Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 244

Search results for: Hydrogen

244 The Interaction between Hydrogen and Surface Stress in Stainless Steel

Authors: O. Takakuwa, Y. Mano, H. Soyama

Abstract:

This paper reveals the interaction between hydrogen and surface stress in austenitic stainless steel by X-ray diffraction stress measurement and thermal desorption analysis before and after being charged with hydrogen. The surface residual stress was varied by surface finishing using several disc polishing agents. The obtained results show that the residual stress near surface had a significant effect on hydrogen absorption behavior, that is, tensile residual stress promoted the hydrogen absorption and compressive one did opposite. Also, hydrogen induced equi-biaxial stress and this stress has a linear correlation with hydrogen content.

Keywords: Hydrogen embrittlement, Residual stress, Surface finishing, Stainless steel.

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243 Hydrogen Integration in Petrochemical Complexes, Using Modified Automated Targeting Method

Authors: M. Shariati, N. Tahouni, A. Khoshgard, M.H. Panjeshahi

Abstract:

Owing to extensive use of hydrogen in refining or petrochemical units, it is essential to manage hydrogen network in order to make the most efficient utilization of hydrogen. On the other hand, hydrogen is an important byproduct not properly used through petrochemical complexes and mostly sent to the fuel system. A few works have been reported in literature to improve hydrogen network for petrochemical complexes. In this study a comprehensive analysis is carried out on petrochemical units using a modified automated targeting technique which is applied to determine the minimum hydrogen consumption. Having applied the modified targeting method in two petrochemical cases, the results showed a significant reduction in required fresh hydrogen.

Keywords: Automated targeting, Hydrogen network, Petrochemical, Process integration.

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242 Carbon Nanotubes–A Successful Hydrogen Storage Medium

Authors: Vijaya Ilango, Avika Gupta

Abstract:

Hydrogen fuel is a zero-emission fuel which uses electrochemical cells or combustion in internal engines, to power vehicles and electric devices. Methods of   hydrogen storage for subsequent use span many approaches, including high pressures, cryogenics and chemical compounds that reversibly release H2 upon heating. Most research into hydrogen storage is focused on storing hydrogen as a lightweight, compact energy carrier for mobile applications. With the accelerating demand for cleaner and more efficient energy sources, hydrogen research has attracted more attention in the scientific community. Until now, full implementation of a hydrogen-based energy system has been hindered in part by the challenge of storing hydrogen gas, especially onboard an automobile. New techniques being researched may soon make hydrogen storage more compact, safe and efficient. In   this overview, few hydrogen storage methods and mechanism of hydrogen uptake in carbon nanotubes are summarized.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, Chemisorption, Hydrogen storage, Physisorption.

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241 Numerical Simulation of High Pressure Hydrogen Emerges to Air

Authors: Mohamed H. Elhsnawi, Mesbah M. Salem, Saleh B. Mohamed

Abstract:

Numerical simulation performed to investigate the behavior of the high pressure hydrogen jetting of air. High pressure hydrogen (30–40 MPa) was injected to air at atmospheric pressure through 2mm orifice. Numerical simulations were performed with Kiva3V code with 2D axisymmetric geometry. Numerical simulations showed that auto ignition of high pressure hydrogen to air are possible due to molecular diffusion. Auto ignition was predicted at hydrogen-air contact surface due to mass and energy exchange between high temperature hydrogen and air heated by shock wave.

Keywords: Spontaneous Ignition, Diffusion Ignition, Hydrogen ignition, Hydrogen Jet.

