Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 698

Search results for: Hard Switched Converter

698 A ZVS Flyback DC-DC Converter using Multilayered Coreless Printed-Circuit Board(PCB) Step-down Power Transformer

Authors: Hari Babu Kotte, Radhika Ambatipudi, Dr. Kent Bertilsson

Abstract:

The experimental and theoretical results of a ZVS (Zero Voltage Switching) isolated flyback DC-DC converter using multilayered coreless PCB step down 2:1 transformer are presented. The performance characteristics of the transformer are shown which are useful for the parameters extraction. The measured energy efficiency of the transformer is found to be more than 94% with the sinusoidal input voltage excitation. The designed flyback converter has been tested successfully upto the output power level of 10W, with a switching frequency in the range of 2.7MHz-4.3MHz. The input voltage of the converter is varied from 25V-40V DC. Frequency modulation technique is employed by maintaining constant off time to regulate the output voltage of the converter. The energy efficiency of the isolated flyback converter circuit under ZVS condition in the MHz frequency region is found to be approximately in the range of 72-84%. This paper gives the comparative results in terms of the energy efficiency of the hard switched and soft switched flyback converter in the MHz frequency region.

Keywords: Coreless PCB step down transformer, DC-DCconverter, Flyback, Hard Switched Converter, MHz frequencyregion, Multilayered PCB transformer, Zero Voltage Switching

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697 Transformerless AC-DC Converter

Authors: Saisundar. S., I Made Darmayuda, Zhou Jun, Krishna Mainali, Simon Ng Sheung Yan, Eran Ofek

Abstract:

This paper compares the recent transformerless ACDC power converter architectures and provides an assessment of each. A prototype of one of the transformerless AC-DC converter architecture is also presented depicting the feasibility of a small form factor, power supply design. In this paper component selection guidelines to achieve high efficiency AC-DC power conversion are also discussed.

Keywords: AC-DC converter, digitally controlled, switched mode power supply, transformerless.

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696 Comparison of Zero Voltage Soft Switching and Hard Switching Boost Converter with Maximum Power Point Tracking

Authors: N. Ravi Kumar, R. Kamalakannan

Abstract:

The inherent nature of normal boost converter has more voltage stress across the power electronics switch and ripple. The presented formation of the front end rectifier stage for a photovoltaic (PV) organization is mainly used to give the supply. Further increasing of the solar efficiency is achieved by connecting the zero voltage soft switching boost converter. The zero voltage boost converter is used to convert the low level DC voltage to high level DC voltage. The inherent nature of zero voltage switching boost converter is used to shrink the voltage tension across the power electronics switch and ripple. The input stage allows the determined power point tracking to be used to extract supreme power from the sun when it is available. The hardware setup was implemented by using PIC Micro controller (16F877A).

Keywords: Boost converter, duty cycle, hard switching, MOSFET, maximum power point tracking, photovoltaic, soft switching, zero voltage switching.

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695 Variable Input Range Continuous-time Switched Current Delta-sigma Analog Digital Converter for RFID CMOS Biosensor Applications

Authors: Boram Kim, Shigeyasu Uno, Kazuo Nakazato

Abstract:

Continuous-time delta-sigma analog digital converter (ADC) for radio frequency identification (RFID) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) biosensor has been reported. This delta-sigma ADC is suitable for digital conversion of biosensor signal because of small process variation, and variable input range. As the input range of continuous-time switched current delta-sigma ADC (Dynamic range : 50 dB) can be limited by using current reference, amplification of biosensor signal is unnecessary. The input range is switched to wide input range mode or narrow input range mode by command of current reference. When the narrow input range mode, the input range becomes ± 0.8 V. The measured power consumption is 5 mW and chip area is 0.31 mm^2 using 1.2 um standard CMOS process. Additionally, automatic input range detecting system is proposed because of RFID biosensor applications.

