Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 615

Search results for: Engine Emissions

615 Study of Dual Fuel Engine as Environmentally Friendly Engine

Authors: Nilam S. Octaviani, Semin

Abstract:

The diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses compressed air to combust. The diesel engines are widely used in the world because it has the most excellent combustion efficiency than other types of internal combustion engine.  However, the exhaust emissions of it produce pollutants that are harmful to human health and the environment. Therefore, natural gas used as an alternative fuel using on compression ignition engine to respond those environment issues. This paper aims to discuss the comparison of the technical characteristics and exhaust gases emission from conventional diesel engine and dual fuel diesel engine. According to the study, the dual fuel engine applications have a lower compression pressure and has longer ignition delay compared with normal diesel mode. The engine power is decreased at dual fuel mode. However, the exhaust gases emission on dual fuel engine significantly reduce the nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2) and particular metter (PM) emissions.

Keywords: Diesel engine, dual fuel engine, emissions, technical characteristics.

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614 Comparative Emission Analysis of Gasoline/LPG Automotive Bifuel Engine

Authors: R.R. Saraf, S.S.Thipse, P.K.Saxena

Abstract:

This paper presents comparative emission study of newly introduced gasoline/LPG bifuel automotive engine in Indian market. Emissions were tested as per LPG-Bharat stage III driving cycle. Emission tests were carried out for urban cycle and extra urban cycle. Total time for urban and extra urban cycle was 1180 sec. Engine was run in LPG mode by using conversion system. Emissions were tested as per standard procedure and were compared. Corrected emissions were computed by deducting ambient reading from sample reading. Paper describes detail emission test procedure and results obtained. CO emissions were in the range of38.9 to 111.3 ppm. HC emissions were in the range of 18.2 to 62.6 ppm. Nox emissions were 08 to 3.9 ppm and CO2 emissions were from 6719.2 to 8051 ppm. Paper throws light on emission results of LPG vehicles recently introduced in Indian automobile market. Objectives of this experimental study were to measure emissions of engines in gasoline & LPG mode and compare them.

Keywords: Gasoline, LPG, Emission, Bifuel, Engine.

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613 Reduction of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides from Traffic

Authors: Frantisek Bozek, Jiri Dvorak, Jaromir Mares, Hana Malachova

Abstract:

The value of emission factor was calculated in the older type of Diesel engine operating on an engine testing bench and then compared with the parameters monitored under similar conditions when the EnviroxTM additive was applied. It has been found out that the additive based on CeO2 nanoparticles reduces emission of NOx. The dependencies of NOx emissions on reduced torque, engine power and revolutions have been observed as well.

Keywords: Additive, air, cerium dioxide, emission factor, emissions, nanoparticles, nitrogen oxides

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612 Experimental Investigation on Effect of the Zirconium + Magnesium Coating of the Piston and Valve of the Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine to the Engine Performance and Emission

Authors: Erdinç Vural, Bülent Özdalyan, Serkan Özel

Abstract:

The four-stroke single cylinder diesel engine has been used in this study, the pistons and valves of the engine have been stabilized, the aluminum oxide (Al2O3) in different ratios has been added in the power of zirconium (ZrO2) magnesium oxide (MgO), and has been coated with the plasma spray method. The pistons and valves of the combustion chamber of the engine are coated with 5 different (ZrO2 + MgO), (ZrO2 + MgO + 25% Al2O3), (ZrO2 + MgO + 50% Al2O3), (ZrO2 + MgO + 75% Al2O3), (Al2O3) sample. The material tests have been made for each of the coated engine parts with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) using Cu Kα radiation surface analysis methods. The engine tests have been repeated for each sample in any electric dynamometer in full power 1600 rpm, 2000 rpm, 2400 rpm and 2800 rpm engine speeds. The material analysis and engine tests have shown that the best performance has been performed with (ZrO2 + MgO + 50% Al2O3). Thus, there is no significant change in HC and Smoke emissions, but NOx emission is increased, as the engine improves power, torque, specific fuel consumption and CO emissions in the tests made with sample A3.

Keywords: Ceramic coating, material characterization, engine performance, exhaust emissions.

