Search results for: Takeshi Otaka
23 Combustion Improvements by C4/C5 Bio-Alcohol Isomer Blended Fuels Combined with Supercharging and EGR in a Diesel Engine
Authors: Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Enkhjargal Tserenochir, Eiji Kinoshita, Takeshi Otaka
Next generation bio-alcohols produced from non-food based sources like cellulosic biomass are promising renewable energy sources. The present study investigates engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions of a small single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled by four kinds of next generation bio-alcohol isomer and diesel fuel blends with a constant blending ratio of 3:7 (mass). The tested bio-alcohol isomers here are n-butanol and iso-butanol (C4 alcohol), and n-pentanol and iso-pentanol (C5 alcohol). To obtain simultaneous reductions in NOx and smoke emissions, the experiments employed supercharging combined with EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation). The boost pressures were fixed at two conditions, 100 kPa (naturally aspirated operation) and 120 kPa (supercharged operation) provided with a roots blower type supercharger. The EGR rates were varied from 0 to 25% using a cooled EGR technique. The results showed that both with and without supercharging, all the bio-alcohol blended diesel fuels improved the trade-off relation between NOx and smoke emissions at all EGR rates while maintaining good engine performance, when compared with diesel fuel operation. It was also found that regardless of boost pressure and EGR rate, the ignition delays of the tested bio-alcohol isomer blends are in the order of iso-butanol > n-butanol > iso-pentanol > n-pentanol. Overall, it was concluded that, except for the changes in the ignition delays the influence of bio-alcohol isomer blends on the engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions are relatively small.
Keywords: Alternative fuel, Butanol, Diesel engine, EGR, Next generation bio-alcohol isomer blended fuel, Pentanol, Supercharging.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 617
22 Effect of CW Laser Annealing on Silicon Surface for Application of Power Device
Authors: Satoru Kaneko, Takeshi Ito, Kensuke Akiyama, Manabu Yasui, Chihiro Kato, Satomi Tanaka, Yasuo Hirabayashi, Takeshi Ozawa, Akira Matsuno, Takashi Nire, Hiroshi Funakubo, Mamoru Yoshimoto
Abstract:As application of re-activation of backside on power device Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT), laser annealing was employed to irradiate amorphous silicon substrate, and resistivities were measured using four point probe measurement. For annealing the amorphous silicon two lasers were used at wavelength of visible green (532 nm) together with Infrared (793 nm). While the green laser efficiently increased temperature at top surface the Infrared laser reached more deep inside and was effective for melting the top surface. A finite element method was employed to evaluate time dependent thermal distribution in silicon substrate.
Keywords: laser, annealing, silicon, recrystallization, thermal distribution, resistivity, finite element method, absorption, melting point, latent heat of fusion.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2737
21 Stock Market Prediction by Regression Model with Social Moods
Authors: Masahiro Ohmura, Koh Kakusho, Takeshi Okadome
This paper presents a regression model with autocorrelated errors in which the inputs are social moods obtained by analyzing the adjectives in Twitter posts using a document topic model, where document topics are extracted using LDA. The regression model predicts Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) more precisely than autoregressive moving-average models.
Keywords: Regression model, social mood, stock market prediction, Twitter.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2277
20 Photoluminescence Properties of β-FeSi2 on Cu- or Au-coated Si
Authors: Kensuke Akiyama, Satoru Kaneko, Takeshi Ozawa, Kazuya Yokomizo, Masaru Itakura
Abstract:The photoluminescence (PL) at 1.55 μm from semiconducting β-FeSi2 has attracted a noticeable interest for silicon-based optoelectronic applications. Moreover, its high optical absorption coefficient (higher than 105 cm-1 above 1.0 eV) allows this semiconducting material to be used as photovoltanics devices. A clear PL spectrum for β-FeSi2 was observed by Cu or Au coating on Si(001). High-crystal-quality β-FeSi2 with a low-level nonradiative center was formed on a Cu- or Au- reated Si layer. This method of deposition can be applied to other materials requiring high crystal quality.
