Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1768

Search results for: Next generation bio-alcohol isomer blended fuel

1768 Combustion Improvements by C4/C5 Bio-Alcohol Isomer Blended Fuels Combined with Supercharging and EGR in a Diesel Engine

Authors: Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Enkhjargal Tserenochir, Eiji Kinoshita, Takeshi Otaka

Abstract:

Next generation bio-alcohols produced from non-food based sources like cellulosic biomass are promising renewable energy sources. The present study investigates engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions of a small single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled by four kinds of next generation bio-alcohol isomer and diesel fuel blends with a constant blending ratio of 3:7 (mass). The tested bio-alcohol isomers here are n-butanol and iso-butanol (C4 alcohol), and n-pentanol and iso-pentanol (C5 alcohol). To obtain simultaneous reductions in NOx and smoke emissions, the experiments employed supercharging combined with EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation). The boost pressures were fixed at two conditions, 100 kPa (naturally aspirated operation) and 120 kPa (supercharged operation) provided with a roots blower type supercharger. The EGR rates were varied from 0 to 25% using a cooled EGR technique. The results showed that both with and without supercharging, all the bio-alcohol blended diesel fuels improved the trade-off relation between NOx and smoke emissions at all EGR rates while maintaining good engine performance, when compared with diesel fuel operation. It was also found that regardless of boost pressure and EGR rate, the ignition delays of the tested bio-alcohol isomer blends are in the order of iso-butanol > n-butanol > iso-pentanol > n-pentanol. Overall, it was concluded that, except for the changes in the ignition delays the influence of bio-alcohol isomer blends on the engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions are relatively small.

Keywords: Alternative fuel,  Butanol, Diesel engine, EGR, Next generation bio-alcohol isomer blended fuel, Pentanol, Supercharging.

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1767 Bio Fuel Production from Waste of Starting Dates in South Algeria

Authors: Insaf Mehani, Ahmed Boulal, Bachir Bouchekima

Abstract:

Renewable energy, including bio energy are an alternative to fossil fuel depletion and a way to fight against the harmful effects of climate change. It is possible to develop common dates of low commercial value, and put on the local and international market a new generation of products with high added values ​​such as bio ethanol. Besides its use in chemical synthesis, bio ethanol can be blended with gasoline to produce a clean fuel while improving the octane.

Keywords: Bio energy, dates, bio ethanol.

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1766 Hysteresis Control of Power Conditioning Unit for Fuel Cell Distributed Generation System

Authors: Kanhu Charan Bhuyan, Subhransu Padhee, Rajesh Kumar Patjoshi, Kamalakanta Mahapatra

Abstract:

Fuel cell is an emerging technology in the field of renewable energy sources which has the capacity to replace conventional energy generation sources. Fuel cell utilizes hydrogen energy to produce electricity. The electricity generated by the fuel cell can’t be directly used for a specific application as it needs proper power conditioning. Moreover, the output power fluctuates with different operating conditions. To get a stable output power at an economic rate, power conditioning circuit is essential for fuel cell. This paper implements a two-staged power conditioning unit for fuel cell based distributed generation using hysteresis current control technique.

Keywords: Fuel cell, power conditioning unit, hysteresis control.

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1765 Phase Behaviors and Fuel Properties of Bio-Oil-Diesel-Alcohol Blends

Authors: P. Weerachanchai, C. Tangsathitkulchai, M. Tangsathitkulchai

Abstract:

Attempt was made to improve certain characteristics of bio-oil derived from palm kernel pyrolysis by blending it with diesel fuel and alcohols. Two types of alcohol, ethanol or butanol, was used as cosolvent to stabilize the phase of ternary systems. Phase behaviors and basic fuel properties of palm kernel bio-oildiesel- alcohol systems were investigated in this study. Alcohol types showed a significant influence on the phase characteristics with palm kernel bio-oil-diesel-butanol system giving larger soluble area than that of palm kernel bio-oil-diesel-ethanol system. For fuel properties, blended fuels showed superior properties including lower values of density (~860 kg/m3 at 25°C), viscosity (~4.12 mm2/s at 40°C), carbon residue (1.02-2.53 wt%), ash (0.018-0.034 wt%) and pour point (<-25 to -7 °C), increased pH (~ 6.4) and giving reasonable heating values of 32.5-41.2 MJ/kg. To enable the prediction of some properties of fuel mixtures, the measured fuel properties including heating value, density, ash content and pH were fitted by Kay-s mixing rule, whereas the viscosities of blended fuels at different temperatures were correlated by the modified Grunberg-Nissan equation and Andrade equation.