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240 Estimation Method for the Construction of Hydrogen Society with Various Biomass Resources in Japan-Project of Cost Reductions in Biomass Transport and Feasibility for Hydrogen Station with Biomass-

Authors: Masaki Tajima, Kenji Imou, Shinya Yokoyama

Abstract:

It was determined that woody biomass and livestock excreta can be utilized as hydrogen resources and hydrogen produced from such sources can be used to fill fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) at hydrogen stations. It was shown that the biomass transport costs for hydrogen production may be reduced the costs for co-generation. In the Tokyo Metropolitan Area, there are only a few sites capable of producing hydrogen from woody biomass in amounts greater than 200 m3/h-the scale required for a hydrogen station to be operationally practical. However, in the case of livestock excreta, it was shown that 15% of the municipalities in this area are capable of securing sufficient biomass to be operationally practical for hydrogen production. The differences in feasibility of practical operation depend on the type of biomass.

Keywords: Biomass Resources, Hydrogen Production, Hydrogen Station, Transport Cost.

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239 Numerical Analysis of Hydrogen Transport using a Hydrogen-Enhanced Localized Plasticity Mechanism

Authors: Seul-Kee Kim, Chi-Seung Lee, Myung-Hyun Kim, Jae-Myung Lee

Abstract:

In this study, the hydrogen transport phenomenon was numerically evaluated by using hydrogen-enhanced localized plasticity (HELP) mechanisms. Two dominant governing equations, namely, the hydrogen transport model and the elasto-plastic model, were introduced. In addition, the implicitly formulated equations of the governing equations were implemented into ABAQUS UMAT user-defined subroutines. The simulation results were compared to published results to validate the proposed method.

Keywords: Hydrogen-enhanced localized plasticity (HELP), Hydrogen embrittlement, Hydrogen transport analysis, ABAQUS UMAT, Finite element method (FEM).

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238 Effects of TiO2 and Nb2O5 on Hydrogen Desorption of Mg(BH4)2

Authors: Wipada Ploysuksai, Pramoch Rangsunvigit, Santi Kulprathipanja

Abstract:

In this work, effects of catalysts (TiO2, and Nb2O5) were investigated on the hydrogen desorption of Mg(BH4)2. LiBH4 and MgCl2 with 2:1 molar ratio were mixed by using ball milling to prepare Mg(BH4)2. The desorption behaviors were measured by thermo-volumetric apparatus. The hydrogen desorption capacity of the mixed sample milled for 2 h was 4.78 wt% with a 2-step released. The first step occurred at 214 °C and the second step appeared at 374 °C. The addition of 16 wt% Nb2O5 decreased the desorption temperature in the second step about 66 °C and increased the hydrogen desorption capacity to 4.86 wt% hydrogen. The addition of TiO2 also improved the desorption temperature in the second step and the hydrogen desorption capacity. It decreased the desorption temperature about 71°C and showed a high amount of hydrogen, 5.27 wt%, released from the mixed sample. The hydrogen absorption after desorption of Mg(BH4)2 was also studied under 9.5 MPa and 350 °C for 12 h.

Keywords: hydrogen storage, LiBH4, metal hydride, Mg(BH4)2

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237 Simulation and Configuration of Hydrogen Assisted Renewable Energy Power System

Authors: V. Karri, W. K. Yap, J. Titchen

Abstract:

A renewable energy system discussed in this paper is a stand-alone wind-hydrogen system for a remote island in Australia. The analysis of an existing wind-diesel power system was performed. Simulation technique was used to model the power system currently employed on the island, and simulated different configurations of additional hydrogen energy system. This study aims to determine the suitable hydrogen integrated configuration to setting up the prototype system for the island, which helps to reduce the diesel consumption on the island. A set of configurations for the hydrogen system and associated parameters that consists of wind turbines, electrolysers, hydrogen internal combustion engines, and storage tanks has been purposed. The simulation analyses various configurations that perfectly balances the system to meet the demand on the island.

Keywords: Hydrogen power systems, hydrogen internal combustion engine, modeling and simulation of hydrogen power systems.