Keywords: continuous time, delta sigma, A/D converter, RFID, biosensor, CMOS

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694 A Single Phase ZVT-ZCT Power Factor Correction Boost Converter

Authors: Yakup Sahin, Naim Suleyman Ting, Ismail Aksoy

Abstract:

In this paper, a single phase soft switched Zero Voltage Transition and Zero Current Transition (ZVT-ZCT) Power Factor Correction (PFC) boost converter is proposed. In the proposed PFC converter, the main switch turns on with ZVT and turns off with ZCT without any additional voltage or current stresses. Auxiliary switch turns on and off with zero current switching (ZCS). Also, the main diode turns on with zero voltage switching (ZVS) and turns off with ZCS. The proposed converter has features like low cost, simple control and structure. The output current and voltage are controlled by the proposed PFC converter in wide line and load range. The theoretical analysis of converter is clarified and the operating steps are given in detail. The simulation results of converter are obtained for 500 W and 100 kHz. It is observed that the semiconductor devices operate with soft switching (SS) perfectly. So, the switching power losses are minimum. Also, the proposed converter has 0.99 power factor with sinusoidal current shape.

Keywords: Power factor correction, zero-voltage transition, zero-current transition, soft switching.

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693 Design of PI and Fuzzy Controller for High-Efficiency and Tightly Regulated Full Bridge DC-DC Converter

Authors: Sudha Bansal, Lalit Mohan Saini, Dheeraj Joshi

Abstract:

The controller is used to improve the dynamic performance of DC-DC converter by achieving a robust output voltage against load disturbances. This paper presents the performance of PI and Fuzzy controller for a phase- shifted zero-voltage switched full-bridge PWM (ZVS FB- PWM) converters with a closed loop control. The proposed converter is regulated with minimum overshoot and good stability. In this paper phase-shift control method is used as an effective tool to reduce switching losses and duty cycle losses. A 1kW/100KHz dc/dc converter is simulated and analyzed using MATLAB. The circuit is simulated for static and dynamic load (DC motor). It has been observed that performance of converter with fuzzy controller is better than that of PI controller. An efficiency comparison of the converter with a reported topology has also been carried out.

Keywords: Full-bridge converter, phase-shifted, synchronous rectifier (SR), zero-voltage switching (ZVS).

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692 Zero Voltage Switched Full Bridge Converters for the Battery Charger of Electric Vehicle

Authors: Rizwan Ullah, Abdar Ali, Zahid Ullah

Abstract:

This paper illustrates the study of three isolated zero voltage switched (ZVS) PWM full bridge (FB) converters to charge the high voltage battery in the charger of electric vehicle (EV). EV battery chargers have several challenges such as high efficiency, high reliability, low cost, isolation, and high power density. The cost of magnetic and filter components in the battery charger is reduced when switching frequency is increased. The increase in the switching frequency increases switching losses. ZVS is used to reduce switching losses and to operate the converter in the battery charger at high frequency. The performance of each of the three converters is evaluated on the basis of ZVS range, dead times of the switches, conduction losses of switches, circulating current stress, circulating energy, duty cycle loss, and efficiency. The limitations and merits of each PWM FB converter are reviewed. The converter with broader ZVS range, high efficiency and low switch stresses is selected for battery charger applications in EV.

Keywords: Electric vehicle, PWM FB converter, zero voltage switching, circulating energy, duty cycle loss, battery charger.

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691 Comparison of Full Graph Methods of Switched Circuits Solution

Authors: Zdeňka Dostálová, David Matoušek, Bohumil Brtnik

Abstract:

As there are also graph methods of circuit analysis in addition to algebraic methods, it is, in theory, clearly possible to carry out an analysis of a whole switched circuit in two-phase switching exclusively by the graph method as well. This article deals with two methods of full-graph solving of switched circuits: by transformation graphs and by two-graphs. It deals with the circuit switched capacitors and the switched current, too. All methods are presented in an equally detailed steps to be able to compare.

Keywords: Switched capacitors of two phases, switched currents of two phases, transformation graph, two-graph, Mason's formula, voltage transfer, summary graph.

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690 Low Power Low Voltage Current Mode Pipelined A/D Converters

Authors: Krzysztof Wawryn, Robert Suszyński, Bogdan Strzeszewski

Abstract:

This paper presents two prototypes of low power low voltage current mode 9 bit pipelined a/d converters. The first and the second converters are configured of 1.5 bit and 2.5 bit stages, respectively. The a/d converter structures are composed of current mode building blocks and final comparator block which converts the analog current signal into digital voltage signal. All building blocks have been designed in CMOS AMS 0.35μm technology, then simulated to verify proposed concept. The performances of both converters are compared to performances of known current mode and voltage mode switched capacitance converter structures. Low power consumption and small chip area are advantages of the proposed converters.

