life cycle energy of buildings. However with new buildings having considerably lower operational energy, the significance of embodied energy increases. A life cycle assessment of a population of house designs was conducted in a mild and mixed climate zone. It was determined not only that embodied energy dominates life cycle energy, but that the impact on embodied of design choices was of equal significance to the impact on operational energy.

Keywords: Building life cycle energy, embodied energy, energy design measures, low energy buildings.

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2723 Development Tendency of Energy: A Short Review

Authors: Rehan Jamil, Irfan Jamil, Ming Li, Zhao Jinquan

Abstract:

Energy is the important source for the development of the society and it‘s the basic support of national economy and the base for human living. As the development of economy, abrupt increase of population and continuous improvement of living standards, the demand of energy increases continuously, which caused the impetuous scramble of energy source in the world, and urged the attention of the countries for current status and development trends of energy.

Keywords: Energy, Energy Supply Situation, Energy Production & Consumption.

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2722 Ocean Wave Kinetic Energy Harvesting System for Automated Sub Sea Sensors

Authors: Amir Anvar, Dong Yang Li

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of the Ocean wave kinetic energy harvesting system. Energy harvesting is a concept by which energy is captured, stored, and utilized using various sources by employing interfaces, storage devices, and other units. Ocean wave energy harvesting in which the kinetic and potential energy contained in the natural oscillations of Ocean waves are converted into electric power. The kinetic energy harvesting system could be used for a number of areas. The main applications that we have discussed in this paper are to how generate the energy from Ocean wave energy (kinetic energy) to electric energy that is to eliminate the requirement for continual battery replacement.

Keywords: Energy harvesting, power system, oceanic, sensors, autonomous.

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2721 A Proposed Framework for Improving IT Utilization in the Energy Industry

Authors: Jin Kyung Park, Ji Yeon Cho, Yong Ho Shim, Su Jin Kim, Bong Gyou Lee

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to suggest direction for future study of the energy-IT industry that will be used for framework to increase IT utilization in the energy industry. Recently, Green IT is a becoming global issue because of global environmental pollution. Also, IT roles in energy industry are becoming more important. However, the related studies were IT industry oriented that is not sufficient to make plan for Green energy. Therefore, after analyzing existing studies related to Green energy and Green IT, re-categorization for Green energy-IT industry was suggested. Direction of framework is based on energy industry that enable to link between energy and IT. The results of this study suggest comprehensive insight to Green energy-IT industry. Thus it is able to provide useful implications and guidelines to increase IT utilization in the energy industry.

Keywords: Energy-IT Industry, Green Energy, Green IT, IT Utilization

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2720 Mechanical Characteristics of Spaghetti Enriched with Whole Soy Flour

Authors: Nasehi, B., Mortazavi, S. A., Razavi, S.

Abstract:

The influence of full-fat soy flour (FFSF) and extrusion conditions on the mechanical characteristics of dry spaghetti were evaluated. Process was performed with screw speed of 10-40rpm and water circulating temperature of 35-70°C. Data analysis using mixture design showed that this enrichment resulted in significant differences in mechanical strength.

Keywords: Pasta, Mixture design, Enrichment, Texture.

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2719 High Specific Speed in Circulating Water Pump Can Cause Cavitation, Noise and Vibration

Authors: Chandra Gupt Porwal

Abstract:

Excessive vibration means increased wear, increased repair efforts, bad product selection & quality and high energy consumption. This may be sometimes experienced by cavitation or suction/discharge recirculation which could occur only when net positive suction head available NPSHA drops below the net positive suction head required NPSHR. Cavitation can cause axial surging, if it is excessive, will damage mechanical seals, bearings, possibly other pump components frequently, and shorten the life of the impeller. Efforts have been made to explain Suction Energy (SE), Specific Speed (Ns), Suction Specific Speed (Nss), NPSHA, NPSHR & their significance, possible reasons of cavitation /internal recirculation, its diagnostics and remedial measures to arrest and prevent cavitation in this paper. A case study is presented by the author highlighting that the root cause of unwanted noise and vibration is due to cavitation, caused by high specific speeds or inadequate net- positive suction head available which results in damages to material surfaces of impeller & suction bells and degradation of machine performance, its capacity and efficiency too. Author strongly recommends revisiting the technical specifications of CW pumps to provide sufficient NPSH margin ratios >1.5, for future projects and Nss be limited to 8500 - 9000 for cavitation free operation.