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611 Experimental Investigations on the Influence of Properties of Jatropha Biodiesel on Performance, Combustion, and Emission Characteristics of a DI-CI Engine

Authors: P. V. Rao

Abstract:

The aim of the present research work is to investigate the influence of Jatropha biodiesel properties on various characteristics of a direct injection compression ignition engine. The experiments were performed at different engine operating regimes with the injection timing prescribed by the engine manufacturer for diesel fuel. The engine characteristics with Jatropha biodiesel were compared against those obtained using diesel fuel. From the results, it is observed that the biodiesel performance and emissions are lower than that of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emission of Jatropha biodiesel is more than that of diesel fuel. These high NOx emissions are due to the presence of unsaturated fatty acids and the advanced injection caused by the higher bulk modulus (or density) of Jatropha biodiesel Furthermore, the possibility for reduction of NOx emissions without expensive engine modifications (hardware) was investigated. Keeping this in mind, the Jatropha biodiesel was preheated. The experimental results show that the retarded injection timing is necessary when using Jatropha biodiesel in order to reduce NOx emission without worsening other engine characteristics. Results also indicate improved performance with the application of preheated biodiesel. The only penalty for using preheated biodiesel is the increase of smoke (soot).

Keywords: chemical properties, combustion, exhaust emissions, Jatropha biodiesel

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610 Simultaneously Reduction of NOx and Soot Emissions in a DI Heavy Duty diesel Engine Operating at High Cooled EGR Rates

Authors: Sh. Khalilarya, S. Jafarmadar, H. Khatamnezhad, Gh. Javadirad, M. Pourfallah

Abstract:

One promising way to achieve low temperature combustion regime is the use of a large amount of cooled EGR. In this paper, the effect of injection timing on low temperature combustion process and emissions were investigated via three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) procedures in a DI diesel engine using high EGR rates. The results show when increasing EGR from low levels to levels corresponding to reduced temperature combustion, soot emission after first increasing, is decreased beyond 40% EGR and get the lowest value at 58% EGR rate. Soot and NOx emissions are simultaneously decreased at advanced injection timing before 20.5 ºCA BTDC in conjunction with 58% cooled EGR rate in compared to baseline case.

Keywords: Diesel Engine, Low Temperature Combustion, High Cooled EGR Rates, Combustion, Emissions

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609 Performance and Emission Prediction in a Biodiesel Engine Fuelled with Honge Methyl Ester Using RBF Neural Networks

Authors: Shivakumar, G. S. Vijay, P. Srinivas Pai, B. R. Shrinivasa Rao

Abstract:

In the present study, RBF neural networks were used for predicting the performance and emission parameters of a biodiesel engine. Engine experiments were carried out in a 4 stroke diesel engine using blends of diesel and Honge methyl ester as the fuel. Performance parameters like BTE, BSEC, Tex and emissions from the engine were measured. These experimental results were used for ANN modeling. RBF center initialization was done by random selection and by using Clustered techniques. Network was trained by using fixed and varying widths for the RBF units. It was observed that RBF results were having a good agreement with the experimental results. Networks trained by using clustering technique gave better results than using random selection of centers in terms of reduced MRE and increased prediction accuracy. The average MRE for the performance parameters was 3.25% with the prediction accuracy of 98% and for emissions it was 10.4% with a prediction accuracy of 80%.

Keywords: Radial Basis Function networks, emissions, Performance parameters, Fuzzy c means.

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608 Ethanol Fuelled HCCI Engine: A Review

Authors: B. Bahri, A. A. Aziz, M. Shahbakhti, M. F. Muhamad Said

Abstract:

The greenhouse effect and limitations on carbon dioxide emissions concern engine maker and the future of the internal combustion engines should go toward substantially and improved thermal efficiency engine. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is an alternative high-efficiency technology for combustion engines to reduce exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. However, there are still tough challenges in the successful operation of HCCI engines, such as controlling the combustion phasing, extending the operating range, and high unburned hydrocarbon and CO emissions. HCCI and the exploitation of ethanol as an alternative fuel is one way to explore new frontiers of internal combustion engines with an eye towards maintaining its sustainability. This study was done to extend database knowledge about HCCI with ethanol a fuel.

Keywords: Ethanol combustion, Ethanol fuel, HCCI.