Keywords: Pipelined converter, a/d converter, low power, lowvoltage, current mode.

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689 DC-Link Voltage Control of DC-DC Boost Converter-Inverter System with PI Controller

Authors: Thandar Aung, Tun Lin Naing

Abstract:

In this paper, the DC-link voltage control of DC-DC boost converter–inverter system is proposed. The mathematical model is developed from four different sub-circuits that depended on the switch positions. The developed differential equations are combined to develop the dynamic model. Transfer function is generated from the switched function model. Fluctuation of DC-link voltage causes connected loads malfunction. For this problem, a kind of traditional controller, the PI controller is applied to achieve constant DC-link voltage. The PI controller gains are obtained based on transfer function step response. The simulation work has been studied by using MATLAB/Simulink software and hardware prototype is implemented with a low-cost microcontroller Arduino Nano. Experimental results are collected by using ArduinoIO library package. Closed-loop DC-link voltage control system is tested with various line and load disturbances. It is found that the experimental results give equal responses with the simulation results.

Keywords: ArduinoIO library package, boost converter-inverter system, low cost microcontroller, PI controller, switched function model.

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688 Analysis and Design of a Novel Active Soft Switched Phase-Shifted Full Bridge Converter

Authors: Naga Brahmendra Yadav Gorla, Dr. Lakshmi Narasamma N

Abstract:

This paper proposes an active soft-switching circuit for bridge converters aiming to improve the power conversion efficiency. The proposed circuit achieves loss-less switching for both main and auxiliary switches without increasing the main switch current/voltage rating. A winding coupled to the primary of power transformer ensures ZCS for the auxiliary switches during their turn-off. A 350 W, 100 kHz phase shifted full bridge (PSFB) converter is built to validate the analysis and design. Theoretical loss calculations for proposed circuit is presented. The proposed circuit is compared with passive soft switched PSFB in terms of efficiency and loss in duty cycle.

Keywords: soft switching, passive soft switching, ZVS, ZCS, PSFB.

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687 Design and Control of DC-DC Converter for the Military Application Fuel Cell

Authors: Tae-Yeong Lee, Eun-Ju Yoo, Won-Yeong Choi, Young-Woo Park

Abstract:

This paper presents a 24 watts SEPIC converter design and control using microprocessor. SEPIC converter has advantages of a wide input range and miniaturization caused by the low stress at elements. There is also an advantage that the input and output are isolated in MOSFET-off state. This paper presents the PID control through the SEPIC converter transfer function using a DSP and the protective circuit for fuel cell from the over-current and inverse-voltage by using the characteristic of SEPIC converter. Then it derives them through the experiments.

Keywords: DC-DC Converter, Fuel-Cell, Microprocessor Control, Military Converter, SEPIC Converter

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686 Experimental Study of Boost Converter Based PV Energy System

Authors: T. Abdelkrim, K. Ben seddik, B. Bezza, K. Benamrane, Aeh. Benkhelifa

Abstract:

This paper proposes an implementation of boost converter for a resistive load using photovoltaic energy as a source. The model of photovoltaic cell and operating principle of boost converter are presented. A PIC microcontroller is used in the close loop control to generate pulses for controlling the converter circuit. To performance evaluation of boost converter, a variation of output voltage of PV panel is done by shading one and two cells.

Keywords: Boost converter, Microcontroller, Photovoltaic power generation, Shading cells.

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685 A Single Switch High Step-Up DC/DC Converter with Zero Current Switching Condition

Authors: Rahil Samani, Saeed Soleimani, Ehsan Adib, Majid Pahlevani

Abstract:

This paper presents an inverting high step-up DC/DC converter. Basically, this high step-up DC/DC converter is an appealing interface for solar applications. The proposed topology takes advantage of using coupled inductors. Due to the leakage inductances of these coupled inductors, the power MOSFET has the zero current switching (ZCS) condition, which results in decreased switching losses. This will substantially improve the overall efficiency of the power converter. Furthermore, employing coupled inductors has led to a higher voltage gain. Theoretical analysis and experimental results of a 100W 20V/220V prototype are presented to verify the superior performance of the proposed DC/DC converter.

Keywords: Coupled inductors, high step-up DC/DC converter, zero-current switching, cuk converter, sepic converter.