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236 Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Hydrogen Manifold Injection on the Performance of Compression Ignition Engines

Authors: Haroun A.K. Shahad, Nabeel Abdul-Hadi

Abstract:

Experiments were carried out to evaluate the influence of the addition of hydrogen to the inlet air on the performance of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Hydrogen was injected in the inlet manifold. The addition of hydrogen was done on energy replacement basis. It was found that the addition of hydrogen improves the combustion process due to superior combustion characteristics of hydrogen in comparison to conventional diesel fuels. It was also found that 10% energy replacement improves the engine thermal efficiency by about 40% and reduces the sfc by about 35% however the volumetric efficiency was reduced by about 35%.

Keywords: Hydrogen, Blended fuel, Manifold injection , Performance , Combustion

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235 Electrolysis Ship for Green Hydrogen Production and Possible Applications

Authors: Julian David Hunt, Andreas Nascimento

Abstract:

Green hydrogen is the most environmental, renewable alternative to produce hydrogen. However, an important challenge to make hydrogen a competitive energy carrier is a constant supply of renewable energy, such as solar, wind and hydropower. Given that the electricity generation potential of these sources vary seasonally and interannually, this paper proposes installing an electrolysis hydrogen production plant in a ship and move the ship to the locations where electricity is cheap, or where the seasonal potential for renewable generation is high. An example of electrolysis ship application is to produce green hydrogen with hydropower from the North region of Brazil and then sail to the Northeast region of Brazil and generate hydrogen using excess electricity from offshore wind power. The electrolysis ship concept is interesting because it has the flexibility to produce green hydrogen using the cheapest renewable electricity available in the market.

Keywords: Green hydrogen, electrolysis ship, renewable energies, seasonal variations.

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234 Contaminated Soil Remediation with Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidation

Authors: A. Goi, M. Trapido, N. Kulik

Abstract:

The hydrogen peroxide treatment was able to remediate chlorophenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, diesel and transformer oil contaminated soil. Chemical treatment of contaminants adsorbed in peat resulted in lower contaminants- removal and required higher addition of chemicals than the treatment of contaminants in sand. The hydrogen peroxide treatment was found to be feasible for soil remediation at natural soil pH. Contaminants in soil could degrade with the addition of hydrogen peroxide only indicating the ability of transition metals ions and minerals of these metals presented in soil to catalyse the reaction of hydrogen peroxide decomposition.

Keywords: Hydrogen peroxide, oxidation, soil treatment, decontamination.

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233 Photovoltaic Array Sizing for PV-Electrolyzer

Authors: Panhathai Buasri

Abstract:

Hydrogen that used as fuel in fuel cell vehicles can be produced from renewable sources such as wind, solar, and hydro technologies. PV-electrolyzer is one of the promising methods to produce hydrogen with zero pollution emission. Hydrogen production from a PV-electrolyzer system depends on the efficiency of the electrolyzer and photovoltaic array, and sun irradiance at that site. In this study, the amount of hydrogen is obtained using mathematical equations for difference driving distance and sun peak hours. The results show that the minimum of 99 PV modules are used to generate 1.75 kgH2 per day for two vehicles.

Keywords: About four key words or phrases in alphabetical order, separated by commas.

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232 Hydrogen Sensor Based on Surface Activated WO3 Films by Pd Nanoclusters

Authors: S.Fardindoost, A. Iraji Zad, S.M.Mahdavi

Abstract:

Tungsten trioxide has been prepared by using P-PTA as a precursor on alumina substrates by spin coating method. Palladium introduced on WO3 film via electrolysis deposition by using palladium chloride as catalytic precursor. The catalytic precursor was introduced on the series of films with different morphologies. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and XPS were applied to analyze structure and morphology of the fabricated thin films. Then we measured variation of samples- electrical conductivity of pure and Pd added films in air and diluted hydrogen. Addition of Pd resulted in a remarkable improvement of the hydrogen sensing properties of WO3 by detection of Hydrogen below 1% at room temperature. Also variation of the electrical conductivity in the presence of diluted hydrogen revealed that response of samples depends rather strongly on the palladium configuration on the surface.

