Search results for: Atkinson cycle
673 On Minimum Cycle Bases of the Wreath Product of Wheels with Stars
Authors: M. M. M. Jaradat, M. K. Al-Qeyyam
The length of a cycle basis of a graph is the sum of the lengths of its elements. A minimum cycle basis is a cycle basis with minimum length. In this work, a construction of a minimum cycle basis for the wreath product of wheels with stars is presented. Moreover, the length of minimum cycle basis and the length of its longest cycle are calculated.
Keywords: Cycle space, minimum cycle basis, wreath product.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 986
672 Reliability-Based Life-Cycle Cost Model for Engineering Systems
Authors: Reza Lotfalian, Sudarshan Martins, Peter Radziszewski
The effect of reliability on life-cycle cost, including initial and maintenance cost of a system is studied. The failure probability of a component is used to calculate the average maintenance cost during the operation cycle of the component. The standard deviation of the life-cycle cost is also calculated as an error measure for the average life-cycle cost. As a numerical example, the model is used to study the average life-cycle cost of an electric motor.
Keywords: Initial Cost, Life-cycle cost, Maintenance Cost, Reliability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2014
671 Applying Different Working Fluids in a Combined Power and Ejector Refrigeration Cycle with Low Temperature Heat Sources
Authors: Samad Jafarmadar, Amin Habibzadeh
A power and cooling cycle, which combines the organic Rankine cycle and the ejector refrigeration cycle supplied by waste heat energy sources, is discussed in this paper. 13 working fluids including wet, dry, and isentropic fluids are studied in order to find their performances on the combined cycle. Various operating conditions’ effects on the proposed cycle are examined by fixing power/refrigeration ratio. According to the results, dry and isentropic fluids have better performance compared with wet fluids.
Keywords: Combined power and refrigeration cycle, low temperature heat sources, organic rankine cycle, working fluids.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 641
670 The Balanced Hamiltonian Cycle on the Toroidal Mesh Graphs
Authors: Wen-Fang Peng, Justie Su-Tzu Juan
The balanced Hamiltonian cycle problemis a quiet new topic of graph theorem. Given a graph G = (V, E), whose edge set can be partitioned into k dimensions, for positive integer k and a Hamiltonian cycle C on G. The set of all i-dimensional edge of C, which is a subset by E(C), is denoted as Ei(C).
Keywords: Hamiltonian cycle, balanced, Cartesian product.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1335
669 Analysis of the Result for the Accelerated Life Cycle Test of the Motor for Washing Machine by Using Acceleration Factor
Authors: Youn-Sung Kim, Jin-Ho Jo, Mi-Sung Kim, Jae-Kun Lee
Abstract:Accelerated life cycle test is applied to various products or components in order to reduce the time of life cycle test in industry. It must be considered for many test conditions according to the product characteristics for the test and the selection of acceleration parameter is especially very important. We have carried out the general life cycle test and the accelerated life cycle test by applying the acceleration factor (AF) considering the characteristics of brushless DC (BLDC) motor for washing machine. The final purpose of this study is to verify the validity by analyzing the results of the general life cycle test and the accelerated life cycle test. It will make it possible to reduce the life test time through the reasonable accelerated life cycle test.
Keywords: Accelerated life cycle test, reliability test, motor for washing machine, brushless dc motor test.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1588
668 Information System Life Cycle: Applications in Construction and Manufacturing
Authors: Carlos J. Costa, Manuela Aparício
In this paper, we present the information life cycle, and analyze the importance of managing the corporate application portfolio across this life cycle. The approach presented here does not correspond just to the extension of the traditional information system development life cycle. This approach is based in the generic life cycle employed in other contexts like manufacturing or marketing. In this paper it is proposed a model of an information system life cycle, supported in the assumption that a system has a limited life. But, this limited life may be extended. This model is also applied in several cases; being reported here two examples of the framework application in a construction enterprise, and in a manufacturing enterprise.