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684 ZVZCT PWM Boost DC-DC Converter

Authors: İsmail Aksoy, Hacı Bodur, Nihan Altıntas

Abstract:

This paper introduces a boost converter with a new active snubber cell. In this circuit, all of the semiconductor components in the converter softly turns on and turns off with the help of the active snubber cell. Compared to the other converters, the proposed converter has advantages of size, number of components and cost. The main feature of proposed converter is that the extra voltage stresses do not occur on the main switches and main diodes. Also, the current stress on the main switch is acceptable level. Moreover, the proposed converter can operates under light load conditions and wide input line voltage. In this study, the operating principle of the proposed converter is presented and its operation is verified with the Proteus simulation software for a 1 kW and 100 kHz model.

Keywords: Active snubber cell, boost converter, zero current switching, zero voltage switching.

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683 A Parallel Implementation of the Reverse Converter for the Moduli Set {2n, 2n–1, 2n–1–1}

Authors: Mehdi Hosseinzadeh, Amir Sabbagh Molahosseini, Keivan Navi

Abstract:

In this paper, a new reverse converter for the moduli set {2n, 2n–1, 2n–1–1} is presented. We improved a previously introduced conversion algorithm for deriving an efficient hardware design for reverse converter. Hardware architecture of the proposed converter is based on carry-save adders and regular binary adders, without the requirement for modular adders. The presented design is faster than the latest introduced reverse converter for moduli set {2n, 2n–1, 2n–1–1}. Also, it has better performance than the reverse converters for the recently introduced moduli set {2n+1–1, 2n, 2n–1}

Keywords: Residue arithmetic, Residue number system, Residue-to-Binary converter, Reverse converter

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682 Non-Isolated Direct AC-DC Converter Design with BCM-PFC Circuit

Authors: Y. Kobori, L. Xing, H. Gao, N.Onozawa, S. Wu, S. N. Mohyar, Z. Nosker, H. Kobayashi, N. Takai, K. Niitsu

Abstract:

This paper proposes two types of non-isolated direct AC-DC converters. First, it shows a buck-boost converter with an H-bridge, which requires few components (three switches, two diodes, one inductor and one capacitor) to convert AC input to DC output directly. This circuit can handle a wide range of output voltage. Second, a direct AC-DC buck converter is proposed for lower output voltage applications. This circuit is analyzed with output voltage of 12V. We describe circuit topologies, operation principles and simulation results for both circuits.

Keywords: AC-DC converter, Buck-boost converter, Buck converter, PFC, BCM PFC circuit.

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681 Enhancement of Performance Utilizing Low Complexity Switched Beam Antenna

Authors: P. Chaipanya, R. Keawchai, W. Sombatsanongkhun, S. Jantaramporn

Abstract:

To manage the demand of wireless communication that has been dramatically increased, switched beam antenna in smart antenna system is focused. Implementation of switched beam antennas at mobile terminals such as notebook or mobile handset is a preferable choice to increase the performance of the wireless communication systems. This paper proposes the low complexity switched beam antenna using single element of antenna which is suitable to implement at mobile terminal. Main beam direction is switched by changing the positions of short circuit on the radiating patch. There are four cases of switching that provide four different directions of main beam. Moreover, the performance in terms of Signal to Interference Ratio when utilizing the proposed antenna is compared with the one using omni-directional antenna to confirm the performance improvable.

Keywords: Switched beam, shorted circuit, single element, signal to interference ratio.

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680 Optimizing the Number of Bits/Stage in 10-Bit, 50Ms/Sec Pipelined A/D Converter Considering Area, Speed, Power and Linearity

Authors: P. Prasad Rao, K. Lal Kishore

Abstract:

Pipeline ADCs are becoming popular at high speeds and with high resolution. This paper discusses the options of number of bits/stage conversion techniques in pipelined ADCs and their effect on Area, Speed, Power Dissipation and Linearity. The basic building blocks like op-amp, Sample and Hold Circuit, sub converter, DAC, Residue Amplifier used in every stage is assumed to be identical. The sub converters use flash architectures. The design is implemented using 0.18

Keywords: 1.5 bits/stage, Conversion Frequency, Redundancy Switched Capacitor Sample and Hold Circuit

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679 Robust Quadratic Stabilization of Uncertain Impulsive Switched Systems

Authors: Xiu Liu, Shouming Zhong, Xiuyong Ding

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the quadratic stabilization problem for a class of uncertain impulsive switched systems. The uncertainty is assumed to be norm-bounded and enters both the state and the input matrices. Based on the Lyapunov methods, some results on robust stabilization and quadratic stabilization for the impulsive switched system are obtained. A stabilizing state feedback control law realizing the robust stabilization of the closed-loop system is constructed.