Keywords: Electrolysis, Hydrogen sensing, Palladium, WO3

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231 Hydrogen Production from Alcohol Wastewater by Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactors under Mesophilic Temperature

Authors: Thipsalin Poontaweegeratigarn, Sumaeth Chavadej, Pramoch Rangsunvigit

Abstract:

In this work, biohydrogen production via dark fermentation from alcohol wastewater using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors (UASB) with a working volume of 4 L was investigated to find the optimum conditions for a maximum hydrogen yield. The system was operated at different COD loading rates (23, 31, 46 and 62 kg/m3d) at mesophilic temperature (37 ºC) and pH 5.5. The seed sludge was pretreated before being fed to the UASB system by boiling at 95 ºC for 15 min. When the system was operated under the optimum COD loading rate of 46 kg/m3d, it provided the hydrogen content of 27%, hydrogen yield of 125.1 ml H2/g COD removed and 95.1 ml H2/g COD applied, hydrogen production rate of 18 l/d, specific hydrogen production rate of 1080 ml H2/g MLVSS d and 1430 ml H2/ L d, and COD removal of 24%.

Keywords: Hydrogen production, Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB), Optimum condition, Alcohol wastewater

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230 Combustion and Emission of a Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Diesel and Hydrogen-Methane Mixture

Authors: J. H. Zhou, C. S. Cheung, C. W. Leung

Abstract:

The present study conducted experimental investigation on combustion and emission characteristics of compression ignition engine using diesel as pilot fuel and methane, hydrogen and methane/hydrogen mixture as gaseous fuels at 1800 rev min-1. The effect of gaseous fuel on peak cylinder pressure and heat release is modest at low to medium loads. At high load, the high combustion temperature and high quantity of pilot fuel contribute to better combustion efficiency for all kinds of gaseous fuels and increases the peak cylinder pressure. Enrichment of hydrogen in methane gradually increases the peak cylinder pressure. The brake thermal efficiency increases with higher hydrogen fraction at lower loads. Hydrogen addition in methane contributed to a proportional reduction of CO/CO2/HC emission without penalty of NOx. For particulate emission, methane and hydrogen, could both suppress the particle emission. 30% hydrogen fraction in methane is observed to be best in reducing the particulate emission.

Keywords: Combustion characteristics, diesel engine, emissions, methane/hydrogen mixture.

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229 High Temperature Hydrogen Sensors Based On Pd/Ta2O5/SiC MOS Capacitor

Authors: J. H. Choi, S. J. Kim, M. S. Jung, S. J. Kim, S. J. Joo, S. C. Kim

Abstract:

There are a many of needs for the development of SiC-based hydrogen sensor for harsh environment applications. We fabricated and investigated Pd/Ta2O5/SiC-based hydrogen sensors with MOS capacitor structure for high temperature process monitoring and leak detection applications in such automotive, chemical and petroleum industries as well as direct monitoring of combustion processes. In this work, we used silicon carbide (SiC) as a substrate to replace silicon which operating temperatures are limited to below 200°C. Tantalum oxide was investigated as dielectric layer which has high permeability for hydrogen gas and high dielectric permittivity, compared with silicon dioxide or silicon nitride. Then, electrical response properties, such as I-V curve and dependence of capacitance on hydrogen concentrations were analyzed in the temperature ranges of room temperature to 500°C for performance evaluation of the sensor.

Keywords: High temperature, hydrogen sensor, SiC, Ta2O5 dielectric layer.