Keywords: iron silicide, semiconductor, epitaxial, photoluminescence.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2495
19 A Low-cost Reconfigurable Architecture for AES Algorithm
Authors: Yibo Fan, Takeshi Ikenaga, Yukiyasu Tsunoo, Satoshi Goto
Abstract:This paper proposes a low-cost reconfigurable architecture for AES algorithm. The proposed architecture separates SubBytes and MixColumns into two parallel data path, and supports different bit-width operation for this two data path. As a result, different number of S-box can be supported in this architecture. The throughput and power consumption can be adjusted by changing the number of S-box running in this design. Using the TSMC 0.18μm CMOS standard cell library, a very low-cost implementation of 7K Gates is obtained under 182MHz frequency. The maximum throughput is 360Mbps while using 4 S-Box simultaneously, and the minimum throughput is 114Mbps while only using 1 S-Box
Keywords: AES, Reconfigurable architecture, low costProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1903
18 Frequency- and Content-Based Tag Cloud Font Distribution Algorithm
Authors: Ágnes Bogárdi-Mészöly, Takeshi Hashimoto, Shohei Yokoyama, Hiroshi Ishikawa
The spread of Web 2.0 has caused user-generated content explosion. Users can tag resources to describe and organize them. Tag clouds provide rough impression of relative importance of each tag within overall cloud in order to facilitate browsing among numerous tags and resources. The goal of our paper is to enrich visualization of tag clouds. A font distribution algorithm has been proposed to calculate a novel metric based on frequency and content, and to classify among classes from this metric based on power law distribution and percentages. The suggested algorithm has been validated and verified on the tag cloud of a real-world thesis portal.
Keywords: Tag cloud, font distribution algorithm, frequency-based, content-based, power law.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1985
17 On Phase Based Stereo Matching and Its Related Issues
Authors: Andr´as R¨ovid, Takeshi Hashimoto
The paper focuses on the problem of the point correspondence matching in stereo images. The proposed matching algorithm is based on the combination of simpler methods such as normalized sum of squared differences (NSSD) and a more complex phase correlation based approach, by considering the noise and other factors, as well. The speed of NSSD and the preciseness of the phase correlation together yield an efficient approach to find the best candidate point with sub-pixel accuracy in stereo image pairs. The task of the NSSD in this case is to approach the candidate pixel roughly. Afterwards the location of the candidate is refined by an enhanced phase correlation based method which in contrast to the NSSD has to run only once for each selected pixel.
Keywords: Stereo matching, Sub-pixel accuracy, phase correlation, SVD, NSSD.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1748
16 Capture and Feedback in Flying Disc Throw with use of Kinect
Authors: Yasuhisa Tamura, Koji Yamaoka, Masataka Uehara, Takeshi Shima
This paper proposes a three-dimensional motion capture and feedback system of flying disc throwing action learners with use of Kinect device. Rather than conventional 3-D motion capture system, Kinect has advantages of cost merit, easy system development and operation. A novice learner of flying disc is trained to keep arm movement in steady height, to twist the waist, and to stretch the elbow according to the waist angle. The proposing system captures learners- body movement, checks their skeleton positions in pre-motion / motion / post-motion in several ways, and displays feedback messages to refine their actions.
Keywords: Flying disc, throwing movement, Kinect, capture, feedbackProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2042
15 Subjective Assessment about Super Resolution Image Resolution
Authors: Seiichi Gohshi, Hiroyuki Sekiguchi, Yoshiyasu Shimizu, Takeshi Ikenaga
Abstract:Super resolution (SR) technologies are now being applied to video to improve resolution. Some TV sets are now equipped with SR functions. However, it is not known if super resolution image reconstruction (SRR) for TV really works or not. Super resolution with non-linear signal processing (SRNL) has recently been proposed. SRR and SRNL are the only methods for processing video signals in real time. The results from subjective assessments of SSR and SRNL are described in this paper. SRR video was produced in simulations with quarter precision motion vectors and 100 iterations. These are ideal conditions for SRR. We found that the image quality of SRNL is better than that of SRR even though SRR was processed under ideal conditions.
