Search results for: PCCI (premixed charge compression ignition)
726 A Study on the Effect of Valve Timing on the Combustion and Emission Characteristics for a 4-cylinder PCCI Diesel Engine
Authors: Joonsup Han, Jaehyeon Lee, Hyungmin Kim, Kihyung Lee
Abstract:PCCI engines can reduce NOx and PM emissions simultaneously without sacrificing thermal efficiency, but a low combustion temperature resulting from early fuel injection, and ignition occurring prior to TDC, can cause higher THC and CO emissions and fuel consumption. In conclusion, it was found that the PCCI combustion achieved by the 2-stage injection strategy with optimized calibration factors (e.g. EGR rate, injection pressure, swirl ratio, intake pressure, injection timing) can reduce NOx and PM emissions simultaneously. This research works are expected to provide valuable information conducive to a development of an innovative combustion engine that can fulfill upcoming stringent emission standards.
Keywords: Atkinson cycle, Diesel Engine, LIVC (Late intakevalve closing), PCCI (premixed charge compression ignition)Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2436
725 Nitrogen Effects on Ignition Delay Time in Supersonic Premixed and Diffusion Flames
Authors: A. M. Tahsini
Computational study of two dimensional supersonic reacting hydrogen-air flows is performed to investigate the nitrogen effects on ignition delay time for premixed and diffusion flames. Chemical reaction is treated using detail kinetics and the advection upstream splitting method is used to calculate the numerical inviscid fluxes. The results show that just in stoichiometric condition for both premixed and diffusion flames, there is monotone dependency of the ignition delay time to the nitrogen addition. In other situations, the optimal condition from ignition viewpoint should be found using numerical investigations.
Keywords: Diffusion flame, Ignition delay time, Mixing layer, Numerical simulation, Premixed flame, Supersonic flow.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1868
724 Single Zone Model for HCCI Engine Fueled with n-Heptane
Authors: Thanapiyawanit Bancha, Lu Jau-Huai
Abstract:In this study, we developed a model to predict the temperature and the pressure variation in an internal combustion engine operated in HCCI (Homogeneous charge compression ignition) mode. HCCI operation begins from aspirating of homogeneous charge mixture through intake valve like SI (Spark ignition) engine and the premixed charge is compressed until temperature and pressure of mixture reach autoignition point like diesel engine. Combustion phase was described by double-Wiebe function. The single zone model coupled with an double-Wiebe function were performed to simulated pressure and temperature between the period of IVC (Inlet valve close) and EVO (Exhaust valve open). Mixture gas properties were implemented using STANJAN and transfer the results to main model. The model has considered the engine geometry and enables varying in fuelling, equivalence ratio, manifold temperature and pressure. The results were compared with the experiment and showed good correlation with respect to combustion phasing, pressure rise, peak pressure and temperature. This model could be adapted and use to control start of combustion for HCCI engine.
Keywords: Double-Wiebe function, HCCI, Ignition enhancer, Single zone model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2707
723 Dimethyl Ether as an Ignition Improver for Hydrous Methanol Fuelled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine
Authors: M. Venkatesan, N. Shenbaga Vinayaga Moorthi, R. Karthikeyan, A. Manivannan
Homogeneous Charge Compression (HCCI) Ignition technology has been around for a long time, but has recently received renewed attention and enthusiasm. This paper deals with experimental investigations of HCCI engine using hydrous methanol as a primary fuel and Dimethyl Ether (DME) as an ignition improver. A regular diesel engine has been modified to work as HCCI engine for this investigation. The hydrous methanol is inducted and DME is injected into a single cylinder engine. Hence, hydrous methanol is used with 15% water content in HCCI engine and its performance and emission behavior is documented. The auto-ignition of Methanol is enabled by DME. The quantity of DME varies with respect to the load. In this study, the experiments are conducted independently and the effect of the hydrous methanol on the engine operating limit, heat release rate and exhaust emissions at different load conditions are investigated. The investigation also proves that the Hydrous Methanol with DME operation reduces the oxides of Nitrogen and smoke to an extreme low level which is not possible by the direct injection CI engine. Therefore, it is beneficial to use hydrous methanol-DME HCCI mode while using hydrous methanol in internal Combustion Engines.