Keywords: Information systems/technology, informatio nsystems life cycle, organization engineering, information economics.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1482
667 Managing the Information System Life Cycle in Construction and Manufacturing
Authors: Carlos J. Costa, Manuela Aparício
In this paper we present the information life cycle and analyze the importance of managing the corporate application portfolio across this life cycle. The approach presented here corresponds not just to the extension of the traditional information system development life cycle. This approach is based in the generic life cycle. In this paper it is proposed a model of an information system life cycle, supported in the assumption that a system has a limited life. But, this limited life may be extended. This model is also applied in several cases; being reported here two examples of the framework application in a construction enterprise and in a manufacturing enterprise.
Keywords: Information systems/technology, information systems life cycle, organization engineering, information economics.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1641
666 The Panpositionable Hamiltonicity of k-ary n-cubes
Authors: Chia-Jung Tsai, Shin-Shin Kao
Abstract:The hypercube Qn is one of the most well-known and popular interconnection networks and the k-ary n-cube Qk n is an enlarged family from Qn that keeps many pleasing properties from hypercubes. In this article, we study the panpositionable hamiltonicity of Qk n for k ≥ 3 and n ≥ 2. Let x, y of V (Qk n) be two arbitrary vertices and C be a hamiltonian cycle of Qk n. We use dC(x, y) to denote the distance between x and y on the hamiltonian cycle C. Define l as an integer satisfying d(x, y) ≤ l ≤ 1 2 |V (Qk n)|. We prove the followings: • When k = 3 and n ≥ 2, there exists a hamiltonian cycle C of Qk n such that dC(x, y) = l. • When k ≥ 5 is odd and n ≥ 2, we request that l /∈ S where S is a set of specific integers. Then there exists a hamiltonian cycle C of Qk n such that dC(x, y) = l. • When k ≥ 4 is even and n ≥ 2, we request l-d(x, y) to be even. Then there exists a hamiltonian cycle C of Qk n such that dC(x, y) = l. The result is optimal since the restrictions on l is due to the structure of Qk n by definition.
Keywords: Hamiltonian, panpositionable, bipanpositionable, k-ary n-cube.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1289
665 A Further Study on the 4-Ordered Property of Some Chordal Ring Networks
Authors: Shin-Shin Kao, Hsiu-Chunj Pan
Given a graph G. A cycle of G is a sequence of vertices of G such that the first and the last vertices are the same. A hamiltonian cycle of G is a cycle containing all vertices of G. The graph G is k-ordered (resp. k-ordered hamiltonian) if for any sequence of k distinct vertices of G, there exists a cycle (resp. hamiltonian cycle) in G containing these k vertices in the specified order. Obviously, any cycle in a graph is 1-ordered, 2-ordered and 3- ordered. Thus the study of any graph being k-ordered (resp. k-ordered hamiltonian) always starts with k = 4. Most studies about this topic work on graphs with no real applications. To our knowledge, the chordal ring families were the first one utilized as the underlying topology in interconnection networks and shown to be 4-ordered. Furthermore, based on our computer experimental results, it was conjectured that some of them are 4-ordered hamiltonian. In this paper, we intend to give some possible directions in proving the conjecture.
Keywords: Hamiltonian cycle, 4-ordered, Chordal rings, 3-regular.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1681
664 The Effect of Catastrophic Losses on Insurance Cycle: Case of Croatia
Authors: D. Jakovčević, M. Mihelja Žaja
This paper provides an analysis of the insurance cycle in the Republic of Croatia and whether they are affected by catastrophic losses on a global level. In general, it is considered that insurance cycles are particularly pronounced in periods of financial crisis, but are also affected by the growing number of catastrophic losses. They cause the change of insurance cycle and premium growth and intensification and narrowing of the coverage conditions, so these variables move in the same direction and these phenomena point to a new cycle. The main goal of this paper is to determine the existence of insurance cycle in the Republic of Croatia and investigate whether catastrophic losses have an influence on insurance cycles.
Keywords: Catastrophic loss, insurance cycle, premium, Republic of Croatia.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1977
663 A Study on the Effect of Valve Timing on the Combustion and Emission Characteristics for a 4-cylinder PCCI Diesel Engine
Authors: Joonsup Han, Jaehyeon Lee, Hyungmin Kim, Kihyung Lee
Abstract:PCCI engines can reduce NOx and PM emissions simultaneously without sacrificing thermal efficiency, but a low combustion temperature resulting from early fuel injection, and ignition occurring prior to TDC, can cause higher THC and CO emissions and fuel consumption. In conclusion, it was found that the PCCI combustion achieved by the 2-stage injection strategy with optimized calibration factors (e.g. EGR rate, injection pressure, swirl ratio, intake pressure, injection timing) can reduce NOx and PM emissions simultaneously. This research works are expected to provide valuable information conducive to a development of an innovative combustion engine that can fulfill upcoming stringent emission standards.