Keywords: Super Resolution Image Reconstruction, Super Resolution with Non-Linear Signal Processing, Subjective Assessment, Image QualityProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1525
14 Proposal of a Model Supporting Decision-Making on Information Security Risk Treatment
Authors: Ritsuko Kawasaki (Aiba), Takeshi Hiromatsu
Management is required to understand all information security risks within an organization, and to make decisions on which information security risks should be treated in what level by allocating how much amount of cost. However, such decision-making is not usually easy, because various measures for risk treatment must be selected with the suitable application levels. In addition, some measures may have objectives conflicting with each other. It also makes the selection difficult. Therefore, this paper provides a model which supports the selection of measures by applying multi-objective analysis to find an optimal solution. Additionally, a list of measures is also provided to make the selection easier and more effective without any leakage of measures.
Keywords: Information security risk treatment, Selection of risk measures, Risk acceptance and Multi-objective optimization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1834
13 Preparation and Characterization of Nylon 6-Clay Hybrid/Neat Nylon 6 Bicomponent Nanocomposite Fibers
Authors: Shahin Kazemi, Mohammad Reza Mohaddes Mojtahedi, Ruhollah Semnani Rahbar, Wataru Takarada, Takeshi Kikutani
Abstract:Nylon 6-clay hybrid/neat nylon 6, sheath/core bicomponent nanocomposite fibers containing 4 wt% of clay in sheath section were melt spun at different take-up speeds. Their orientation and crystalline structure were compared to those of neat nylon 6 fibers. Birefringence measurements showed that the orientation development in sheath and core parts of bicomponent fibers was different. Crystallinity results showed that clay did not act as a nucleating agent for bicomponent fibers. The neat nylon 6 fiber had a smooth surface while striped pattern was appeared on the surface of bicomponent fiber containing clay due to thermal shrinkage of the core part.
Keywords: Bicomponent fiber, High speed melt spinning, Nylon 6-clay hybrid, Nylon 6.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2197
12 Target Trajectory Design of Parametrically Excited Inverted Pendulum for Efficient Bipedal Walking
Authors: Toyoyuki Honjo, Takeshi Hayashi, Akinori Nagano, Zhi-Wei Luo
Abstract:For stable bipedal gait generation on the level floor, efficient restoring of mechanical energy lost by heel collision at the ground is necessary. Parametric excitation principle is one of the solutions. We dealt with the robot-s total center of mass as an inverted pendulum to consider the total dynamics of the robot. Parametrically excited walking requires the use of continuous target trajectory that is close to discontinuous optimal trajectory. In this paper, we proposed the new target trajectory based on a position in the walking direction. We surveyed relations between walking performance and the parameters that form the target trajectory via numerical simulations. As a result, it was found that our target trajectory has the similar characteristics of a parametrically excited inverted pendulum.
Keywords: Dynamic Bipedal Walking, Parametric Excitation, Target Trajectory Design.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1523
11 Proposal of a Model Supporting Decision-Making Based On Multi-Objective Optimization Analysis on Information Security Risk Treatment
Authors: Ritsuko Kawasaki (Aiba), Takeshi Hiromatsu
Management is required to understand all information security risks within an organization, and to make decisions on which information security risks should be treated in what level by allocating how much amount of cost. However, such decision-making is not usually easy, because various measures for risk treatment must be selected with the suitable application levels. In addition, some measures may have objectives conflicting with each other. It also makes the selection difficult. Moreover, risks generally have trends and it also should be considered in risk treatment. Therefore, this paper provides the extension of the model proposed in the previous study. The original model supports the selection of measures by applying a combination of weighted average method and goal programming method for multi-objective analysis to find an optimal solution. The extended model includes the notion of weights to the risks, and the larger weight means the priority of the risk.