Keywords: Hydrous Methanol, Dimethyl ether, Performance, Emission and Combustion.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2362
722 Numerical Prediction of NOX in the Exhaust of a Compression Ignition Engine
Authors: A. A. Pawar, R. R. Kulkarni
Abstract:For numerical prediction of the NOX in the exhaust of a compression ignition engine a model was developed by considering the parameter equivalence ratio. This model was validated by comparing the predicted results of NOX with experimental ones. The ultimate aim of the work was to access the applicability, robustness and performance of the improved NOX model against other NOX models.
Keywords: Biodiesel fueled engine, equivalence ratio, Compression ignition engine, exhausts gas temperature, NOX formation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1954
721 An Experimental Study on the Effect of Premixed and Equivalence Ratios on CO and HC Emissions of Dual Fuel HCCI Engine
Authors: M. Ghazikhani, M. R. Kalateh, Y. K. Toroghi, M. Dehnavi
Abstract:In this study, effects of premixed and equivalence ratios on CO and HC emissions of a dual fuel HCCI engine are investigated. Tests were conducted on a single-cylinder engine with compression ratio of 17.5. Premixed gasoline is provided by a carburetor connected to intake manifold and equipped with a screw to adjust premixed air-fuel ratio, and diesel fuel is injected directly into the cylinder through an injector at pressure of 250 bars. A heater placed at inlet manifold is used to control the intake charge temperature. Optimal intake charge temperature results in better HCCI combustion due to formation of a homogeneous mixture, therefore, all tests were carried out over the optimum intake temperature of 110-115 ºC. Timing of diesel fuel injection has a great effect on stratification of in-cylinder charge and plays an important role in HCCI combustion phasing. Experiments indicated 35 BTDC as the optimum injection timing. Varying the coolant temperature in a range of 40 to 70 ºC, better HCCI combustion was achieved at 50 ºC. Therefore, coolant temperature was maintained 50 ºC during all tests. Simultaneous investigation of effective parameters on HCCI combustion was conducted to determine optimum parameters resulting in fast transition to HCCI combustion. One of the advantages of the method studied in this study is feasibility of easy and fast transition of typical diesel engine to a dual fuel HCCI engine. Results show that increasing premixed ratio, while keeping EGR rate constant, increases unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions due to quenching phenomena and trapping of premixed fuel in crevices, but CO emission decreases due to increase in CO to CO2 reactions.
Keywords: Dual fuel HCCI engine, premixed ratio, equivalenceratio, CO and UHC emissions.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1795
720 A Computational Study into the Effect of Design Parameters on Ignition Timing and Emission Characteristics of HCCI Engine in Internal Combustion Engines Fuelled with Isooctane
Authors: Fridhi Hadia, Soua Wadhah, Hidouri Ammar, Omri Ahmed
In order to understand the auto-ignition process in a HCCI engine better, the influence of some important parameters on the auto-ignition is investigated. The inlet temperature, the inlet pressure, and the compression ratio were varied and their influence on the ignition delays and emission characteristics were studied. The inlet temperature was changed from 400 K to 460 K (in step of 15 K), the inlet pressure from 0.9 to 3 atm, while the compression ratio varied from 15 to 23. The fuel that was investigated is isooctane. The inlet temperature, the inlet pressure, and the compression ratio appeared to decrease the ignition delays, with the inlet pressure having the least influence and the compression ratio the most. The effect of these parameters on emissions’ characteristics were also investigated. Results indicate that increasing the compression ratio results in increasing the concentration of all the species.