Keywords: Atkinson cycle, Diesel Engine, LIVC (Late intakevalve closing), PCCI (premixed charge compression ignition)Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2436
662 Cascaded Transcritical/Supercritical CO2 Cycles and Organic Rankine Cycles to Recover Low-Temperature Waste Heat and LNG Cold Energy Simultaneously
Authors: Haoshui Yu, Donghoi Kim, Truls Gundersen
Low-temperature waste heat is abundant in the process industries, and large amounts of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) cold energy are discarded without being recovered properly in LNG terminals. Power generation is an effective way to utilize low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy simultaneously. Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) and CO2 power cycles are promising technologies to convert low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy into electricity. If waste heat and LNG cold energy are utilized simultaneously in one system, the performance may outperform separate systems utilizing low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy, respectively. Low-temperature waste heat acts as the heat source and LNG regasification acts as the heat sink in the combined system. Due to the large temperature difference between the heat source and the heat sink, cascaded power cycle configurations are proposed in this paper. Cascaded power cycles can improve the energy efficiency of the system considerably. The cycle operating at a higher temperature to recover waste heat is called top cycle and the cycle operating at a lower temperature to utilize LNG cold energy is called bottom cycle in this study. The top cycle condensation heat is used as the heat source in the bottom cycle. The top cycle can be an ORC, transcritical CO2 (tCO2) cycle or supercritical CO2 (sCO2) cycle, while the bottom cycle only can be an ORC due to the low-temperature range of the bottom cycle. However, the thermodynamic path of the tCO2 cycle and sCO2 cycle are different from that of an ORC. The tCO2 cycle and the sCO2 cycle perform better than an ORC for sensible waste heat recovery due to a better temperature match with the waste heat source. Different combinations of the tCO2 cycle, sCO2 cycle and ORC are compared to screen the best configurations of the cascaded power cycles. The influence of the working fluid and the operating conditions are also investigated in this study. Each configuration is modeled and optimized in Aspen HYSYS. The results show that cascaded tCO2/ORC performs better compared with cascaded ORC/ORC and cascaded sCO2/ORC for the case study.
Keywords: LNG cold energy, low-temperature waste heat, organic Rankine cycle, supercritical CO2 cycle, transcritical CO2 cycle.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 924
661 A Study on the Accelerated Life Cycle Test Method of the Motor for Home Appliances by Using Acceleration Factor
Authors: Youn-Sung Kim, Mi-Sung Kim, Jae-Kun Lee
This paper deals with the accelerated life cycle test method of the motor for home appliances that demand high reliability. Life Cycle of parts in home appliances also should be 10 years because life cycle of the home appliances such as washing machine, refrigerator, TV is at least 10 years. In case of washing machine, the life cycle test method of motor is advanced for 3000 cycle test (1cycle = 2hours). However, 3000 cycle test incurs loss for the time and cost. Objectives of this study are to reduce the life cycle test time and the number of test samples, which could be realized by using acceleration factor for the test time and reduction factor for the number of sample.
Keywords: Accelerated life cycle test, motor reliability test, motor for washing machine, BLDC motor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2672
660 Comparative Exergy Analysis of Ammonia-Water Rankine Cycles and Kalina Cycle
Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim
Abstract:This paper presents a comparative exergy analysis of ammonia-water Rankine cycles with and without regeneration and Kalina cycle for recovery of low-temperature heat source. Special attention is paid to the effect of system parameters such as ammonia mass fraction and turbine inlet pressure on the exergetical performance of the systems. Results show that maximum exergy efficiency can be obtained in the regenerative Rankine cycle for high turbine inlet pressures. However, Kalina cycle shows better exergy efficiency for low turbine inlet pressures, and the optimum ammonia mass fractions of Kalina cycle are lower than Rankine cycles.