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607 A Theoretical Analysis for Modeling and Prediction of the Jet Engine Emissions

Authors: Jamal S. Yassin

Abstract:

This paper is to formulate a mathematical model to predict the amounts of the emissions produced from the combustion process of the gas turbine unit of the jet engine. These emissions have bad impacts on the environment if they are out of standards, which cause real threats to all type of life on the earth. The amounts of the emissions from the gas turbine engine are functions to many operational and design factors. In landing-takeoff (LTO) these amounts are not the same as in taxi or cruise of the plane using jet engines, because of the difference in the activity period during these operating modes. These emissions can be affected by several physical and chemical variables, such as fuel type, fuel to air ratio or equivalence ratio, flame temperature, combustion pressure, in addition to some inlet conditions such as ambient temperature and air humidity. To study the influence of these variables on the amounts of these emissions during the combustion process in the gas turbine unit, a computer program has been developed by using the visual basic 6 software. Here, the analysis of the combustion process is carried out by considering it as a chemical reaction with shifting equilibrium to find the products of the combustion of the octane fuel, at different equivalence ratios, compressor pressure ratios (CPR) and combustion temperatures. The results obtained have shown that there is noticeable influence of the equivalence ratio, CPR, and the combustion temperature on the amounts of the main emissions which are considered pollutants, such as CO, CO2 and NO.

Keywords: Mathematical model, gas turbine unit, equivalence ratio, emissions, shifting equilibrium.

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606 Zero Dimensional Simulation of Combustion Process of a DI Diesel Engine Fuelled With Biofuels

Authors: Donepudi Jagadish, Ravi Kumar Puli, K. Madhu Murthy

Abstract:

A zero dimensional model has been used to investigate the combustion performance of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled by biofuels with options like supercharging and exhaust gas recirculation. The numerical simulation was performed at constant speed. The indicated pressure, temperature diagrams are plotted and compared for different fuels. The emissions of soot and nitrous oxide are computed with phenomenological models. The experimental work was also carried out with biodiesel (palm stearin methyl ester) diesel blends, ethanol diesel blends to validate simulation results with experimental results, and observed that the present model is successful in predicting the engine performance with biofuels.

Keywords: Biofuels Zero Dimensional Modeling, EnginePerformance, Engine Emissions

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605 An Experimental Study on the Effect of EGR and Engine Speed on CO and HC Emissions of Dual Fuel HCCI Engine

Authors: M. Ghazikhani, M. R. Kalateh, Y. K. Toroghi, M. Dehnavi

Abstract:

In this study, effects of EGR on CO and HC emissions of a dual fuel HCCI-DI engine are investigated. Tests were conducted on a single-cylinder variable compression ratio (VCR) diesel engine with compression ratio of 17.5. Premixed gasoline is provided by a carburetor connected to intake manifold and equipped with a screw to adjust premixed air-fuel ratio, and diesel fuel is injected directly into the cylinder through an injector at pressure of 250 bars. A heater placed at inlet manifold is used to control the intake charge temperature. Optimal intake charge temperature was 110-115ºC due to better formation of a homogeneous mixture causing HCCI combustion. Timing of diesel fuel injection has a great effect on stratification of in-cylinder charge in HCCI combustion. Experiments indicated 35 BTDC as the optimum injection timing. Coolant temperature was maintained 50ºC during the tests. Results show that increasing engine speed at a constant EGR rate leads to increase in CO and UHC emissions due to the incomplete combustion caused by shorter combustion duration and less homogeneous mixture. Results also show that increasing EGR reduces the amount of oxygen and leads to incomplete combustion and therefore increases CO emission due to lower combustion temperature. HC emission also increases as a result of lower combustion temperatures.

Keywords: Dual fuel HCCI engine, EGR, engine speed, CO andUHC emissions.

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604 A Study on the Effect of Valve Timing on the Combustion and Emission Characteristics for a 4-cylinder PCCI Diesel Engine

Authors: Joonsup Han, Jaehyeon Lee, Hyungmin Kim, Kihyung Lee

Abstract:

PCCI engines can reduce NOx and PM emissions simultaneously without sacrificing thermal efficiency, but a low combustion temperature resulting from early fuel injection, and ignition occurring prior to TDC, can cause higher THC and CO emissions and fuel consumption. In conclusion, it was found that the PCCI combustion achieved by the 2-stage injection strategy with optimized calibration factors (e.g. EGR rate, injection pressure, swirl ratio, intake pressure, injection timing) can reduce NOx and PM emissions simultaneously. This research works are expected to provide valuable information conducive to a development of an innovative combustion engine that can fulfill upcoming stringent emission standards.