Keywords: Information security risk treatment, Selection of risk measures, Risk acceptanceand Multi-objective optimization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1622
10 Molecular Evolutionary Analysis of Yeast Protein Interaction Network
Authors: Soichi Ogishima, Takeshi Hase, So Nakagawa, Yasuhiro Suzuki, Hiroshi Tanaka
Abstract:To understand life as biological system, evolutionary understanding is indispensable. Protein interactions data are rapidly accumulating and are suitable for system-level evolutionary analysis. We have analyzed yeast protein interaction network by both mathematical and biological approaches. In this poster presentation, we inferred the evolutionary birth periods of yeast proteins by reconstructing phylogenetic profile. It has been thought that hub proteins that have high connection degree are evolutionary old. But our analysis showed that hub proteins are entirely evolutionary new. We also examined evolutionary processes of protein complexes. It showed that member proteins of complexes were tend to have appeared in the same evolutionary period. Our results suggested that protein interaction network evolved by modules that form the functional unit. We also reconstructed standardized phylogenetic trees and calculated evolutionary rates of yeast proteins. It showed that there is no obvious correlation between evolutionary rates and connection degrees of yeast proteins.
Keywords: Protein interaction network, evolution, modularity, evolutionary rate, connection degrees.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1187
9 ROSA/LSTF Separate Effect Test on Natural Circulation under High Core Power Condition of Pressurized Water Reactor
Authors: Takeshi Takeda
Abstract:A separate effect test (SET) simulated natural circulation (NC) under high core power condition of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) utilizing the ROSA/LSTF (rig of safety assessment/large-scale test facility). The LSTF test results clarified the relationship between the primary loop mass inventory and the primary loop mass flow rate being dependent on the NC mode at a constant core power of 8% of the volumetric-scaled PWR nominal power. When the core power was 9% or more during reflux condensation, large-amplitude level oscillation in a form of slow fill and dump occurred in steam generator (SG) U-tubes. At 11% core power during reflux condensation, intermittent rise took place in the cladding surface temperature of simulated fuel rods. The RELAP5/MOD3.3 code indicated the insufficient prediction of the SG U-tube liquid level behavior during reflux condensation.
Keywords: LSTF, natural circulation, core power, RELAP5.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 641
8 Chemical Degradation of Dieldrin using Ferric Sulfide and Iron Powder
Authors: Junko Hara, Yoshishige Kawabe, Takeshi Komai, Chihiro Inoue
Abstract:The chemical degradation of dieldrin in ferric sulfide and iron powder aqueous suspension was investigated in laboratory batch type experiments. To identify the reaction mechanism, reduced copper was used as reductant. More than 90% of dieldrin was degraded using both reaction systems after 29 days. Initial degradation rate of the pesticide using ferric sulfide was superior to that using iron powder. The reaction schemes were completely dissimilar even though the ferric ion plays an important role in both reaction systems. In the case of metallic iron powder, dieldrin undergoes partial dechlorination. This reaction proceeded by reductive hydrodechlorination with the generation of H+, which arise by oxidation of ferric iron. This reductive reaction was accelerated by reductant but mono-dechlorination intermediates were accumulated. On the other hand, oxidative degradation was observed in the reaction with ferric sulfide, and the stable chemical structure of dieldrin was decomposed into water-soluble intermediates. These reaction intermediates have no chemical structure of drin class. This dehalogenation reaction assumes to occur via the adsorbed hydroxyl radial generated on the surface of ferric sulfide.
Keywords: Dieldrin, kinetics, pesticide residue, soil remediationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1966
7 Uncertainty Analysis of ROSA/LSTF Test on Pressurized Water Reactor Cold Leg Small-Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident without Scram
Authors: Takeshi Takeda
The author conducted post-test analysis with the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code for an experiment using the ROSA/LSTF (rig of safety assessment/large-scale test facility) that simulated a 1% cold leg small-break loss-of-coolant accident under the failure of scram in a pressurized water reactor. The LSTF test assumed total failure of high-pressure injection system of emergency core cooling system. In the LSTF test, natural circulation contributed to maintain core cooling effect for a relatively long time until core uncovery occurred. The post-test analysis result confirmed inadequate prediction of the primary coolant distribution. The author created the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) for each component. The author investigated the influences of uncertain parameters determined by the PIRT on the cladding surface temperature at a certain time during core uncovery within the defined uncertain ranges.