Keywords: Ammonia-water, Rankine cycle, Kalina cycle, exergy, exergy destruction, low-temperature heat source.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 579
659 An Improved Construction Method for MIHCs on Cycle Composition Networks
Authors: Hsun Su, Yuan-Kang Shih, Shin-Shin Kao
Many well-known interconnection networks, such as kary n-cubes, recursive circulant graphs, generalized recursive circulant graphs, circulant graphs and so on, are shown to belong to the family of cycle composition networks. Recently, various studies about mutually independent hamiltonian cycles, abbreviated as MIHC-s, on interconnection networks are published. In this paper, using an improved construction method, we obtain MIHC-s on cycle composition networks with a much weaker condition than the known result. In fact, we established the existence of MIHC-s in the cycle composition networks and the result is optimal in the sense that the number of MIHC-s we constructed is maximal.
Keywords: Hamiltonian cycle, k-ary n-cube, cycle composition networks, mutually independent.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1258
658 A Review of Quality Relationship between IT Processes, IT Products and IT Services
Authors: Whee Yen Wong, Chan Wai Lee, Kim Yeow Tshai
Abstract:Producing IT products/services required carefully designed. IT development process is intangible and labour intensive. Making optimal use of available resources, both soft (knowledge, skill-set etc.) and hard (computer system, ancillary equipment etc.), is vital if IT development is to achieve sensible economical advantages. Apart from the norm of Project Life Cycle and System Development Life Cycle (SDLC), there is an urgent need to establish a general yet widely acceptable guideline on the most effective and efficient way to precede an IT project in the broader view of Product Life Cycle. The current paper proposes such a framework with two major areas of concern: (1) an integration of IT Products and IT Services within an existing IT Process architecture and; (2) how IT Product and IT Services are built into the framework of Product Life Cycle, Project Life Cycle and SDLC.
Keywords: Mapping of Quality Relationship, IT Processes/IT Products/IT Services, Product Life Cycle, System Development Life Cycle.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2016
657 Effect of Valve Pressure Drop in Exergy Analysis of C2+ Recovery Plants Refrigeration Cycles
Authors: B. Tirandazi, M. Mehrpooya, A. Vatani
This paper provides an exergy analysis of the multistage refrigeration cycle used for C2+ recovery plant. The behavior of an industrial refrigeration cycle with refrigerant propane has been investigated by the exergy method. A computational model based on the exergy analysis is presented for the investigation of the effects of the valves on the exergy losses, the second law of efficiency, and the coefficient of performance (COP) of a vapor compression refrigeration cycle. The equations of exergy destruction and exergetic efficiency for the main cycle components such as evaporators, condensers, compressors, and expansion valves are developed. The relations for the total exergy destruction in the cycle and the cycle exergetic efficiency are obtained. An ethane recovery unit with its refrigeration cycle has been simulated to prepare the exergy analysis. Using a typical actual work input value; the exergetic efficiency of the refrigeration cycle is determined to be 39.90% indicating a great potential for improvements. The simulation results reveal that the exergetic efficiencies of the heat exchanger and expansion sections get the lowest rank among the other compartments of refrigeration cycle. Refrigeration calculations have been carried out through the analysis of T–S and P–H diagrams where coefficient of performance (COP) was obtained as 1.85. The novelty of this article includes the effect and sensitivity analysis of molar flow, pressure drops and temperature on the exergy efficiency and coefficient of performance of the cycle.
Keywords: exergy; Valve; CRP; refrigeration cycle; propane refrigerant; C2+ Recovery; Ethane Recovery;.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1081
656 Impact of Design Choices on the Life Cycle Energy of Modern Buildings
Authors: Mahsa Karimpour, Martin Belusko, Ke Xing, Frank Bruno
Abstract:Traditionally, the embodied energy of design choices which reduce operational energy were assumed to have a negligible impact on the life cycle energy of buildings. However with new buildings having considerably lower operational energy, the significance of embodied energy increases. A life cycle assessment of a population of house designs was conducted in a mild and mixed climate zone. It was determined not only that embodied energy dominates life cycle energy, but that the impact on embodied of design choices was of equal significance to the impact on operational energy.