Keywords: Best efficiency point (BEP), Net positive suction head NPSHA, NPSHR, Specific Speed NS, Suction Specific Speed Nss.

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2718 Systematic Approach for Energy-Supply-Orientated Production Planning

Authors: F. Keller, G. Reinhart

Abstract:

The efficient and economic allocation of resources is one main goal in the field of production planning and control. Nowadays, a new variable gains in importance throughout the planning process: Energy. Energy-efficiency has already been widely discussed in literature, but with a strong focus on reducing the overall amount of energy used in production. This paper provides a brief systematic approach, how energy-supply-orientation can be used for an energy-cost-efficient production planning and thus combining the idea of energy-efficiency and energy-flexibility.

Keywords: Production planning and control, energy, efficiency, flexibility.

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2717 Development of Circulating Support Environment of Multilingual Medical Communication using Parallel Texts for Foreign Patients

Authors: Mai Miyabe, Taku Fukushima, Takashi Yoshino, Aguri Shigeno

Abstract:

The need for multilingual communication in Japan has increased due to an increase in the number of foreigners in the country. When people communicate in their nonnative language, the differences in language prevent mutual understanding among the communicating individuals. In the medical field, communication between the hospital staff and patients is a serious problem. Currently, medical translators accompany patients to medical care facilities, and the demand for medical translators is increasing. However, medical translators cannot necessarily provide support, especially in cases in which round-the-clock support is required or in case of emergencies. The medical field has high expectations from information technology. Hence, a system that supports accurate multilingual communication is required. Despite recent advances in machine translation technology, it is very difficult to obtain highly accurate translations. We have developed a support system called M3 for multilingual medical reception. M3 provides support functions that aid foreign patients in the following respects: conversation, questionnaires, reception procedures, and hospital navigation; it also has a Q&A function. Users can operate M3 using a touch screen and receive text-based support. In addition, M3 uses accurate translation tools called parallel texts to facilitate reliable communication through conversations between the hospital staff and the patients. However, if there is no parallel text that expresses what users want to communicate, the users cannot communicate. In this study, we have developed a circulating support environment for multilingual medical communication using parallel texts. The proposed environment can circulate necessary parallel texts through the following procedure: (1) a user provides feedback about the necessary parallel texts, following which (2) these parallel texts are created and evaluated.

Keywords: multilingual medical communication, parallel texts.

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2716 Methodology of the Energy Supply Disturbances Affecting Energy System

Authors: J. Augutis, R. Krikstolaitis, L. Martisauskas

Abstract:

Recently global concerns for the energy security have steadily been on the increase and are expected to become a major issue over the next few decades. Energy security refers to a resilient energy system. This resilient system would be capable of withstanding threats through a combination of active, direct security measures and passive or more indirect measures such as redundancy, duplication of critical equipment, diversity in fuel, other sources of energy, and reliance on less vulnerable infrastructure. Threats and disruptions (disturbances) to one part of the energy system affect another. The paper presents methodology in theoretical background about energy system as an interconnected network and energy supply disturbances impact to the network. The proposed methodology uses a network flow approach to develop mathematical model of the energy system network as the system of nodes and arcs with energy flowing from node to node along paths in the network.

Keywords: Energy Security, Energy Supply Disturbances, Modeling of Energy System, Network Flow

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2715 Hotel Design and Energy Consumption

Authors: Bin Su

Abstract:

A hotel mainly uses its energy on water heating, space heating, refrigeration, space cooling, cooking, lighting and other building services. A number of 4-5 stars hotels in Auckland city are selected for this study. Comparing with the energy used for others, the energy used for the internal space thermal control (e.g. internal space heating) is more closely related to the hotel building itself. This study not only investigates relationship between annual energy (and winter energy) consumptions and building design data but also relationships between winter extra energy consumption and building design data. This study is to identify the major design factors that significantly impact hotel energy consumption for improving the future hotel design for energy efficient.