Keywords: Compression Ratio, intake temperature, intake pressure, HCCI engine, isooctane.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1405
719 Effects of Soybean Methyl Ester on the Performance Characteristics of Compression Ignition Engine
Authors: S. K. Fasogbon, A. A. Asere
Depletion and hazardous gas emissions associated with fossil fuels have caused scientists and global attention to focus on the use of “alternative, eco-friendly substitutes for use in Compression Ignition Engines. In this work, biodiesel was produced by trans-esterification of soybean obtained from a Nigerian market using Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) as a catalyst.” After the production, the physical properties (specific gravity to kinematic viscosity and net calorific value) of the Soybean-biodiesel produced and petrol diesel obtained from a filling station in Nigeria were determined, and these properties conform to conventional standards (ASTM). A cummins-6V-92TA DDEC diesel (Compression ignition, CI) engine was run on various biodiesel-petrol diesel blends (0/100, 10/90, 20/80, 30/70 and 40/60), the B20 (blend 20/80) was found to be the most satisfactory.
Keywords: Effects, Soybean, Methyl Ester, Performance, compression Ignition Engine.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1761
718 An Experimental Study on the Effect of EGR and Engine Speed on CO and HC Emissions of Dual Fuel HCCI Engine
Authors: M. Ghazikhani, M. R. Kalateh, Y. K. Toroghi, M. Dehnavi
Abstract:In this study, effects of EGR on CO and HC emissions of a dual fuel HCCI-DI engine are investigated. Tests were conducted on a single-cylinder variable compression ratio (VCR) diesel engine with compression ratio of 17.5. Premixed gasoline is provided by a carburetor connected to intake manifold and equipped with a screw to adjust premixed air-fuel ratio, and diesel fuel is injected directly into the cylinder through an injector at pressure of 250 bars. A heater placed at inlet manifold is used to control the intake charge temperature. Optimal intake charge temperature was 110-115ºC due to better formation of a homogeneous mixture causing HCCI combustion. Timing of diesel fuel injection has a great effect on stratification of in-cylinder charge in HCCI combustion. Experiments indicated 35 BTDC as the optimum injection timing. Coolant temperature was maintained 50ºC during the tests. Results show that increasing engine speed at a constant EGR rate leads to increase in CO and UHC emissions due to the incomplete combustion caused by shorter combustion duration and less homogeneous mixture. Results also show that increasing EGR reduces the amount of oxygen and leads to incomplete combustion and therefore increases CO emission due to lower combustion temperature. HC emission also increases as a result of lower combustion temperatures.
Keywords: Dual fuel HCCI engine, EGR, engine speed, CO andUHC emissions.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2232
717 Effects of Engine Parameters and Fuel Compositions on Ignition Timing and Emission Characteristics of HCCI Engine
Authors: Fridhi Hadia, Soua Wadhah, Hidouri Ammar, Omri Ahmed
In this research, the effects of the engine parameters like compression ratios and steam injection on igniting timing and emission characteristics have been investigated numerically. The in-cylinder temperature and pressure at four different compression ratios have been compared with numerical results, and they show a good agreement with the published data. Two different fuels have been used in this study: Isooctane (IC8H18), and ethanol (C2H5OH). The increasing of the compression ratio (CR) advances the ignition timing, decreases the burn duration and increases the temperature and the pressure. The injection of water vapor lower than 40% decreased the peak temperature and slowed the combustion rate which leads to a lower NOx emission.
Keywords: Compression ratio, emission, HCCI engine, ignition timing, steam injection.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1156
716 Effect of High Injection Pressure on Mixture Formation, Burning Process and Combustion Characteristics in Diesel Combustion
Authors: Amir Khalid, B. Manshoor
Abstract:The mixture formation prior to the ignition process plays as a key element in the diesel combustion. Parametric studies of mixture formation and ignition process in various injection parameter has received considerable attention in potential for reducing emissions. Purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of injection pressure on mixture formation and ignition especially during ignition delay period, which have to be significantly influences throughout the combustion process and exhaust emissions. This study investigated the effects of injection pressure on diesel combustion fundamentally using rapid compression machine. The detail behavior of mixture formation during ignition delay period was investigated using the schlieren photography system with a high speed camera. This method can capture spray evaporation, spray interference, mixture formation and flame development clearly with real images. Ignition process and flame development were investigated by direct photography method using a light sensitive high-speed color digital video camera. The injection pressure and air motion are important variable that strongly affect to the fuel evaporation, endothermic and prolysis process during ignition delay. An increased injection pressure makes spray tip penetration longer and promotes a greater amount of fuel-air mixing occurs during ignition delay. A greater quantity of fuel prepared during ignition delay period thus predominantly promotes more rapid heat release.