Keywords: LSTF, LOCA, scram, RELAP5.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 601
6 Direct Measurement of Electromagnetic Thrust of Electrodeless Helicon Plasma Thruster Using Magnetic Nozzle
Authors: Takahiro Nakamura, Kenji Takahashi, Hiroyuki Nishida, Shunjiro Shinohara, Takeshi Matsuoka, Ikkoh Funaki, Takao Tanikawa, Tohru Hada
Abstract:In order to realize long-lived electric propulsion systems, we have been investigating an electrodeless plasma thruster. In our concept, a helicon plasma is accelerated by the magnetic nozzle for the thrusts production. In addition, the electromagnetic thrust can be enhanced by the additional radio-frequency rotating electric field (REF) power in the magnetic nozzle. In this study, a direct measurement of the electromagnetic thrust and a probe measurement have been conducted using a laboratory model of the thruster under the condition without the REF power input. Fromthrust measurement, it is shown that the thruster produces a sub-milli-newton order electromagnetic thrust force without the additional REF power. The thrust force and the density jump are observed due to the discharge mode transition from the inductive coupled plasma to the helicon wave excited plasma. The thermal thrust is theoretically estimated, and the total thrust force, which is a sum of the electromagnetic and the thermal thrust force and specific impulse are calculated to be up to 650 μN (plasma production power of 400 W, Ar gas mass flow rate of 1.0 mg/s) and 210 s (plasma production power of 400 W, Ar gas mass flow rate of 0.2 mg/s), respectively.
Keywords: Electric propulsion, Helicon plasma, Lissajous acceleration, Thrust stand.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1999
5 ROSA/LSTF Test on Pressurized Water Reactor Steam Generator Tube Rupture Accident Induced by Main Steam Line Break with Recovery Actions
Authors: Takeshi Takeda
An experiment was performed for the OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Project employing the ROSA/LSTF (rig of safety assessment/large-scale test facility), which simulated a steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) accident induced by main steam line break (MSLB) with operator recovery actions in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The primary pressure decreased to the pressure level nearly-equal to the intact steam generator (SG) secondary-side pressure even with coolant injection from the high-pressure injection (HPI) system of emergency core cooling system (ECCS) into cold legs. Multi-dimensional coolant behavior appeared such as thermal stratification in both hot and cold legs in intact loop. The RELAP5/MOD3.3 code indicated the insufficient predictions of the primary pressure, the SGTR break flow rate, and the HPI flow rate, and failed to predict the fluid temperatures in the intact loop hot and cold legs. Results obtained from the comparison among three LSTF SGTR-related tests clarified that the thermal stratification occurs in the horizontal legs by different mechanisms.
Keywords: LSTF, SGTR, thermal stratification, RELAP5.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 593
4 Total and Leachable Concentration of Trace Elements in Soil towards Human Health Risk, Related with Coal Mine in Jorong, South Kalimantan, Indonesia
Authors: Arie Pujiwati, Kengo Nakamura, Noriaki Watanabe, Takeshi Komai
Coal mining is well known to cause considerable environmental impacts, including trace element contamination of soil. This study aimed to assess the trace element (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn) contamination of soil in the vicinity of coal mining activities, using the case study of Asam-asam River basin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia, and to assess the human health risk, incorporating total and bioavailable (water-leachable and acid-leachable) concentrations. The results show the enrichment of As and Co in soil, surpassing the background soil value. Contamination was evaluated based on the index of geo-accumulation, Igeo and the pollution index, PI. Igeo values showed that the soil was generally uncontaminated (Igeo ≤ 0), except for elevated As and Co. Mean PI for Ni and Cu indicated slight contamination. Regarding the assessment of health risks, the Hazard Index, HI showed adverse risks (HI > 1) for Ni, Co, and As. Further, Ni and As were found to pose unacceptable carcinogenic risk (risk > 1.10-5). Farming, settlement, and plantation were found to present greater risk than coal mines. These results show that coal mining activity in the study area contaminates the soils by particular elements and may pose potential human health risk in its surrounding area. This study is important for setting appropriate countermeasure actions and improving basic coal mining management in Indonesia.