Keywords: Atkinson cycle, Diesel Engine, LIVC (Late intakevalve closing), PCCI (premixed charge compression ignition)

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603 CFD Investigation of the Effects of Re-Entrant Combustion Chamber Geometry in a HSDI Diesel Engine

Authors: Raouf Mobasheri, Zhijun Peng

Abstract:

A CFD simulation has applied to explore the effects of combustion chamber geometry on engine performance and pollutant emissions in a HSDI diesel engine. Three ITs (Injection Timing) at 2.65 CA BTDC, 0.65 CA BTDC and 1.35 CA ATDC, all with 30 crank angle pilot separations has firstly considered to identify the optimum IT for achieving the minimum amount of pollutant emissions. In order to investigate the effect of combustion chamber, thirteen different piston bowl configurations have been designed and analyzed. For all the studied cases, compression ratio, squish bowl volume and the amount of injected fuel were kept constant to assure that variation in the engine performance were only caused by geometric parameters. The results showed that by changing the geometric parameters on piston bowl, the amount of emission pollutants can be decreased while the other performance parameters of engine remain constant.

Keywords: HSDI Diesel Engine, Combustion Chamber Geometry, Pilot Injection, Injection Timing.

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602 Performance Evaluation of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Methyl Ester of shea Butter

Authors: Christopher C. Enweremadu, Hilary L. Rutto, Najeem Peleowo

Abstract:

Biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engines has been developed for some three decades now. While it is gaining wide acceptance in Europe, USA and some parts of Asia, the same cannot be said of Africa. With more than 35 countries in the continent depending on imported crude oil, it is necessary to look for alternative fuels which can be produced from resources available locally within any country. Hence this study presents performance of single cylinder diesel engine using blends of shea butter biodiesel. Shea butter was transformed into biodiesel by transesterification process. Tests are conducted to compare the biodiesel with baseline diesel fuel in terms of engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics. The results obtained showed that the addition of biodiesel to diesel fuel decreases the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and increases the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC). These results are expected due to the lower energy content of biodiesel fuel. On the other hand while the NOx emissions increased with increase in biodiesel content in the fuel blends, the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), un-burnt hydrocarbon (UHC) and smoke opacity decreased. The engine performance which indicates that the biodiesel has properties and characteristics similar to diesel fuel and the reductions in exhaust emissions make shea butter biodiesel a viable additive or substitute to diesel fuel.

Keywords: Biodiesel, diesel engine, engine performance and emission, shea butter, transesterification

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601 Combustion Improvements by C4/C5 Bio-Alcohol Isomer Blended Fuels Combined with Supercharging and EGR in a Diesel Engine

Authors: Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Enkhjargal Tserenochir, Eiji Kinoshita, Takeshi Otaka

Abstract:

Next generation bio-alcohols produced from non-food based sources like cellulosic biomass are promising renewable energy sources. The present study investigates engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions of a small single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled by four kinds of next generation bio-alcohol isomer and diesel fuel blends with a constant blending ratio of 3:7 (mass). The tested bio-alcohol isomers here are n-butanol and iso-butanol (C4 alcohol), and n-pentanol and iso-pentanol (C5 alcohol). To obtain simultaneous reductions in NOx and smoke emissions, the experiments employed supercharging combined with EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation). The boost pressures were fixed at two conditions, 100 kPa (naturally aspirated operation) and 120 kPa (supercharged operation) provided with a roots blower type supercharger. The EGR rates were varied from 0 to 25% using a cooled EGR technique. The results showed that both with and without supercharging, all the bio-alcohol blended diesel fuels improved the trade-off relation between NOx and smoke emissions at all EGR rates while maintaining good engine performance, when compared with diesel fuel operation. It was also found that regardless of boost pressure and EGR rate, the ignition delays of the tested bio-alcohol isomer blends are in the order of iso-butanol > n-butanol > iso-pentanol > n-pentanol. Overall, it was concluded that, except for the changes in the ignition delays the influence of bio-alcohol isomer blends on the engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions are relatively small.

Keywords: Alternative fuel,  Butanol, Diesel engine, EGR, Next generation bio-alcohol isomer blended fuel, Pentanol, Supercharging.