Keywords: Building life cycle energy, embodied energy, energy design measures, low energy buildings.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1409
655 A Design of the Organic Rankine Cycle for the Low Temperature Waste Heat
A presentation of the design of the Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) with heat regeneration and superheating processes is a subject of this paper. The maximum temperature level in the ORC is considered to be 110°C and the maximum pressure varies up to 2.5MPa. The selection process of the appropriate working fluids, thermal design and calculation of the cycle and its components are described. With respect to the safety, toxicity, flammability, price and thermal cycle efficiency, the working fluid selected is R134a. As a particular example, the thermal design of the condenser used for the ORC engine with a theoretical thermal power of 179 kW was introduced. The minimal heat transfer area for a completed condensation was determined to be approximately 520m2.
Keywords: Organic Rankine Cycle, thermal efficiency, working fluids.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3916
654 The Relation between Body Mass Index and Menstrual Cycle Disorders in Medical Students of University Pelita Harapan, Indonesia
Authors: Gabriella Tjondro, Julita Dortua Laurentina Nainggolan
Introduction: There are several things affecting menstrual cycle, namely, nutritional status, diet, financial status of one’s household and exercises. The most commonly used parameter to calculate the fat in a human body is body mass index. Therefore, it is necessary to do research to prevent complications caused by menstrual disorder in the future. Design Study: This research is an observational analytical study with the cross-sectional-case control approach. Participants (n = 124; median age = 19.5 years ± SD 3.5) were classified into 2 groups: normal, NM (n = 62; BMI = 18-23 kg/m2) and obese, OB (n = 62; BMI = > 25 kg/m2). BMI was calculated from the equation; BMI = weight, kg/height, m2. Results: There were 79.10% from obese group who experienced menstrual cycle disorders (n=53, 79.10%; p value 0.00; OR 5.25) and 20.90% from normal BMI group with menstrual cycle disorders. There were several factors in this research that also influence the menstrual cycle disorders such as stress (44.78%; p value 0.00; OR 1.85), sleep disorders (25.37%; p value 0.00; OR 1.01), physical activities (25.37%; p value 0.00; OR 1.24) and diet (10.45%; p value 0.00; OR 1.07). Conclusion: There is a significant relation between body mass index (obese) and menstrual cycle disorders. However, BMI is not the only factor that affects the menstrual cycle disorders. There are several factors that also can affect menstrual cycle disorders, in this study we use stress, sleep disorders, physical activities and diet, in which none of them are dominant.
Keywords: Menstrual disorders, menstrual cycle, obesity, body mass index, stress, sleep disorders, physical activities, diet.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1046
653 Integrating Life Cycle Uncertainties for Evaluating a Building Overall Cost
Authors: M. Arja, G. Sauce, B. Souyri
Abstract:Overall cost is a significant consideration in any decision-making process. Although many studies were carried out on overall cost in construction, little has treated the uncertainties of real life cycle development. On the basis of several case studies, a feedback process was performed on the historical data of studied buildings. This process enabled to identify some factors causing uncertainty during the operational period. As a result, the research proposes a new method for assessing the overall cost during a part of the building-s life cycle taking account of the building actual value, its end-of-life value and the influence of the identified life cycle uncertainty factors. The findings are a step towards a higher level of reliability in overall cost evaluation taking account of some usually unexpected uncertainty factors.
Keywords: Asset management, building life cycle uncertainty, building value, overall cost.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1511
652 Enhancing Children’s English Vocabulary Acquisition through Digital Storytelling at Happy Kids Kindergarten, Palembang, Indonesia
Authors: Gaya Tridinanti
Abstract:Enhanching English vocabulary in early childhood is the main problem often faced by teachers. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the enhancement of children’s English vocabulary acquisition by using digital storytelling. This type of research was an action research. It consisted of a series of four activities done in repeated cycles: planning, implementation, observation, and reflection. The subject of the study consisted of 30 students of B group (5-6 years old) attending Happy Kids Kindergarten Palembang, Indonesia. This research was conducted in three cycles. The methods used for data collection were observation and documentation. Descriptive qualitative and quantitative methods were also used to analyse the data. The research showed that the digital storytelling learning activities could enhance the children’s English vocabulary acquisition. It is based on the data in which the enhancement in pre-cycle was 37% and 51% in Cycle I. In Cycle II it was 71% and in Cycle III it was 89.3%. The results showed an enhancement of about 14% from the pre-cycle to Cycle I, 20% from Cycle I to Cycle II, and enhancement of about 18.3% from Cycle II to Cycle III. The conclusion of this study suggests that digital storytelling learning method could enhance the English vocabulary acquisition of B group children at the Happy Kids Kindergarten Palembang. Therefore, digital storytelling can be considered as an alternative to improve English language learning in the classroom.