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228 Hydrogen Embrittlement in a Coupled Mass Diffusion with Stress near a Blunting Crack Tip for AISI 4135 Pressure Vessel

Authors: H. Dehghan, E. Mahdavi, M. M. Heyhat

Abstract:

In pressure vessels contain hydrogen, the role of hydrogen will be important because of hydrogen cracking problem. It is difficult to predict what is happened in metallurgical field spite of a lot of studies have been searched. The main role in controlling the mass diffusion as driving force is related to stress. In this study, finite element analysis is implemented to estimate material-s behavior associated with hydrogen embrittlement. For this purpose, one model of a pressure vessel is introduced that it has definite boundary and initial conditions. In fact, finite element is employed to solve the sequentially coupled mass diffusion with stress near a crack front in a pressure vessel. Modeling simulation intergrarnular fracture of AISI 4135 steel due to hydrogen is investigated. So, distribution of hydrogen and stress are obtained and they indicate that their maximum amounts occur near the crack front. This phenomenon is happened exactly the region between elastic and plastic field. Therefore, hydrogen is highly mobile and can diffuse through crystal lattice so that this zone is potential to trap high volume of hydrogen. Consequently, crack growth and fast fracture will be happened.

Keywords: Stress Intensity Factor, Mass Diffusion, FEM, Pressure Vessel

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227 Hydrogen Production by Gasification of Biomass from Copoazu Waste

Authors: Emilio Delgado, William Aperador, Alis Pataquiva

Abstract:

Biomass is becoming a large renewable resource for power generation; it is involved in higher frequency in environmentally clean processes, and even it is used for biofuels preparation. On the other hand, hydrogen – other energy source – can be produced in a variety of methods including gasification of biomass. In this study, the production of hydrogen by gasification of biomass waste is examined. This work explores the production of a gaseous mixture with high power potential from Amazonas´ specie known as copoazu, using a counter-flow fixed-bed bioreactor.

Keywords: Copoazu, Gasification, Hydrogen production.

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226 Atoms in Molecules, An Other Method For Analyzing Dibenzoylmethane

Authors: S. Heydarian

Abstract:

Proton transfer and hydrogen bonding are two aspects of the chemistry of hydrogen that respectively govern the behaviour and structure of many molecules, both simple and complex. All the theoretical enol and keto conformations of 1,3-diphenyl-1,3- propandion known as dibenzoylmethane (DBM), have been investigated by means of atoms in molecules (AIM) theory. It was found that the most stable conformers are those stabilized by hydrogen bridges.The aim of the present paper is a thorough conformational analysis of DBM (with special attention on chelated cis-enol conformers) in order to obtain detailed information on the geometrical parameters, relative stabilities and rotational motion of the phenyl groups. It is also important to estimate the barrier height for ptoton transfer and hydrogen bond strength, which are the main factors governing conformational stability.

Keywords: Acetylacetone, Atoms in molecules, Dibenzoylmethane, Intramolecular hydrogen bond, Resonanceconjugation

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225 Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production on TiO2 by Using Carbon Materials

Authors: Bashir Ahmmad, Kensaku Kanomata, Fumihiko Hirose

Abstract:

The effect of carbon materials on TiO2 for the photocatalytic hydrogen gas production from water / alcohol mixtures was investigated. Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), carbon nanofiber (CNF), fullerene (FLN), graphite (GP), and graphite silica (GS) were used as co-catalysts by directly mixing with TiO2. Drastic synergy effects were found with increase in the amount of hydrogen gas by a factor of ca. 150 and 100 for SWNTs and GS with TiO2, respectively. Moreover, the increment factor of hydrogen production reached to 180, when the mixture of SWNTs and TiO2 were smashed in an agate mortar before photocatalytic reactions. The order of H2 gas production for these carbon materials was SWNTs > GS >> MWNTs > FLN > CNF > GP. To maximize the hydrogen production from SWNTs/TiO2, various parameters of experimental condition were changed. Also, a comparison between Pt/TiO2, SWNTs/TiO2 and GS/TiO2 was made for the amount of H2 gas production. Finally, the recyclability of SWNTs/TiO2or GS/TiO2 was tested.

Keywords: Photocatalysis, carbon materials, alcohol reforming, hydrogen production, titanium oxide.