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600 An Experimental Study on the Effect of Premixed and Equivalence Ratios on CO and HC Emissions of Dual Fuel HCCI Engine

Authors: M. Ghazikhani, M. R. Kalateh, Y. K. Toroghi, M. Dehnavi

Abstract:

In this study, effects of premixed and equivalence ratios on CO and HC emissions of a dual fuel HCCI engine are investigated. Tests were conducted on a single-cylinder engine with compression ratio of 17.5. Premixed gasoline is provided by a carburetor connected to intake manifold and equipped with a screw to adjust premixed air-fuel ratio, and diesel fuel is injected directly into the cylinder through an injector at pressure of 250 bars. A heater placed at inlet manifold is used to control the intake charge temperature. Optimal intake charge temperature results in better HCCI combustion due to formation of a homogeneous mixture, therefore, all tests were carried out over the optimum intake temperature of 110-115 ºC. Timing of diesel fuel injection has a great effect on stratification of in-cylinder charge and plays an important role in HCCI combustion phasing. Experiments indicated 35 BTDC as the optimum injection timing. Varying the coolant temperature in a range of 40 to 70 ºC, better HCCI combustion was achieved at 50 ºC. Therefore, coolant temperature was maintained 50 ºC during all tests. Simultaneous investigation of effective parameters on HCCI combustion was conducted to determine optimum parameters resulting in fast transition to HCCI combustion. One of the advantages of the method studied in this study is feasibility of easy and fast transition of typical diesel engine to a dual fuel HCCI engine. Results show that increasing premixed ratio, while keeping EGR rate constant, increases unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions due to quenching phenomena and trapping of premixed fuel in crevices, but CO emission decreases due to increase in CO to CO2 reactions.

Keywords: Dual fuel HCCI engine, premixed ratio, equivalenceratio, CO and UHC emissions.

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599 Comparative Parametric and Emission Characteristics of Single Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine Using Gasoline, Ethanol, and H₂O as Micro Emulsion Fuels

Authors: Ufaith Qadri, M Marouf Wani

Abstract:

In this paper, the performance and emission characteristics of a Single Cylinder Spark Ignition engine have been investigated. The research is based on micro emulsion application as fuel in a gasoline engine. We have analyzed many micro emulsion compositions in various proportions, for predicting the performance of the Spark Ignition engine. This new technology of fuel modifications is emerging very rapidly as lot of research is going on in the field of micro emulsion fuels in Compression Ignition engines, but the micro emulsion fuel used in a Gasoline engine is very rare. The use of micro emulsion as fuel in a Spark Ignition engine is virtually unexplored. So, our main goal is to see the performance and emission characteristics of micro emulsions as fuel, in Spark Ignition engines, and finding which composition is more efficient. In this research, we have used various micro emulsion fuels whose composition varies for all the three blends, and their performance and emission characteristic were predicted in AVL Boost software. Conventional Gasoline fuel 90%, 80% and 85% were blended with co-surfactant Ethanol in different compositions, and water was used as an additive for making it crystal clear transparent micro emulsion fuel, which is thermodynamically stable. By comparing the performances of engines, the power has shown similarity for micro emulsion fuel and conventional Gasoline fuel. On the other hand, Torque and BMEP shows increase for all the micro emulsion fuels. Micro emulsion fuel shows higher thermal efficiency and lower Specific Fuel Consumption for all the compositions as compared to the Gasoline fuel. Carbon monoxide and Hydro carbon emissions were also measured. The result shows that emissions decrease for all the composition of micro emulsion fuels, and proved to be the most efficient fuel both in terms of performance and emission characteristics.

Keywords: AVL Boost, emissions, micro emulsion, performance, SI engine.

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598 An Experimental Comparative Study of SI Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics Fuelled with Various Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

Authors: M. Mourad, K. Abdelgawwad

Abstract:

This experimental investigation aimed to determine the influence of using different types of alcohol and gasoline blends such as ethanol - butanol - propanol on the performance of spark ignition engine. The experimental work studied the effect of various fuel blends such as ethanol – butanol/gasoline and propanol/gasoline with two rates of 15% and 20%, at different operating conditions (engine speed and loads), on engine performance emission characteristics. Laboratory experiments are carried out on a four-cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine. In this practical study, all considerations and precautions are taken into account to ensure the quality and accuracy of practical experiments and different measurements. The results show that the performance of the engine improved significantly in the case of ethanol/butanol-gasoline blends. The results also indicated that the engine emitted pollutants such as CO, hydrocarbon (HC) for alcohol fuel blends compared to base gasoline NOx emission increased for different fuel blends either ethanol/butanol-gasoline or propanol-gasoline fuel blend.