Keywords: Hotel building design, building energy, building passive design, energy efficiency.

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2714 Zigbee Based Wireless Energy Surveillance System for Energy Savings

Authors: Won-Ho Kim, Chang-Ho Hyun, Moon-Jung Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, zigbee communication based wireless energy surveillance system is presented. The proposed system consists of multiple energy surveillance devices and an energy surveillance monitor. Each different standby power-off value of electric device is set automatically by using learning function of energy surveillance device. Thus adaptive standby power-off function provides user convenience and it maximizes the energy savings. Also, power consumption monitoring function is helpful to reduce inefficient energy consumption in home. The zigbee throughput simulator is designed to evaluate minimum transmission power and maximum allowable information quantity in the proposed system. The test result of prototype has been satisfied all the requirements. The proposed system has confirmed that can be used as an intelligent energy surveillance system for energy savings in home or office.

Keywords: Energy monitoring system, Energy surveillance system, Energy sensor network, Energy savings.

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2713 Overview of Energy Savings and Efficiency Strategies at the Hospitals

Authors: A. Teke, O. Timur

Abstract:

Hospitals represent approximately 6% of total energy consumption in the utility buildings sector. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems are the major part of electrical energy consumption at the hospitals. The air-conditioning system is responsible for around 70% of total electricity consumption. Electric motors and lighting systems in a hospital represent approximately 19% and 21% of the total energy consumption, respectively. In this paper, profiles of hospital energy end-use consumption and an overview of energy saving areas at the hospitals are presented.

Keywords: Energy efficiency, energy saving, healthcare energy consumption, hospital.

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2712 Investigation and Comparison of Energy Intensity in Iranian Transportation Industry (Case Study Road Transportation Sector)

Authors: A. Mojtaba Aghajani, B. Leila Shavakhi

Abstract:

Energy intensity(energy consumption intensity) is a global index which computes the required energy for producing a specific value of goods and services in each country. It is computed in terms of initial energy supply or final energy consumption. In this study (research) Divisia method is used to decompose energy consumption and energy intensity. This method decomposes consumption and energy intensity to production effects, structural and net intensity and could be done as time series or two-periodical. This study analytically investigates consumption changes and energy intensity on economical sectors of Iran and more specific on road transportation(rail road and road).Our results show that the contribution of structural effect (change in economical activities combination) is very low and the effect of net energy consumption has the higher contribution in consumption changes and energy intensity. In other words, the high consumption of energy is due to Intensity of energy consumption and is not to structural effect of transportation sector.

Keywords: Divisia Method, Energy Intensity, Net IntensityEffect, Road Transportation , Structural Effect.

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2711 Illuminating the Policies Affecting Energy Security in Malaysia’s Electricity Sector

Authors: Hussain Ali Bekhet, Endang Jati Mat Sahid

Abstract:

For the past few decades, the Malaysian economy has expanded at an impressive pace, whilst, the Malaysian population has registered a relatively high growth rate. These factors had driven the growth of final energy demand. The ballooning energy demand coupled with the country’s limited indigenous energy resources have resulted in an increased of the country’s net import. Therefore, acknowledging the precarious position of the country’s energy self-sufficiency, this study has identified three main concerns regarding energy security, namely; over-dependence on fossil fuel, increasing energy import dependency, and increasing energy consumption per capita. This paper discusses the recent energy demand and supply trends, highlights the policies that are affecting energy security in Malaysia and suggests strategic options towards achieving energy security. The paper suggested that diversifying energy sources, reducing carbon content of energy, efficient utilization of energy and facilitating low-carbon industries could further enhance the effectiveness of the measures as the introduction of policies and initiatives will be more holistic.

Keywords: Energy security, electricity, energy policy, renewable energy, energy efficiency, Malaysia.