Keywords: Impulsive systems, switched systems, quadratic stabilization, robust stabilization.

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678 A Cost-Effective Design and Analysis of Full Bridge LLC Resonant Converter

Authors: Kaibalya Prasad Panda, Sreyasee Rout

Abstract:

LLC (Inductor-inductor-capacitor) resonant converter has lots of advantages over other type of resonant converters which include high efficiency, more reliable and have high power density. This paper presents the design and analysis of a full bridge LLC resonant converter. In addition to the operational principle, the ZVS and ZCS conditions are also explained with the DC characteristics. Simulation of the LLC resonant converter is performed in MATLAB/ Simulink and the practical prototype setup is analyzed in Proteus software. The result is verified through analysis and design of a low cost, 200 watt prototype converter.

Keywords: LLC, Proteus, Resonant converter ZCS, ZVS.

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677 Controller Synthesis of Switched Positive Systems with Bounded Time-Varying Delays

Authors: Xinhui Wang, Xiuyong Ding

Abstract:

This paper addresses the controller synthesis problem of discrete-time switched positive systems with bounded time-varying delays. Based on the switched copositive Lyapunov function approach, some necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of state-feedback controller are presented as a set of linear programming and linear matrix inequality problems, hence easy to be verified. Another advantage is that the state-feedback law is independent on time-varying delays and initial conditions. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the developed controller.

Keywords: Switched copositive Lyapunov functions, positive linear systems, switched systems, time-varying delays, stabilization.

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676 Rapid Frequency Response Measurement of Power Conversion Products with Coherence-Based Confidence Analysis

Authors: Tomi Roinila, Aki Taskinen, Matti Vilkko

Abstract:

Switched-mode converters play now a significant role in modern society. Their operation are often crucial in various electrical applications affecting the every day life. Therefore, the quality of the converters needs to be reliably verified. Recent studies have shown that the converters can be fully characterized by a set of frequency responses which can be efficiently used to validate the proper operation of the converters. Consequently, several methods have been proposed to measure the frequency responses fast and accurately. Most often correlation-based techniques have been applied. The presented measurement methods are highly sensitive to external errors and system nonlinearities. This fact has been often forgotten and the necessary uncertainty analysis of the measured responses has been neglected. This paper presents a simple approach to analyze the noise and nonlinearities in the frequency-response measurements of switched-mode converters. Coherence analysis is applied to form a confidence interval characterizing the noise and nonlinearities involved in the measurements. The presented method is verified by practical measurements from a high-frequency switchedmode converter.

Keywords: Switched-mode converters, Frequency analysis, CoherenceAnalysis.

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675 A ZVT-ZCT-PWM DC-DC Boost Converter with Direct Power Transfer

Authors: Naim Suleyman Ting, Yakup Sahin, Ismail Aksoy

Abstract:

This paper presents a zero voltage transition-zero current transition (ZVT-ZCT)-PWM DC-DC boost converter with direct power transfer. In this converter, the main switch turns on with ZVT and turns off with ZCT. The auxiliary switch turns on and off with zero current switching (ZCS). The main diode turns on with ZVS and turns off with ZCS. Besides, the additional current or voltage stress does not occur on the main device. The converter has features as simple structure, fast dynamic response and easy control. Also, the proposed converter has direct power transfer feature as well as excellent soft switching techniques. In this study, the operating principle of the converter is presented and its operation is verified for 1 kW and 100 kHz model.

Keywords: Direct power transfer, boost converter, zero-voltage transition, zero-current transition.

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674 Investigation of Chaotic Behavior in DC-DC Converters

Authors: Sajid Iqbal, Masood Ahmed, Suhail Aftab Qureshi

Abstract:

DC-DC converters are widely used in regulated switched mode power supplies and in DC motor drive applications. There are several sources of unwanted nonlinearity in practical power converters. In addition, their operation is characterized by switching that gives birth to a variety of nonlinear dynamics. DC-DC buck and boost converters controlled by pulse-width modulation (PWM) have been simulated. The voltage waveforms and attractors obtained from the circuit simulation have been studied. With the onset of instability, the phenomenon of subharmonic oscillations, quasi-periodicity, bifurcations, and chaos have been observed. This paper is mainly motivated by potential contributions of chaos theory in the design, analysis and control of power converters, in particular and power electronics circuits, in general.