Keywords: Gasoline engine performance, emissions, alcohol blends.

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597 A Review on the Potential of Electric Vehicles in Reducing World CO2 Footprints

Authors: S. Alotaibi, S. Omer, Y. Su

Abstract:

The conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) based vehicles are a threat to the environment as they account for a large proportion of the overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the world. Hence, it is required to replace these vehicles with more environment-friendly vehicles. Electric Vehicles (EVs) are promising technologies which offer both human comfort “noise, pollution” as well as reduced (or no) emissions of GHGs. In this paper, different types of EVs are reviewed and their advantages and disadvantages are identified. It is found that in terms of fuel economy, Plug-in Hybrid EVs (PHEVs) have the best fuel economy, followed by Hybrid EVs (HEVs) and ICE vehicles. Since Battery EVs (BEVs) do not use any fuel, their fuel economy is estimated as price per kilometer. Similarly, in terms of GHG emissions, BEVs are the most environmentally friendly since they do not result in any emissions while HEVs and PHEVs produce less emissions compared to the conventional ICE based vehicles. Fuel Cell EVs (FCEVs) are also zero-emission vehicles, but they have large costs associated with them. Finally, if the electricity is provided by using the renewable energy technologies through grid connection, then BEVs could be considered as zero emission vehicles.

Keywords: Electric vehicle, fuel cell electric vehicle, hybrid electric vehicle, internal combustion engine.

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596 Conversion of Mechanical Water Pump to Electric Water Pump for a CI Engine

Authors: K. Arunachalam, P. Mannar Jawahar

Abstract:

Presently, engine cooling pump is driven by toothed belt. Therefore, the pump speed is dependent on engine speed which varies their output. At normal engine operating conditions (Higher RPM and low load, Higher RPM and high load), mechanical water pumps in existing engines are inevitably oversized and so the use of an electric water pump together with state-of-the-art thermal management of the combustion engine has measurable advantages. Demand-driven cooling, particularly in the cold-start phase, saves fuel (approx 3 percent) and leads to a corresponding reduction in emissions. The lack of dependence on a mechanical drive also results in considerable flexibility in component packaging within the engine compartment. This paper describes the testing and comparison of existing mechanical water pump with that of the electric water pump. When the existing mechanical water pump is replaced with the new electric water pump the percentage gain in system efficiency is also discussed.

Keywords: Cooling system, Electric water pump, Mechanical water pump.

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595 The Potential of 48V HEV in Real Driving

Authors: Mark Schudeleit, Christian Sieg, Ferit Küçükay

Abstract:

This paper describes how to dimension the electric components of a 48V hybrid system considering real customer use. Furthermore, it provides information about savings in energy and CO2 emissions by a customer-tailored 48V hybrid. Based on measured customer profiles, the electric units such as the electric motor and the energy storage are dimensioned. Furthermore, the CO2 reduction potential in real customer use is determined compared to conventional vehicles. Finally, investigations are carried out to specify the topology design and preliminary considerations in order to hybridize a conventional vehicle with a 48V hybrid system. The emission model results from an empiric approach also taking into account the effects of engine dynamics on emissions. We analyzed transient engine emissions during representative customer driving profiles and created emission meta models. The investigation showed a significant difference in emissions when simulating realistic customer driving profiles using the created verified meta models compared to static approaches which are commonly used for vehicle simulation.

Keywords: Customer use, dimensioning, hybrid electric vehicles, vehicle simulation, 48V hybrid system.