Keywords: Mixture Formation, Diesel Combustion, Ignition Process, Spray, Rapid Compression Machine.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2735
715 Effects of Intake Temperature and Intake Pressure on Combustion and Exhaust Emissions of HCCI Engine
Authors: Fridhi Hadia, Soua Wadhah, Hidouri Ammar, Omri Ahmed
In this paper, the effect of the intake temperature (IT) and intake pressure (IP) on ignition timing and pollutants emission of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine is investigated. Numerical computations are performed using the CHEMKIN computer code. The numerical temperature obtained using different boundary conditions is compared to published data and a good agreement is assigned. Results show that the HCCI combustion engine is significantly improved by increasing the IT. With a value of IT lower than 390 K, combustion cannot occur. However, with an IT greater than 420 K, the cylinder pressure decreases. An optimum crank rotation angle is achieved by using IT of 420 K. So, we can conclude that the variation of the IT and IP influence notably the emission concentration.
Keywords: HCCI engine, CEMKIN, intake temperature, intake pressure.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 954
714 Development of a Spark Electrode Ignition System for an Explosion Vessel
Authors: Shaharin A. Sulaiman, Mizuan Minhat
Abstract:This paper presents development of an ignition system using spark electrodes for application in a research explosion vessel. A single spark is aimed to be discharged with quantifiable ignition energy. The spark electrode system would enable study of flame propagation, ignitability of fuel-air mixtures and other fundamental characteristics of flames. The principle of the capacitive spark circuit of ASTM is studied to charge an appropriate capacitance connected across the spark gap through a large resistor by a high voltage from the source of power supply until the initiation of spark. Different spark energies could be obtained mainly by varying the value of the capacitance and the supply current. The spark sizes produced are found to be affected by the spark gap, electrode size, input voltage and capacitance value.
Keywords: Ignition, Spark Electrode, FlameProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1969
713 Combustion Characteristics of Syngas and Natural Gas in Micro-pilot Ignited Dual-fuel Engine
Authors: Ulugbek Azimov, Eiji Tomita, Nobuyuki Kawahara, Sharul Sham Dol
Abstract:The objective of this study is to investigate the combustion in a pilot-ignited supercharged dual-fuel engine, fueled with different types of gaseous fuels under various equivalence ratios. It is found that if certain operating conditions are maintained, conventional dual-fuel engine combustion mode can be transformed to the combustion mode with the two-stage heat release. This mode of combustion was called the PREMIER (PREmixed Mixture Ignition in the End-gas Region) combustion. During PREMIER combustion, initially, the combustion progresses as the premixed flame propagation and then, due to the mixture autoignition in the end-gas region, ahead of the propagating flame front, the transition occurs with the rapid increase in the heat release rate.
Keywords: Combustion, dual-fuel engine, end-gas autoignition, PREMIER.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4358
712 Sustainable Design of Impinging Premixed Slot Jets
Authors: T.T. Wong, C.W. Leung, M.C. Wong
Abstract:Cooktop burners are widely used nowadays. In cooktop burner design, nozzle efficiency and greenhouse gas(GHG) emissions mainly depend on heat transfer from the premixed flame to the impinging surface. This is a complicated issue depending on the individual and combined effects of various input combustion variables. Optimal operating conditions for sustainable burner design were rarely addressed, especially in the case of multiple slot-jet burners. Through evaluating the optimal combination of combustion conditions for a premixed slot-jet array, this paper develops a practical approach for the sustainable design of gas cooktop burners. Efficiency, CO and NOx emissions in respect of an array of slot jets using premixed flames were analysed. Response surface experimental design were applied to three controllable factors of the combustion process, viz. Reynolds number, equivalence ratio and jet-to-vessel distance. Desirability Function Approach(DFA) is the analytic technique used for the simultaneous optimization of the efficiency and emission responses.