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224 The Relationship between Fugacity and Stress Intensity Factor for Corrosive Environment in Presence of Hydrogen Embrittlement

Authors: A. R. Shahani, E. Mahdavi, M. Amidpour

Abstract:

Hydrogen diffusion is the main problem for corrosion fatigue in corrosive environment. In order to analyze the phenomenon, it is needed to understand their behaviors specially the hydrogen behavior during the diffusion. So, Hydrogen embrittlement and prediction its behavior as a main corrosive part of the fractions, needed to solve combinations of different equations mathematically. The main point to obtain the equation, having knowledge about the source of causing diffusion and running the atoms into materials, called driving force. This is produced by either gradient of electrical or chemical potential. In this work, we consider the gradient of chemical potential to obtain the property equation. In diffusion of atoms, some of them may be trapped but, it could be ignorable in some conditions. According to the phenomenon of hydrogen embrittlement, the thermodynamic and chemical properties of hydrogen are considered to justify and relate them to fracture mechanics. It is very important to get a stress intensity factor by using fugacity as a property of hydrogen or other gases. Although, the diffusive behavior and embrittlement event are common and the same for other gases but, for making it more clear, we describe it for hydrogen. This considering on the definite gas and describing it helps us to understand better the importance of this relation.

Keywords: Hydrogen embrittlement, Fracture mechanics, Thermodynamic, Stress intensity factor.

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223 Effect of Hydrogen-Diesel Dual Fuel Combustion on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Four Stroke-Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

Authors: Madhujit Deb, G. R. K. Sastry, R. S. Panua, Rahul Banerjee, P. K. Bose

Abstract:

The present work attempts to investigate the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of an existing single-cylinder four-stroke compression-ignition engine operated in dual-fuel mode with hydrogen as an alternative fuel. Environmental concerns and limited amount of petroleum fuels have caused interests in the development of alternative fuels like hydrogen for internal combustion (IC) engines. In this experimental investigation, a diesel engine is made to run using hydrogen in dual fuel mode with diesel, where hydrogen is introduced into the intake manifold using an LPGCNG injector and pilot diesel is injected using diesel injectors. A Timed Manifold Injection (TMI) system has been developed to vary the injection strategies. The optimized timing for the injection of hydrogen was 10^0 CA after top dead center (ATDC). From the study it was observed that with increasing hydrogen rate, enhancement in brake thermal efficiency (BTHE) of the engine has been observed with reduction in brake specific energy consumption (BSEC). Furthermore, Soot contents decrease with an increase in indicated specific NOx emissions with the enhancement of hydrogen flow rate.

Keywords: Diesel engine, Hydrogen, BTHE, BSEC, Soot, NOx.

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222 Influence and Interaction of Temperature, H2S and pH on Concrete Sewer Pipe Corrosion

Authors: Anna Romanova, Mojtaba Mahmoodian, Morteza A. Alani

Abstract:

Concrete sewer pipes are known to suffer from a process of hydrogen sulfide gas induced sulfuric acid corrosion. This leads to premature pipe degradation, performance failure and collapses which in turn may lead to property and health damage. The above work reports on a field study undertaken in working sewer manholes where the parameters of effluent temperature and pH as well as ambient temperature and concentration of hydrogen sulfide were continuously measured over a period of two months. Early results suggest that effluent pH has no direct effect on hydrogen sulfide build up; on average the effluent temperature is 3.5°C greater than the ambient temperature inside the manhole and also it was observed that hydrogen sulfate concentration increases with increasing temperature.

Keywords: Concrete corrosion, hydrogen sulphide gas, temperature, sewer pipe.