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594 Dimethyl Ether as an Ignition Improver for Hydrous Methanol Fuelled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine

Authors: M. Venkatesan, N. Shenbaga Vinayaga Moorthi, R. Karthikeyan, A. Manivannan

Abstract:

Homogeneous Charge Compression (HCCI) Ignition technology has been around for a long time, but has recently received renewed attention and enthusiasm. This paper deals with experimental investigations of HCCI engine using hydrous methanol as a primary fuel and Dimethyl Ether (DME) as an ignition improver. A regular diesel engine has been modified to work as HCCI engine for this investigation. The hydrous methanol is inducted and DME is injected into a single cylinder engine. Hence, hydrous methanol is used with 15% water content in HCCI engine and its performance and emission behavior is documented. The auto-ignition of Methanol is enabled by DME. The quantity of DME varies with respect to the load. In this study, the experiments are conducted independently and the effect of the hydrous methanol on the engine operating limit, heat release rate and exhaust emissions at different load conditions are investigated. The investigation also proves that the Hydrous Methanol with DME operation reduces the oxides of Nitrogen and smoke to an extreme low level which is not possible by the direct injection CI engine. Therefore, it is beneficial to use hydrous methanol-DME HCCI mode while using hydrous methanol in internal Combustion Engines.

Keywords: Hydrous Methanol, Dimethyl ether, Performance, Emission and Combustion.

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593 Improvement in Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Single Cylinder S.I. Engine Operated on Blends of CNG and Hydrogen

Authors: Sarbjot Singh Sandhu

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results of a single cylinder Enfield engine using an electronically controlled fuel injection system which was developed to carry out exhaustive tests using neat CNG, and mixtures of hydrogen in compressed natural gas (HCNG) as 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% by energy. Experiments were performed at 2000 and 2400 rpm with wide open throttle and varying the equivalence ratio. Hydrogen which has fast burning rate, when added to compressed natural gas, enhances its flame propagation rate. The emissions of HC, CO, decreased with increasing percentage of hydrogen but NOx was found to increase. The results indicated a marked improvement in the brake thermal efficiency with the increase in percentage of hydrogen added. The improved thermal efficiency was clearly observed to be more in lean region as compared to rich region. This study is expected to reduce vehicular emissions along with increase in thermal efficiency and thus help in reduction of further environmental degradation.

Keywords: Hydrogen, CNG, HCNG, Emissions.

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592 Effects of Intake Temperature and Intake Pressure on Combustion and Exhaust Emissions of HCCI Engine

Authors: Fridhi Hadia, Soua Wadhah, Hidouri Ammar, Omri Ahmed

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of the intake temperature (IT) and intake pressure (IP) on ignition timing and pollutants emission of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine is investigated. Numerical computations are performed using the CHEMKIN computer code. The numerical temperature obtained using different boundary conditions is compared to published data and a good agreement is assigned. Results show that the HCCI combustion engine is significantly improved by increasing the IT. With a value of IT lower than 390 K, combustion cannot occur. However, with an IT greater than 420 K, the cylinder pressure decreases. An optimum crank rotation angle is achieved by using IT of 420 K. So, we can conclude that the variation of the IT and IP influence notably the emission concentration.

Keywords: HCCI engine, CEMKIN, intake temperature, intake pressure.

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591 Calculation and Comparison of a Turbofan Engine Performance Parameters with Various Definitions

Authors: O. Onal, O. Turan

Abstract:

In this paper, some performance parameters of a selected turbofan engine (JT9D) are analyzed. The engine is a high bypass turbofan engine which powers a wide-body aircraft and it produces 206 kN thrust force (thrust/weight ratio is 5.4). The objective parameters for the engine include calculation of power, specific fuel consumption, specific thrust, engine propulsive, thermal and overall efficiencies according to the various definitions given in the literature. Furthermore, in the case study, wasted energy from the exhaust is calculated at the maximum power setting (i.e. take off phase) for the engine.

Keywords: Turbofan, power, efficiency, trust.

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590 Model Predictive Fuzzy Control of Air-ratio for Automotive Engines

Authors: Hang-cheong Wong, Pak-kin Wong, Chi-man Vong, Zhengchao Xie, Shaojia Huang

Abstract:

Automotive engine air-ratio plays an important role of emissions and fuel consumption reduction while maintains satisfactory engine power among all of the engine control variables. In order to effectively control the air-ratio, this paper presents a model predictive fuzzy control algorithm based on online least-squares support vector machines prediction model and fuzzy logic optimizer. The proposed control algorithm was also implemented on a real car for testing and the results are highly satisfactory. Experimental results show that the proposed control algorithm can regulate the engine air-ratio to the stoichiometric value, 1.0, under external disturbance with less than 5% tolerance.