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2710 An Energy Consumption Study for a Malaysian University

Authors: Fu E. Tang

Abstract:

The increase in energy demand has raised concerns over adverse impacts on the environment from energy generation. It is important to understand the status of energy consumption for institutions such as Curtin Sarawak to ensure the sustainability of energy usage, and also to reduce its costs. In this study, a preliminary audit framework was developed and was conducted around the Malaysian campus to obtain information such as the number and specifications of electrical appliances, built-up area and ambient temperature to understand the relationship of these factors with energy consumption. It was found that the number and types of electrical appliances, population and activities in the campus impacted the energy consumption of Curtin Sarawak directly. However, the built-up area and ambient temperature showed no clear correlation with energy consumption. An investigation of the diurnal and seasonal energy consumption of the campus was also carried out. From the data, recommendations were made to improve the energy efficiency of the campus.

Keywords: Energy audit, energy consumption, energy efficiency

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2709 Development of a Mathematical Theoretical Model and Simulation of the Electromechanical System for Wave Energy Harvesting

Authors: P. Valdez, M. Pelissero, A. Haim, F. Muiño, F. Galia, R. Tula

Abstract:

As a result of the studies performed on the wave energy resource worldwide, a research project was set up to harvest wave energy for its conversion into electrical energy. Within this framework, a theoretical model of the electromechanical energy harvesting system, developed with MATLAB’s Simulink software, will be provided. This tool recreates the site conditions where the device will be installed and offers valuable information about the amount of energy that can be harnessed. This research provides a deeper understanding of the utilization of wave energy in order to improve the efficiency of a 1:1 scale prototype of the device.

Keywords: Electromechanical device, modeling, renewable energy, sea wave energy, simulation.

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2708 Role of Non-Renewable and Renewable Energy for Sustainable Electricity Generation in Malaysia

Authors: Hussain Ali Bekhet, Nor Hamisham Harun

Abstract:

The main objective of this paper is to give a comprehensive review of non-renewable energy and renewable energy utilization in Malaysia, including hydropower, solar photovoltaic, biomass and biogas technologies. Malaysia mainly depends on non-renewable energy (natural gas, coal and crude oil) for electricity generation. Therefore, this paper provides a comprehensive review of the energy sector and discusses diversification of electricity generation as a strategy for providing sustainable energy in Malaysia. Energy policies and strategies to protect the non-renewable energy utilization also are highlighted, focusing in the different sources of energy available for high and sustained economic growth. Emphasis is also placed on a discussion of the role of renewable energy as an alternative source for the increase of electricity supply security. It is now evident that to achieve sustainable development through renewable energy, energy policies and strategies have to be well designed and supported by the government, industries (firms), and individual or community participation. The hope is to create a positive impact on sustainable development through renewable sources for current and future generations.

Keywords: Malaysia, non-renewable energy, renewable energy, sustainable energy.

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2707 Challenges and Opportunities in Nuclear Energy: Promising Option in Turkey?

Authors: I. Mahariq, I. Arpacı

Abstract:

Dramatic growth in the population requires a parallel increase in the total installed capacity of electricity. Diversity, independency of resources and global warming call for installing renewable and nuclear energy plants. Several types of energy plants exist in Turkey; however, nuclear energy with its several attractive features is not utilized at all. This study presents the available energy resources in Turkey and reviews major challenges and opportunities in nuclear energy. At the end of this paper, some conclusions are stated.

Keywords: Nuclear, energy resources, challenges, opportunities, Turkey.

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2706 Energy Planning Analysis of an Agritourism Complex Based on Energy Demand Simulation: A Case Study of Wuxi Yangshan Agritourism Complex

Authors: Li Zhu, Binghua Wang, Yong Sun

Abstract:

China is experiencing the rural development process, with the agritourism complex becoming one of the significant modes. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the energy performance of agritourism complex. This study focuses on a typical case of the agritourism complex and simulates the energy consumption performance on condition of the regular energy system. It was found that HVAC took 90% of the whole energy demand range. In order to optimize the energy supply structure, the hierarchical analysis was carried out on the level of architecture with three main factors such as construction situation, building types and energy demand types. Finally, the energy planning suggestion of the agritourism complex was put forward and the relevant results were obtained.

Keywords: Agritourism complex, energy planning, energy demand simulation, hierarchical structure model.

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