Keywords: optimization, premixed slot jetsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1319
711 Study of Dual Fuel Engine as Environmentally Friendly Engine
Authors: Nilam S. Octaviani, Semin
The diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses compressed air to combust. The diesel engines are widely used in the world because it has the most excellent combustion efficiency than other types of internal combustion engine. However, the exhaust emissions of it produce pollutants that are harmful to human health and the environment. Therefore, natural gas used as an alternative fuel using on compression ignition engine to respond those environment issues. This paper aims to discuss the comparison of the technical characteristics and exhaust gases emission from conventional diesel engine and dual fuel diesel engine. According to the study, the dual fuel engine applications have a lower compression pressure and has longer ignition delay compared with normal diesel mode. The engine power is decreased at dual fuel mode. However, the exhaust gases emission on dual fuel engine significantly reduce the nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2) and particular metter (PM) emissions.
Keywords: Diesel engine, dual fuel engine, emissions, technical characteristics.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 638
710 Numerical Simulation of High Pressure Hydrogen Emerges to Air
Authors: Mohamed H. Elhsnawi, Mesbah M. Salem, Saleh B. Mohamed
Numerical simulation performed to investigate the behavior of the high pressure hydrogen jetting of air. High pressure hydrogen (30–40 MPa) was injected to air at atmospheric pressure through 2mm orifice. Numerical simulations were performed with Kiva3V code with 2D axisymmetric geometry. Numerical simulations showed that auto ignition of high pressure hydrogen to air are possible due to molecular diffusion. Auto ignition was predicted at hydrogen-air contact surface due to mass and energy exchange between high temperature hydrogen and air heated by shock wave.
Keywords: Spontaneous Ignition, Diffusion Ignition, Hydrogen ignition, Hydrogen Jet.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1776
709 Experimental Investigations on the Use of Preheated Neat Karanja Oil as Fuel in a Compression Ignition Engine
Authors: Sagar Pramodrao Kadu, Rajendra H. Sarda
Abstract:The concerns about clean environment and high oil prices driving forces for the research on alternative fuels. The research efforts directed towards improving the performance of C.I engines using vegetable oil as fuel. The paper deals results of performance of a four stroke, single cylinder C.I. engine by preheated neat Karanja oil is done from 30 o C to 100 o C. The performance of the engine was studied for a speed range between 1500 to 4000 rpm, with the engine operated under full load conditions. The performance parameters considered for comparing are brake specific fuel consumption, thermal efficiency, brake power, Nox emission of the engine. The engine offers lower thermal efficiency when it is powered by preheated neat Karanja oil at higher speed. The power developed and Nox emission increase with the increase in the fuel inlet temperature and the specific fuel consumption is higher than diesel fuel operation at all elevated fuel inlet temperature.
Keywords: Alternative fuel, Compression ignition engine, neatKaranja oil, preheating.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2095
708 An Analysis of Compression Methods and Implementation of Medical Images in Wireless Network
Authors: C. Rajan, K. Geetha, S. Geetha
Abstract:The motivation of image compression technique is to reduce the irrelevance and redundancy of the image data in order to store or pass data in an efficient way from one place to another place. There are several types of compression methods available. Without the help of compression technique, the file size is knowingly larger, usually several megabytes, but by doing the compression technique, it is possible to reduce file size up to 10% as of the original without noticeable loss in quality. Image compression can be lossless or lossy. The compression technique can be applied to images, audio, video and text data. This research work mainly concentrates on methods of encoding, DCT, compression methods, security, etc. Different methodologies and network simulations have been analyzed here. Various methods of compression methodologies and its performance metrics has been investigated and presented in a table manner.