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221 Coupling Heat and Mass Transfer for Hydrogen-Assisted Self-Ignition Behaviors of Propane-Air Mixtures in Catalytic Micro-Channels

Authors: Junjie Chen, Deguang Xu

Abstract:

Transient simulation of the hydrogen-assisted self-ignition of propane-air mixtures were carried out in platinum-coated micro-channels from ambient cold-start conditions, using a two-dimensional model with reduced-order reaction schemes, heat conduction in the solid walls, convection and surface radiation heat transfer. The self-ignition behavior of hydrogen-propane mixed fuel is analyzed and compared with the heated feed case. Simulations indicate that hydrogen can successfully cause self-ignition of propane-air mixtures in catalytic micro-channels with a 0.2 mm gap size, eliminating the need for startup devices. The minimum hydrogen composition for propane self-ignition is found to be in the range of 0.8-2.8% (on a molar basis), and increases with increasing wall thermal conductivity, and decreasing inlet velocity or propane composition. Higher propane-air ratio results in earlier ignition. The ignition characteristics of hydrogen-assisted propane qualitatively resemble the selectively inlet feed preheating mode. Transient response of the mixed hydrogen- propane fuel reveals sequential ignition of propane followed by hydrogen. Front-end propane ignition is observed in all cases. Low wall thermal conductivities cause earlier ignition of the mixed hydrogen-propane fuel, subsequently resulting in low exit temperatures. The transient-state behavior of this micro-scale system is described, and the startup time and minimization of hydrogen usage are discussed.

Keywords: Micro-combustion, Self-ignition, Hydrogen addition, Heat transfer, Catalytic combustion, Transient simulation.

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220 Hydrogen Production from Dehydrogenation of Ethanol over Ag-Based Catalysts

Authors: S. Totong, K. Faungnawakij, N. Laosiripojana

Abstract:

The development of alternative energy is interesting in the present especially, hydrogen production because it is an important energy resource in the future. This paper studied the hydrogen production from catalytic dehydrogenation of ethanol through via low temperature (<500°C) reaction. Copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) supported on fumed silica (SiO2) were selected in the present work; in addition, bimetallic material; Ag-Cu supported on SiO2 was also investigated. The catalysts were prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method and characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR)and nitrogen adsorption measurements. The catalytic dehydrogenation of ethanol was carried out in a fixed bed continuous flow reactor at atmospheric pressure. The effect of reaction temperature between 300-375°C was studied in order to maximize the hydrogen yield. It was found that Ag-Cu/SiO2 exhibited the highest hydrogen yield compared to Ag/SiO2 and Cu/SiO2 at low reaction temperature (300°C) with full ethanol conversion. The highest hydrogen yield observed was 40% and will be further used as a reactant in fuel cells to generate electricity or feedstock of chemical production. 

Keywords: Catalyst, dehydrogenation, ethanol, hydrogen production.

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219 Investigation of Dissolution in Diammonium Hydrogen Phosphate Solutions of Gypsum

Authors: Turan Çalban, Nursel Keskin, Sabri Çolak, Soner Kuşlu

Abstract:

Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) is a mineral that is found in large quantities in the Turkey and in the World. In this study, the dissolution of this mineral in the diammonium hydrogen phosphate solutions has been studied. The dissolution and dissolution kinetics of gypsum in diammonium hydrogen phosphate solutions will be useful for evaluating of solid wastes containing gypsum. Parameters such as diammonium hydrogen phosphate concentration, temperature and stirring speed affecting on the dissolution rate of the gypsum in diammonium hydrogen phosphate solutions were investigated. In experimental studies have researched effectiveness of the selected parameters. The dissolution of gypsum were examined in two parts at low and high temperatures. The experimental results were successfully correlated by linear regression using Statistica program. Dissolution curves were evaluated shrinking core models for solidfluid systems. The activation energy was found to be 34.58 kJ/mol and 44.45 kJ/mol for the low and the high temperatures. The dissolution of gypsum was controlled by chemical reaction both low temperatures and high temperatures.

Keywords: Diammonium hydrogen phosphate, Dissolution, Gypsum, Kinetics.