Keywords: Acquisition, enhancing, digital storytelling, English vocabulary.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1439
651 Performance Analysis of Absorption Power Cycle under Different Source Temperatures
Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim
The absorption power generation cycle based on the ammonia-water mixture has attracted much attention for efficient recovery of low-grade energy sources. In this paper a thermodynamic performance analysis is carried out for a Kalina cycle using ammonia-water mixture as a working fluid for efficient conversion of low-temperature heat source in the form of sensible energy. The effects of the source temperature on the system performance are extensively investigated by using the thermodynamic models. The results show that the source temperature as well as the ammonia mass fraction affects greatly on the thermodynamic performance of the cycle.
Keywords: Ammonia-water mixture, Kalina cycle, low-grade heat source, source temperature.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2215
650 Reliability Analysis of Heat Exchanger Cycle Using Non-Parametric Method
Authors: Apurv Kulkarni, Shreyas Badave, B. Rajiv
Non-parametric reliability technique is useful for assessment of reliability of systems for which failure rates are not available. This is useful when detection of malfunctioning of any component is the key purpose during ongoing operation of the system. The main purpose of the Heat Exchanger Cycle discussed in this paper is to provide hot water at a constant temperature for longer periods of time. In such a cycle, certain components play a crucial role and this paper presents an effective way to predict the malfunctioning of the components by determination of system reliability. The method discussed in the paper is feasible and this is clarified with the help of various test cases.
Keywords: Heat exchanger cycle, K-statistics, PID controller, system reliability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 797
649 Life Cycle Assessment of Residential Buildings: A Case Study in Canada
Authors: Venkatesh Kumar, Kasun Hewage, Rehan Sadiq
Abstract:Residential buildings consume significant amounts of energy and produce large amount of emissions and waste. However, there is a substantial potential for energy savings in this sector which needs to be evaluated over the life cycle of residential buildings. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been employed to study the primary energy uses and associated environmental impacts of different phases (i.e., product, construction, use, end of life, and beyond building life) for residential buildings. Four different alternatives of residential buildings in Vancouver (BC, Canada) with a 50-year lifespan have been evaluated, including High Rise Apartment (HRA), Low Rise Apartment (LRA), Single family Attached House (SAH), and Single family Detached House (SDH). Life cycle performance of the buildings is evaluated for embodied energy, embodied environmental impacts, operational energy, operational environmental impacts, total life-cycle energy, and total life cycle environmental impacts. Estimation of operational energy and LCA are performed using DesignBuilder software and Athena Impact estimator software respectively. The study results revealed that over the life span of the buildings, the relationship between the energy use and the environmental impacts are identical. LRA is found to be the best alternative in terms of embodied energy use and embodied environmental impacts; while, HRA showed the best life-cycle performance in terms of minimum energy use and environmental impacts. Sensitivity analysis has also been carried out to study the influence of building service lifespan over 50, 75, and 100 years on the relative significance of embodied energy and total life cycle energy. The life-cycle energy requirements for SDH are found to be a significant component among the four types of residential buildings. The overall disclose that the primary operations of these buildings accounts for 90% of the total life cycle energy which far outweighs minor differences in embodied effects between the buildings.