Keywords: Image compression techniques, encoding, DCT, lossy compression, lossless compression, JPEG.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1075
707 Comparative Parametric and Emission Characteristics of Single Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine Using Gasoline, Ethanol, and H₂O as Micro Emulsion Fuels
Authors: Ufaith Qadri, M Marouf Wani
In this paper, the performance and emission characteristics of a Single Cylinder Spark Ignition engine have been investigated. The research is based on micro emulsion application as fuel in a gasoline engine. We have analyzed many micro emulsion compositions in various proportions, for predicting the performance of the Spark Ignition engine. This new technology of fuel modifications is emerging very rapidly as lot of research is going on in the field of micro emulsion fuels in Compression Ignition engines, but the micro emulsion fuel used in a Gasoline engine is very rare. The use of micro emulsion as fuel in a Spark Ignition engine is virtually unexplored. So, our main goal is to see the performance and emission characteristics of micro emulsions as fuel, in Spark Ignition engines, and finding which composition is more efficient. In this research, we have used various micro emulsion fuels whose composition varies for all the three blends, and their performance and emission characteristic were predicted in AVL Boost software. Conventional Gasoline fuel 90%, 80% and 85% were blended with co-surfactant Ethanol in different compositions, and water was used as an additive for making it crystal clear transparent micro emulsion fuel, which is thermodynamically stable. By comparing the performances of engines, the power has shown similarity for micro emulsion fuel and conventional Gasoline fuel. On the other hand, Torque and BMEP shows increase for all the micro emulsion fuels. Micro emulsion fuel shows higher thermal efficiency and lower Specific Fuel Consumption for all the compositions as compared to the Gasoline fuel. Carbon monoxide and Hydro carbon emissions were also measured. The result shows that emissions decrease for all the composition of micro emulsion fuels, and proved to be the most efficient fuel both in terms of performance and emission characteristics.
Keywords: AVL Boost, emissions, micro emulsion, performance, SI engine.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 722
706 Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Compression Ratio in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine Running on Different Blends of Rice Bran Oil and Ethanol
Authors: Perminderjit Singh, Randeep Singh
The performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder four stroke variable compression ratio multi fuel engine when fueled with different blends of rice bran oil methyl ester and ethanol are investigated and compared with the results of standard diesel. Bio diesel produced from Rice bran oil by transesterification process has been used in this study. Experiment has been conducted at a fixed engine speed of 1500 rpm, 50% load and at compression ratios of 16.5:1, 17:1, 17.5:1 and 18:1. The impact of compression ratio on fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency and exhaust gas emissions has been investigated and presented. Optimum compression ratio which gives best performance has been identified. The results indicate longer ignition delay, maximum rate of pressure rise, lower heat release rate and higher mass fraction burnt at higher compression ratio for waste cooking oil methyl ester when compared to that of diesel. The brake thermal efficiency at 50% load for Rice bran oil methyl ester blends and diesel has been calculated and the blend B40 is found to give maximum thermal efficiency. The blends when used as fuel results in reduction of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and increase in nitrogen oxides emissions.
Keywords: Biodiesel, Rice bran oil, Transesterification, Ethanol, Compression Ratio.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3728
705 Ethanol Fuelled HCCI Engine: A Review
Authors: B. Bahri, A. A. Aziz, M. Shahbakhti, M. F. Muhamad Said
The greenhouse effect and limitations on carbon dioxide emissions concern engine maker and the future of the internal combustion engines should go toward substantially and improved thermal efficiency engine. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is an alternative high-efficiency technology for combustion engines to reduce exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. However, there are still tough challenges in the successful operation of HCCI engines, such as controlling the combustion phasing, extending the operating range, and high unburned hydrocarbon and CO emissions. HCCI and the exploitation of ethanol as an alternative fuel is one way to explore new frontiers of internal combustion engines with an eye towards maintaining its sustainability. This study was done to extend database knowledge about HCCI with ethanol a fuel.
