Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30184
Experimental Investigations on the Influence of Properties of Jatropha Biodiesel on Performance, Combustion, and Emission Characteristics of a DI-CI Engine

Authors: P. V. Rao

Abstract:

The aim of the present research work is to investigate the influence of Jatropha biodiesel properties on various characteristics of a direct injection compression ignition engine. The experiments were performed at different engine operating regimes with the injection timing prescribed by the engine manufacturer for diesel fuel. The engine characteristics with Jatropha biodiesel were compared against those obtained using diesel fuel. From the results, it is observed that the biodiesel performance and emissions are lower than that of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emission of Jatropha biodiesel is more than that of diesel fuel. These high NOx emissions are due to the presence of unsaturated fatty acids and the advanced injection caused by the higher bulk modulus (or density) of Jatropha biodiesel Furthermore, the possibility for reduction of NOx emissions without expensive engine modifications (hardware) was investigated. Keeping this in mind, the Jatropha biodiesel was preheated. The experimental results show that the retarded injection timing is necessary when using Jatropha biodiesel in order to reduce NOx emission without worsening other engine characteristics. Results also indicate improved performance with the application of preheated biodiesel. The only penalty for using preheated biodiesel is the increase of smoke (soot).

Keywords: chemical properties, combustion, exhaust emissions, Jatropha biodiesel

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2871

References:


[1] Abe.S., Takizawa H, Sugawara I, Kudoh S, Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. 22.296(2000)
[2] International Agency for Research on Cancer HP, http://monograpgs.iarc.fr/
[3] Spataru, A., C. Romig, "Emissions and engine performance from blends of soya and canola methyl esters with ARB#2 diesel in a DCC 6V92TA MUI engine" SAE paper no. 952388, Warrendale, PA: SAE International, 1995.
[4] Staat, F., P. Gateau, "The effects of rapeseed oil methyl ester on diesel engine performance exhaust emissions and and long-term behaviour: A summary of three years of experimentation" SAE Paper No: 950053. Warrendale, PA: SAE International, 1995
[5] Raheman, H., A.G. Phadatare, "Diesel engine emission and performance from blends of karanja methyl ester and diesel" Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 27, pp: 393-297, 2004
[6] Nabi, M.N., M.S. Akhter, and M.M.Z. Shahadat. "Improvement of engine emissions with conventional diesel fuel and diesel-biodiesel blends" Bioresource Technology, Vol. 97, pp: 372-378, 2006
[7] Szibist, J.P, A.L. Boehman, J.D. Taylor, R.L. McCormick, "Evaluation of formation strategies to eliminate the biodiesel NOx effect" Fuel Processing Technology 86, 2005, pp.1109-1126.
[8] Kegl, B., Experimental Investigations of optimal timing of the diesel engine injection pump using biodiesel fuel, Energy and Fuels 4, 2006
[9] Monyem, A., J.H. Van Gerpen, and M. Canakci, "The Effect of Timing and Oxidation on Emissions from Biodiesel-Fueled Engines". Transactions of the ASAE, 2001, 44(1): p.35-42
[10] Astakov, I.V., Effect of design parameters of delivery manifold and characteristics of fuel on the velocity of propagation and reflection properties of pressure waves in the fuel system of a diesel engine. Energomash, 5: 15-19. 1966
[11] Tat, M.E., J.H. Van Gerpen, S. Soylu, M. Canakci, A. Monyem, and S. Wormley, "The Speed of Sound and Isentropic Bulk Modulus of Biodiesel at21 degrees C from Atmospheric Pressure to 35 MPa." Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 2000, 77(3): p. 285-289.
[12] Yamane K., Ueta A., Shimamoto Y., "Influence of physical and chemical properties of biodiesel fuel on injection, combustion and exhaust emission characteristics in DI-CI engine" Tran. of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Vol. 32, No: 2, pp. 25-30, 2001
[13] Sirisomboon P., Kitchaiya P., Pholpho T., and Mahuttanyavanitch W., "Physical and mechanical properties of Jatropha curcas L., fruits, nuts, and kernels, Biosystems Engineering, Vol. 97, pp. 201-207, 2007.
[14] Shukla Y.N., Rani A., Tripathy A., Sharma S., "Antifeedant activity of ursolic acid isolated from Duboisia myoporoides Phytother. Res.10:359- 360 " (1996)
[15] Adebowale K.O., Adedire C.O., "Chemical composition and insecticidal properties of the underutilized Jatropha curcus seed oil "African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 5(10), pp. 901-906, 2006
[16] Sujatha M., Mukla N., "Morthogenesisi and plant regeneration from tissue cultures of Jatropha curcas". Plant cell, tissue, and Organ Cult. 44:133-141, 1996
[17] Jon Van Gerpen, "Biodiesel Production and Fuel Quality", University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844., 2005
[18] Tapasvi, D. Wiesenborn, D. and Gustafson, C. "Process Model for Biodiesel Production from Various Feedstocks" Transactions of the ASAE, ISSN 0001-2351, Vol. 48(6):2215-2221, 2005
[19] Aleks Kac, "The two-stage adaptation of Mike Pelly-s Biodiesel recipe (for advanced biofuelers), 2000
[20] ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials (2002). Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel (B100) Blend Stock for distillate Fuels, designation D6751-02, ASTM Inter.
[21] Kazuhiro Akihama, Yoshiki Takatori, Kiyomi Nakakita, (2002), "Effect of Hydrocarbon Molecular Structure on Diesel Exhaust Emissions". A Research Report, R&D Review of Toyota CRDL, Vol. 37, No. 3.
[22] Gerhard knothe, Jon Van Gerpen and J. Krahl "The Biodiesel Handbook" AOCS Press, USA, 2005
[23] Song C, Hsu CS, Mochida I (2000) Introduction to chemistry of diesel fuels, New York, Taylor & Francis, London
[24] Kumar A., Sharma, S.(2008) An evaluation of multipurpose oil seed crop for industrial uses (Jatropha curcas L): A review" Ind. Crops. Prod.
[25] Heinrich Prankl, Manfred Worgetter, Josef Rathbauer, "Technical Performance of Vegetable Oil Methyl esters with a High Iodine Number". 4th Biomass Conference of the Americas. BLT Wieselburg (1999)
[26] Caye M. Drapcho, Nghiem Phu Nhuan Terry H. Walk "Biofuels Engineering Processing Technology" The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ISSN: 0-07-150992-5, 2008
[27] Bala, BK( 2005), Studies on biodiesels from transformation of vegetable oils for diesel engines, Energy Educ. Sci. Technol. 15: 1-43
[28] Ayhan Demirbas(2007), Biodiesel: A Realistic Fuel Alternative for Diesel Engines. Springer, ISBN:978-1-84628-995-8
[29] Michael JM, Joshua DT, Robert LM (2004), Compendium of Experimental Cetane Number Data: Subcontractor Report, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Colorado, www.nrel.gov
[30] Clothier PQE, Aguda BD, Moise A, Pritchard HO (1993), How Do Diesel- fuel Ignition Improvers Work? Chem. Soc. Rev. 22(2) 101-108
[31] Puckett AD, Caudle BH (1948), Ignition Qualities of Hydrocarbons in the Diesel Fuel Boiling Range,US Bureau of Mines Information Circular, 7474, Washington, DC.
[32] Ayhan Demirbas(2007) "Studies on cottonseed oil biodiesel prepared in non-catalytic SCF conditions" Bioresource Technology 99(2008):1125- 1130
[33] Balat, M(2005) Bio-diesel from vegetable oils via transesterification in supercritical ethanol. Energy Ed. Sci. Technol. 16:45-52
[34] Knothe G, Gerpen JV, Krahl J (2005), The Biodiesel Handbook, Illinois, AOCS Press.
[35] Lebedevas, S.; Vaicekauskas, A. Improvement of the parameters of maintenance of medium speed diesels applying the motor methods, Transport, Vol XVI, No. 6, ISSN: 1648-4142. 2004, p. 252- 261.
[36] Van Gerpen, J.; Shanks, B.; R.; knothe, G., Biodiesel analytical methods, August 2002-January 2004. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/SR-510-36240, 2004, 95 p.
[37] Song C, Hsu CS, Mochida I (2000) Introduction to chemistry of diesel fuels, New York, Taylor & Francis, London
[38] Yamane K., Ueta A., Shimamoto Y., Influence of Physical and Chemical Properties of Biodiesel Fuel on Injection, Combustion and Exhaust Emission Characteristics in a DI-CI Engine" Tran. Of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Vol. 32, NO:2, 2001, pp.25-30.
[39] Edward F. Obert, Internal combustion engines and air pollution, Harper International edition (3/e). Harper & Row Publishers, Inc. 1973, Page no: 451-453
[40] R.A. Bakar and T.Firoz. Numerical analysis of pressure pulses in the jerk fuel injection systems. American Journal of Applied Sciences 2(5),2005, pp.1003-1007.
[41] Giffen, E. and A.W.Rowe, Pressure calculations for oil engine fuel injection system. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 142:519-534.,1939.
[42] P V Rao, Pressure-Time Analysis of a Unit Injector, A Thesis submitted to the Indian Institute of Science. Bangalore, India, for the degree of Master of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering. 1993.
[43] Kegl B, Hribernik A(2006), Experimental Analysis of Injection Characteristics Using Biodiesel Fuel. Energy Fuels, 20:2239-48
[44] Tat ME, Van Gerpen JH, Wang PS (2007), Fuel property effects on injection timing, ignition timing, and oxides of nitrogen emissions from biodiesel-fueled engines. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, 50(4): 1123-8
[45] Flavio Caresana (2011), Impact of biodiesel bulk modulus on ijection pressure and injection timing. The effect of residual pressure, Fuel 90:477-485
[46] Yuan W, Hansen AC, Zhang Q (2005), Vapor pressure and normal bioling point predictions for pure methyl esters and biodiesel fuels. Fuel: 84: 943-950
[47] Heywood J B (1988) Internal Combustion Engine Fundementals, McGraw-Hill International Ed., ISB No.: 07-100499-8
[48] Robert L, Mccormick, Michael S, Graboski, Teresa L, Alleman, Andrew MH and Shaine TK (2001). Impact of Biodiesel Source Material and Chemical Structure on Emissions of Criteria Pollutants from a Heavy- Duty Engine. Environ. Sci. Technol. 35:1742-1747
[49] Breda Kegl (2006). Experimental Investigation of Optimal Timing of the Diesel Engine Injection Pump using Biodiesel Fuel. Energy & Fuels, 20:1460-1470.
[50] Gatowski , J. A., Balles, E.N., Chun, K.M., Nelson, F.E., Ekchian J.A., and Heywood, J.B.(1984), Heat Release Analysis of Engine Pressure Data, SAE Paper 841359
[51] Woschni G. (1967), A Universally applicable Equation for the Instantaneous Heat Transfer Coefficient in the Internal Combustion Engine, SAE Paper 670931.
[52] Hohenberg, G.F. (1979), Advanced approaches for heat transfer calculations, SAE Technical Paper 790825