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218 Improvement in Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Single Cylinder S.I. Engine Operated on Blends of CNG and Hydrogen

Authors: Sarbjot Singh Sandhu

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results of a single cylinder Enfield engine using an electronically controlled fuel injection system which was developed to carry out exhaustive tests using neat CNG, and mixtures of hydrogen in compressed natural gas (HCNG) as 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% by energy. Experiments were performed at 2000 and 2400 rpm with wide open throttle and varying the equivalence ratio. Hydrogen which has fast burning rate, when added to compressed natural gas, enhances its flame propagation rate. The emissions of HC, CO, decreased with increasing percentage of hydrogen but NOx was found to increase. The results indicated a marked improvement in the brake thermal efficiency with the increase in percentage of hydrogen added. The improved thermal efficiency was clearly observed to be more in lean region as compared to rich region. This study is expected to reduce vehicular emissions along with increase in thermal efficiency and thus help in reduction of further environmental degradation.

Keywords: Hydrogen, CNG, HCNG, Emissions.

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217 Hydrogen from Waste Tyres

Authors: Ibrahim F. Elbaba, Paul T. Williams

Abstract:

Hydrogen is regarded to play an important role in future energy systems because it can be produced from abundant resources and its combustion only generates water. The disposal of waste tyres is a major problem in environmental management throughout the world. The use of waste materials as a source of hydrogen is particularly of interest in that it would also solve a waste treatment problem. There is much interest in the use of alternative feedstocks for the production of hydrogen since more than 95% of current production is from fossil fuels. The pyrolysis of waste tyres for the production of liquid fuels, activated carbons and gases has been extensively researched. However, combining pyrolysis with gasification is a novel process that can gasify the gaseous products from pyrolysis. In this paper, an experimental investigation into the production of hydrogen and other gases from the bench scale pyrolysis-gasification of tyres has been investigated. Experiments were carried using a two stage system consisting of pyrolysis of the waste tyres followed by catalytic steam gasification of the evolved gases and vapours in a second reactor. Experiments were conducted at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C using Ni/Al2O3 as a catalyst. The results showed that there was a dramatic increase in gas yield and the potential H2 production when the gasification temperature was increased from 600 to 900 oC. Overall, the process showed that high yields of hydrogen can be produced from waste tyres.

Keywords: Catalyst, Hydrogen, Pyrolysis, Gasification, Tyre, Waste

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216 Study of Thermal Effects while Filling an Empty Tank

Authors: Y. Kerboua Ziari, M. Benouahlima, A. Benzaoui

Abstract:

We are interested in this paper to the thermal effects occurring during the filling of hydrogen tanks. The consequence of this heating on the storage performance of these speakers was appreciated. The motivation comes from the fact that the development of hydrogen as an energy carrier of the future will require strong evolution in the field of storage modes to smaller, less expensive lighter, with a strong security interest and considerable autonomy.

Keywords: Hydrogen, Fuel, Storage, Energy, Modeling, Simulation.

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215 Hydrogen Generation by Accelerating Aluminum Corrosion in Water with Alumina

Authors: J. Skrovan, A. Alfantazi, T. Troczynski

Abstract:

For relatively small particles of aluminum (<60 μm), a measurable percentage of the aluminum (>5%) is observed to corrode before passivation occurs at moderate temperatures (>50oC) in de-ionized water within one hour. Physical contact with alumina powder results in a significant increase in both the rate of corrosion and the extent of corrosion before passivation. Whereas the resulting release of hydrogen gas could be of commercial interest for portable hydrogen supply systems, the fundamental aspects of Al corrosion acceleration in presence of dispersed alumina particles are equally important. This paper investigates the effects of various amounts of alumina on the corrosion rate of aluminum powders in water and the effect of multiple additions of aluminum into a single reactor.

Keywords: Alumina, Aluminum, Corrosion, Hydrogen

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