Keywords: Ethanol combustion, Ethanol fuel, HCCI.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2713
704 Ignition Analysis in Supersonic Turbulent Mixing Layer
Authors: A. M. Tahsini
Abstract:Numerical study of two dimensional supersonic hydrogen-air mixing layer is performed to investigate the effect of turbulence and chemical additive on ignition distance. Chemical reaction is treated using detail kinetics. Advection upstream splitting method is used to calculate the fluxes and one equation turbulence model is chosen here to simulate the considered problem. Hydrogen peroxide is used as an additive and the results show that inflow turbulence and chemical additive may drastically decrease the ignition delay in supersonic combustion.
Keywords: Ignition, Mixing layer, Numerical simulation, Supersonic combustion, TurbulenceProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1600
703 Numerical Analysis and Sensitivity Study of Non-Premixed Combustion Using LES
Authors: J. Dumrongsak, A. M. Savill
Non-premixed turbulent combustion Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been carried out in a simplified methanefuelled coaxial jet combustor employing Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of LES in modelling non-premixed combustion using a commercial software, FLUENT, and investigate the effects of the grid density and chemistry models employed on the accuracy of the simulation results. A comparison has also been made between LES and Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) predictions. For LES grid sensitivity test, 2.3 and 6.2 million cell grids are employed with the equilibrium model. The chemistry model sensitivity analysis is achieved by comparing the simulation results from the equilibrium chemistry and steady flamelet models. The predictions of the mixture fraction, axial velocity, species mass fraction and temperature by LES are in good agreement with the experimental data. The LES results are similar for the two chemistry models but influenced considerably by the grid resolution in the inner flame and near-wall regions.
Keywords: Coaxial jet, reacting LES, non-premixed combustion, turbulent flow.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2734
702 Coupling Heat and Mass Transfer for Hydrogen-Assisted Self-Ignition Behaviors of Propane-Air Mixtures in Catalytic Micro-Channels
Authors: Junjie Chen, Deguang Xu
Transient simulation of the hydrogen-assisted self-ignition of propane-air mixtures were carried out in platinum-coated micro-channels from ambient cold-start conditions, using a two-dimensional model with reduced-order reaction schemes, heat conduction in the solid walls, convection and surface radiation heat transfer. The self-ignition behavior of hydrogen-propane mixed fuel is analyzed and compared with the heated feed case. Simulations indicate that hydrogen can successfully cause self-ignition of propane-air mixtures in catalytic micro-channels with a 0.2 mm gap size, eliminating the need for startup devices. The minimum hydrogen composition for propane self-ignition is found to be in the range of 0.8-2.8% (on a molar basis), and increases with increasing wall thermal conductivity, and decreasing inlet velocity or propane composition. Higher propane-air ratio results in earlier ignition. The ignition characteristics of hydrogen-assisted propane qualitatively resemble the selectively inlet feed preheating mode. Transient response of the mixed hydrogen- propane fuel reveals sequential ignition of propane followed by hydrogen. Front-end propane ignition is observed in all cases. Low wall thermal conductivities cause earlier ignition of the mixed hydrogen-propane fuel, subsequently resulting in low exit temperatures. The transient-state behavior of this micro-scale system is described, and the startup time and minimization of hydrogen usage are discussed.
Keywords: Micro-combustion, Self-ignition, Hydrogen addition, Heat transfer, Catalytic combustion, Transient simulation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1743
701 Combustion and Emission of a Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Diesel and Hydrogen-Methane Mixture
Authors: J. H. Zhou, C. S. Cheung, C. W. Leung
The present study conducted experimental investigation on combustion and emission characteristics of compression ignition engine using diesel as pilot fuel and methane, hydrogen and methane/hydrogen mixture as gaseous fuels at 1800 rev min-1. The effect of gaseous fuel on peak cylinder pressure and heat release is modest at low to medium loads. At high load, the high combustion temperature and high quantity of pilot fuel contribute to better combustion efficiency for all kinds of gaseous fuels and increases the peak cylinder pressure. Enrichment of hydrogen in methane gradually increases the peak cylinder pressure. The brake thermal efficiency increases with higher hydrogen fraction at lower loads. Hydrogen addition in methane contributed to a proportional reduction of CO/CO2/HC emission without penalty of NOx. For particulate emission, methane and hydrogen, could both suppress the particle emission. 30% hydrogen fraction in methane is observed to be best in reducing the particulate emission.