Keywords: Air-ratio, Fuzzy logic, online least-squares support vector machine, model predictive control.

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589 Biodiesel Production from Broiler Chicken Waste

Authors: John Abraham, Ramesh Saravana Kumar, Francis Xavier, Deepak Mathew

Abstract:

Broiler slaughter waste has become a major source of pollution throughout the world. Utilization of broiler slaughter waste by dry rendering process produced Rendered Chicken Oil (RCO), a cheap raw material for biodiesel production and Carcass Meal a feed ingredient for pets and fishes. Conversion of RCO into biodiesel may open new vistas for generating wealth from waste besides controlling the major havoc of environmental pollution. A two-step process to convert RCO to good quality Biodiesel was invented. Acid catalysed esterification of FFA followed by base catalysed transesterification of triglycerides was carried out after meticulously standardizing the methanol molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time to obtain the maximum biodiesel yield of 97.62% and lowest glycerol yield of 6.96%. RCO biodiesel blend was tested in a CRDI diesel engine. The results revealed that the blending of commercial diesel with 20% RCO biodiesel (B20) lead to less engine wear, a quieter engine and better fuel economy. The better lubricating qualities of RCO B20 prevented over heating of engine, which prolongs the engine life. RCO B20 can reduce the import of crude oil and substantially reduce the engine emissions as proved by significantly lower smoke levels, thus mitigating climatic changes.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Broiler Waste, Engine Testing, Rendered Chicken Oil.

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588 Examination of Internally and Externally Coated Cr3C2 Exhaust Pipe of a Diesel Engine via Plasma Spray Method

Authors: H. Hazar, S. Sap

Abstract:

In this experimental study; internal and external parts of an exhaust pipe were coated with a chromium carbide (Cr3C2) material having a thickness of 100 micron by using the plasma spray method. A diesel engine was used as the test engine. Thus, the results of continuing chemical reaction in coated and uncoated exhaust pipes were investigated. Internally and externally coated exhaust pipe was compared with the standard exhaust system. External heat transfer occurring as a result of coating the internal and external parts of the exhaust pipe was reduced and its effects on harmful exhaust emissions were investigated. As a result of the experiments; a remarkable improvement was determined in emission values as a result of delay in cooling of exhaust gases due to the coating.

Keywords: Chrome carbide, diesel engine, exhaust emission, thermal barrier.

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587 Performance and Emission Study of Linseed Oilas a Fuel for CI Engine

Authors: Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Naveen Kumar, Bhupendra Singh Chauhan

Abstract:

Increased energy demand and the concern about environment friendly technology, renewable bio-fuels are better alternative to petroleum products. In the present study linseed oil was used as alternative source for diesel engine fuel and the results were compared with baseline data of neat diesel. Performance parameters such as brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and emissions parameters such as CO, unburned hydro carbon (UBHC), NOx, CO2 and exhaust temperature were compared. BTE of the engine was lower and BSFC was higher when the engine was fueled with Linseed oil compared to diesel fuel. Emission characteristics are better than diesel fuel. NOx formation by using linseed oil during the experiment was lower than diesel fuel. Linseed oil is non edible oil, so it can be used as an extender of diesel fuel energy source for small and medium energy needs.

Keywords: Bio-fuel, exhaust emission, linseed oil, triglyceride.

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586 An Experimental Study on the Effects of Bioethanol-Unleaded Gasoline Blends on Engine Performance in a Spark Ignition Engine

Authors: A. Engin Özçelik, Hasan Aydoğan, Mustafa Acaroğlu

Abstract:

In the present study, the effects of bioethanol-unleaded gasoline blends on engine performance were investigated in a spark ignition engine. Fuel containing 100% ethanol (E100), fuel blend containing 40% bioethanol by volume (E40) and 100% unleaded gasoline (E0) were tested and the test results were compared. As the result of the study, it was found that the use of unleaded gasoline and bioethanol-unleaded gasoline blends as fuel did not cause a significant change in engine performance. The results of the engine tests showed that the use of unleaded gasoline-bioethanol blends as fuel caused a decrease in engine torque and engine power depending on the increase in the ratio of bioethanol in the fuel blend. As the result of these decreases, increases of up to 30% were observed in the specific fuel consumption of the engine.

Keywords: Bioetanol, engine performance, unleaded gasoline.

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