Keywords: Buck converter, boost converter, period- doubling, chaos, bifurcation, strange attractor.

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673 PI Control for Positive Output Elementary Super Lift Luo Converter

Authors: K. Ramash Kumar, S. Jeevananthan

Abstract:

The object of this paper is to design and analyze a proportional – integral (PI) control for positive output elementary super lift Luo converter (POESLLC), which is the start-of-the-art DC-DC converter. The positive output elementary super lift Luo converter performs the voltage conversion from positive source voltage to positive load voltage. This paper proposes a development of PI control capable of providing the good static and dynamic performance compared to proportional – integralderivative (PID) controller. Using state space average method derives the dynamic equations describing the positive output elementary super lift luo converter and PI control is designed. The simulation model of the positive output elementary super lift Luo converter with its control circuit is implemented in Matlab/Simulink. The PI control for positive output elementary super lift Luo converter is tested for transient region, line changes, load changes, steady state region and also for components variations.

Keywords: DC-DC converter, Positive output elementarysuper lift Luo converter (POESLLC), Proportional – Integral (PI)control.

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672 Stability Analysis of Linear Switched Systems with Mixed Delays

Authors: Xiuyong Ding, Lan Shu

Abstract:

This paper addresses the stability of the switched systems with discrete and distributed time delays. By applying Lyapunov functional and function method, we show that, if the norm of system matrices Bi is small enough, the asymptotic stability is always achieved. Finally, a example is provided to verify technically feasibility and operability of the developed results.

Keywords: Switched system, stability, Lyapunov function, Lyapunov functional, delays.

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671 Design Modelling Control and Simulation of DC/DC Power Buck Converter

Authors: H. Abaali

Abstract:

The power buck converter is the most widely used DC/DC converter topology. They have a very large application area such as DC motor drives, photovoltaic power system which require fast transient responses and high efficiency over a wide range of load current. This work proposes, the modelling of DC/DC power buck converter using state-space averaging method and the current-mode control using a proportional-integral controller. The efficiency of the proposed model and control loop are evaluated with operating point changes. The simulation results proved the effectiveness of the linear model of DC/DC power buck converter.

Keywords: DC/DC power buck converter, Linear current control, State-space averaging method.

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670 Simulation of a Boost PFC Converter with Electro Magnetic Interference Filter

Authors: P. Ram Mohan, M. Vijaya Kumar, O. V. Raghava Reddy

Abstract:

This paper deals with the simulation of a Boost Power Factor Correction (PFC) Converter with Electro Magnetic Interference (EMI) Filter. The diode rectifier with output capacitor gives poor power factor. The Boost Converter of PFC Circuit is analyzed and then simulated with diode rectifier. The Boost PFC Converter with EMI Filter is simulated for resistive load. The power factor is improved using the proposed converter.

Keywords: Boost Converter, Power Factor Correction, Electro Magnetic Interference, Diode Rectifier

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669 An Implementation of a Configurable UART-to-Ethernet Converter

Authors: Jungho Moon, Myunggon Yoon

Abstract:

This paper presents an implementation of a configurable UART-to-Ethernet converter using an ARM-based 32-bit microcontroller as well as a dedicated configuration program running on a PC for configuring the operating parameters of the converter. The program was written in Python. Various parameters pertaining to the operation of the converter can be modified by the configuration program through the Ethernet interface of the converter. The converter supports 3 representative asynchronous serial communication protocols, RS-232, RS-422, and RS-485 and supports 3 network modes, TCP/IP server, TCP/IP client, and UDP client. The TCP/IP and UDP protocols were implemented on the microcontroller using an open source TCP/IP protocol stack called lwIP (A lightweight TCP/IP) and FreeRTOS, a free real-time operating system for embedded systems. Due to the use of a real-time operating system, the firmware of the converter was implemented as a multi-thread application and as a result becomes more modular and easier to develop. The converter can provide a seamless bridge between a serial port and an Ethernet port, thereby allowing existing legacy apparatuses with no Ethernet connectivity to communicate using the Ethernet protocol.

Keywords: Converter, embedded systems, Ethernet, lwIP, UART.

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