Keywords: Coal mine, risk, soil, trace elements.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 938
3 Assessment and Uncertainty Analysis of ROSA/LSTF Test on Pressurized Water Reactor 1.9% Vessel Upper Head Small-Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident
Authors: Takeshi Takeda
An experiment utilizing the ROSA/LSTF (rig of safety assessment/large-scale test facility) simulated a 1.9% vessel upper head small-break loss-of-coolant accident with an accident management (AM) measure under the total failure of high-pressure injection system of emergency core cooling system in a pressurized water reactor. Steam generator (SG) secondary-side depressurization on the AM measure was started by fully opening relief valves in both SGs when the maximum core exit temperature rose to 623 K. A large increase took place in the cladding surface temperature of simulated fuel rods on account of a late and slow response of core exit thermocouples during core boil-off. The author analyzed the LSTF test by reference to the matrix of an integral effect test for the validation of a thermal-hydraulic system code. Problems remained in predicting the primary coolant distribution and the core exit temperature with the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. The uncertainty analysis results of the RELAP5 code confirmed that the sample size with respect to the order statistics influences the value of peak cladding temperature with a 95% probability at a 95% confidence level, and the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient.
Keywords: LSTF, LOCA, uncertainty analysis, RELAP5.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 535
2 Finite Element Approach to Evaluate Time Dependent Shear Behavior of Connections in Hybrid Steel-PC Girder under Sustained Loading
Authors: Mohammad Najmol Haque, Takeshi Maki, Jun Sasaki
Headed stud shear connections are widely used in the junction or embedded zone of hybrid girder to achieve whole composite action with continuity that can sustain steel-concrete interfacial tensile and shear forces. In Japan, Japan Road Association (JRA) specifications are used for hybrid girder design that utilizes very low level of stud capacity than those of American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) specifications, Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE) specifications and EURO code. As low design shear strength is considered in design of connections, the time dependent shear behavior due to sustained external loading is not considered, even not fully studied. In this study, a finite element approach was used to evaluate the time dependent shear behavior for headed studs used as connections at the junction. This study clarified, how the sustained loading distinctively impacted on changing the interfacial shear of connections with time which was sensitive to lodging history, positions of flanges, neighboring studs, position of prestress bar and reinforcing bar, concrete strength, etc. and also identified a shear influence area. Stud strength was also confirmed through pushout tests. The outcome obtained from the study may provide an important basis and reference data in designing connections of hybrid girders with enhanced stud capacity with due consideration of their long-term shear behavior.
Keywords: Finite element approach, hybrid girder, headed stud shear connections, sustained loading, time dependent shear behavior.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 489
1 Effect of Pole Weight on Nordic Walking
Authors: Takeshi Sato, Mizuki Nakajima, Macky Kato, Shoji Igawa
The purpose of study was to investigate the effect of varying pole weights on energy expenditure, upper limb and lower limb muscle activity as Electromyogram during Nordic walking (NW). Four healthy men [age = 22.5 (±1.0) years, body mass = 61.4 (±3.6) kg, height = 170.3 (±4.3) cm] and three healthy women [age = 22.7 (±2.9) years, body mass = 53.0 (±1.7) kg, height = 156.7 (±4.5) cm] participated in the experiments after informed consent. Seven healthy subjects were tested on the treadmill, walking, walking (W) with Nordic Poles (NW) and walking with 1kg weight Nordic Poles (NW+1). Walking speed was 6 km per hours in all trials. Eight EMG activities were recorded by bipolar surface methods in biceps brachii, triceps brachii, trapezius, deltoideus, tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles. And heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. The level of significance was set at a = 0.05, with p < 0.05 regarded as statistically significant. Our results confirmed that use of NW poles increased HR at a given upper arm muscle activity but decreased lower limb EMGs in comparison with W. Moreover NW was able to increase more step lengths with hip joint extension during NW rather than W. Also, EMG revealed higher activation of upper limb for almost all NW and 1kgNW tests plus added masses compared to W (p < 0.05). Therefore, it was thought either of NW and 1kgNW were to have benefit as a physical exercise for safe, feasible, and readily training for a wide range of aged people in the quality of daily life. However, there was no significant effected in leg muscles activity by using 1kgNW except for upper arm muscle activity during Nordic pole walking.
Keywords: Nordic walking, electromyogram, heart rate.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 752