Keywords: Combustion characteristics, diesel engine, emissions, methane/hydrogen mixture.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3576
700 A Low Voltage High Linearity CMOS Gilbert Cell Using Charge Injection Method
Authors: Raheleh Hedayati, Sanaz Haddadian, Hooman Nabovati
Abstract:A 2.4GHz (RF) down conversion Gilbert Cell mixer, implemented in a 0.18-μm CMOS technology with a 1.8V supply, is presented. Current bleeding (charge injection) technique has been used to increase the conversion gain and the linearity of the mixer. The proposed mixer provides 10.75 dB conversion gain ( C G ) with 14.3mw total power consumption. The IIP3 and 1-dB compression point of the mixer are 8dbm and -4.6dbm respectively, at 300 MHz IF frequencies. Comparing the current design against the conventional mixer design, demonstrates better performance in the conversion gain, linearity, noise figure and port-to-port isolation.
Keywords: Mixer, Gilbert Cell, Charge Injection, RFIC, CMOSTechnology.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4143
699 Ignition Time Delay in Swirling Supersonic Flow Combustion
Authors: A. M. Tahsini
Abstract:Supersonic hydrogen-air cylindrical mixing layer is numerically analyzed to investigate the effect of inlet swirl on ignition time delay in scramjets. Combustion is treated using detail chemical kinetics. One-equation turbulence model of Spalart and Allmaras is chosen to study the problem and advection upstream splitting method is used as computational scheme. The results show that swirling both fuel and oxidizer streams may drastically decrease the ignition distance in supersonic combustion, unlike using the swirl just in fuel stream which has no helpful effect.
Keywords: Ignition delay, Supersonic combustion, Swirl, Numerical simulation, Turbulence.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2074
698 Ignition Delay Correlation for a Direct Injection Diesel Engine Fuelled with Automotive Diesel and Water Diesel Emulsion
Authors: K.Alkhulaifi, M. Hamdalla
Abstract:Most of ignition delay correlations studies have been developed in a constant volume bombs which cannot capture the dynamic variation in pressure and temperature during the ignition delay as in real engines. Watson, Assanis et. al. and Hardenberg and Hase correlations have been developed based on experimental data of diesel engines. However, they showed limited predictive ability of ignition delay when compared to experimental results. The objective of the study was to investigate the dependency of ignition delay time on engine brake power. An experimental investigation of the effect of automotive diesel and water diesel emulsion fuels on ignition delay under steady state conditions of a direct injection diesel engine was conducted. A four cylinder, direct injection naturally aspirated diesel engine was used in this experiment over a wide range of engine speeds and two engine loads. The ignition delay experimental data were compared with predictions of Assanis et. al. and Watson ignition delay correlations. The results of the experimental investigation were then used to develop a new ignition delay correlation. The newly developed ignition delay correlation has shown a better agreement with the experimental data than Assanis et. al. and Watson when using automotive diesel and water diesel emulsion fuels especially at low to medium engine speeds at both loads. In addition, the second derivative of cylinder pressure which is the most widely used method in determining the start of combustion was investigated.
Keywords: gnition delay correlation, water diesel emulsion, direct injection diesel engineProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5667
697 Supercompression for Full-HD and 4k-3D (8k)Digital TV Systems
Authors: Mario Mastriani
Abstract:In this work, we developed the concept of supercompression, i.e., compression above the compression standard used. In this context, both compression rates are multiplied. In fact, supercompression is based on super-resolution. That is to say, supercompression is a data compression technique that superpose spatial image compression on top of bit-per-pixel compression to achieve very high compression ratios. If the compression ratio is very high, then we use a convolutive mask inside decoder that restores the edges, eliminating the blur. Finally, both, the encoder and the complete decoder are implemented on General-Purpose computation on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU) cards. Specifically, the mentio-ned mask is coded inside texture memory of a GPGPU.
Keywords: General-Purpose computation on Graphics Processing Units, Image Compression, Interpolation, Super-resolution.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1870