Keywords: Building simulation, environmental impacts, life cycle assessment, life cycle energy analysis, residential buildings.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4781
648 Thermodynamic Cycle Analysis for Overall Efficiency Improvement and Temperature Reduction in Gas Turbines
Authors: Jeni A. Popescu, Ionut Porumbel, Valeriu A. Vilag, Cleopatra F. Cuciumita
The paper presents a thermodynamic cycle analysis for three turboshaft engines. The first cycle is a Brayton cycle, describing the evolution of a classical turboshaft, based on the Klimov TV2 engine. The other four cycles aim at approaching an Ericsson cycle, by replacing the Brayton cycle adiabatic expansion in the turbine by quasi-isothermal expansion. The maximum quasi- Ericsson cycles temperature is set to a lower value than the maximum Brayton cycle temperature, equal to the Brayton cycle power turbine inlet temperature, in order to decrease the engine NOx emissions. Also, the power/expansion ratio distribution over the stages of the gas generator turbine is maintained the same. In two of the considered quasi-Ericsson cycles, the efficiencies of the gas generator turbine, as well as the power/expansion ratio distribution over the stages of the gas generator turbine are maintained the same as for the reference case, while for the other two cases, the efficiencies are increased in order to obtain the same shaft power as in the reference case. For the two cases respecting the first condition, both the shaft power and the thermodynamic efficiency of the engine decrease, while for the other two, the power and efficiency are maintained, as a result of assuming new, more efficient gas generator turbines.
Keywords: Combustion, Ericsson, thermodynamic analysis, turbine.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2225
647 Investigation of Main Operating Parameters Affecting Gas Turbine Efficiency and Gas Releases
Authors: Farhat Hajer, Khir Tahar, Ammar Ben Brahim
This work presents a study on the influence of the main operating variables on the gas turbine cycle. A numerical simulation of a gas turbine cycle is performed for a real net power of 100 MW. A calculation code is developed using EES software. The operating variables are taken in conformity with the local environmental conditions adopted by the Tunisian Society of Electricity and Gas. Results show that the increase of ambient temperature leads to an increase of Tpz and NOx emissions rate and a decrease of cycle efficiency and UHC emissions. The CO emissions decrease with the raise of residence time, while NOx emissions rate increases and UHC emissions rate decreases. Furthermore, both of cycle efficiency and NOx emissions increase with the increase of the pressure ratio.
Keywords: CO, efficiency, gas turbine, NOx, UHC.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1074
646 A Low Cost and High Quality Duty-Cycle Modulation Scheme and Applications
Authors: B. Lonla Moffo, J. Mbihi, L. Nneme Nneme
In this paper, a low cost duty-cycle modulation scheme is studied in depth and compared to the standard pulse width modulation technique. Using a mix of analytical reasoning and electronics simulation tools, it is shown that under the same operating conditions, most characteristics of the proposed duty-cycle modulation scheme are better than those provided by a standard pulse width modulation technique. The simulation results obtained when testing both modulation control policies on prototyping systems, indicate that the proposed duty-cycle modulation approach, appears to be a high quality control policy in a wide variety of application areas, including A/D and D/A conversion, signal transmission and switching control in power electronics.
Keywords: Duty-cycle Modulation, Operational amplifiers, Pulse width modulation, Power electronics, Signal processing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2585
645 Thermodynamic Performance of a Combined Power and Ejector Refrigeration Cycle
Authors: Hyung Jong Ko, Kyoung Hoon Kim
In this study thermodynamic performance analysis of a combined organic Rankine cycle and ejector refrigeration cycle is carried out for use of low-grade heat source in the form of sensible energy. Special attention is paid to the effects of system parameters including the turbine inlet temperature and turbine inlet pressure on the characteristics of the system such as ratios of mass flow rate, net work production, and refrigeration capacity as well as the coefficient of performance and exergy efficiency of the system. Results show that for a given source the coefficient of performance increases with increasing of the turbine inlet pressure. However, the exergy efficiency has an optimal condition with respect to the turbine inlet pressure.
Keywords: Coefficient of performance, ejector refrigeration cycle, exergy efficiency, low-grade energy, organic rankine cycle.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2360
644 Effective Security Method for Wireless LAN using Life-Cycle of Wireless Access Point
Authors: Soon-Tai Park, Haeryong Park, Myoung-sun Noh, Yoo-Jae Won
Abstract:There are many expand of Wi-Fi zones provided mobile careers and usage of wireless access point at home as increase of usage of wireless internet caused by the use of smart phone. This paper shows wireless local area network status, security threats of WLAN and functionality of major wireless access point in Korea. We propose security countermeasures concerned with life cycle of access point from manufacturing to installation, using and finally disposal. There needed to releasing with configured secure at access point. Because, it is most cost effective resolution than stage of installation or other life cycle of access point.
Keywords: Wireless LAN Security, Wi-Fi Security, Wireless Access Point, Product Life-CycleProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1792