Keywords: Bio-oil, fuel blend, fuel properties, phase behaviour.

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1764 The Future of Blended Learning

Authors: Reem A. Alebaikan

Abstract:

The emergence of blended learning has been influenced by the rapid changes in Higher Education within the last few years. However, there is a lack of studies that look into the future of blended learning in the Saudi context. The most likely explanation is that blended learning is relatively new and, with respect to learning in general, under-researched. This study addresses this gap and explores the views of lecturers and students towards the future of blended learning in Saudi Arabia. This study was informed by the interpretive paradigm that appears to be most appropriate to understand and interpret the perceptions of students and instructors towards a new learning environment. While globally there has been considerable research on the perceptions of e-learning and blended learning with its different models, there is plenty of space for further research specifically in the Arab region, and in Saudi Arabia where blended learning is now being introduced.

Keywords: blended learning, higher education.

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1763 Laser Excited Nuclear γ -Source of High Spectral Brightness

Authors: A. Аndreev, Yu. Rozhdestvenskii, К. Platonov, R. Salomaa

Abstract:

This paper considers various channels of gammaquantum generation via an ultra-short high-power laser pulse interaction with different targets.We analyse the possibilities to create a pulsed gamma-radiation source using laser triggering of some nuclear reactions and isomer targets. It is shown that sub-MeV monochromatic short pulse of gamma-radiation can be obtained with pulse energy of sub-mJ level from isomer target irradiated by intense laser pulse. For nuclear reaction channel in light- atom materials, it is shown that sub-PW laser pulse gives rise to formation about million gamma-photons of multi-MeV energy.

Keywords: High power laser, short pulse, fast particles, isomertarget.

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1762 The Comparative Investigation and Calculation of Thermo-Neutronic Parameters on Two Gens II and III Nuclear Reactors with Same Powers

Authors: Mousavi Shirazi, Seyed Alireza, Rastayesh, Sima

Abstract:

Whereas in the third generation nuclear reactors, dimensions of core and also the kind of coolant and enrichment percent of fuel have significantly changed than the second generation, therefore in this article the aim is based on a comparative investigation between two same power reactors of second and third generations, that the neutronic parameters of both reactors such as: K∞, Keff and its details and thermal hydraulic parameters such as: power density, specific power, volumetric heat rate, released power per fuel volume unit, volume and mass of clad and fuel (consisting fissile and fertile fuels), be calculated and compared together. By this comparing the efficiency and modification of third generation nuclear reactors than second generation which have same power can be distinguished. In order to calculate the cited parameters, some information such as: core dimensions, the pitch of lattice, the fuel matter, the percent of enrichment and the kind of coolant are used. For calculating the neutronic parameters, a neutronic program entitled: SIXFAC and also related formulas have been used. Meantime for calculating the thermal hydraulic and other parameters, analytical method and related formulas have been applied.

Keywords: Nuclear reactor, second generation, third generation, thermo-neutronics parameters.

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1761 Selection and Exergy Analysis of Fuel Cell System to Meet all Energy Needs of Residential Buildings

Authors: G.R. Ashari, N.Hedayat, S. Shalbaf, E.Hajidavalloo

Abstract:

In this paper a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell power system including burner, steam reformer, heat exchanger and water heater has been considered to meet the electrical, heating, cooling and domestic hot water loads of residential building which in Tehran. The system uses natural gas as fuel and works in CHP mode. Design and operating conditions of a PEM fuel cell system is considered in this study. The energy requirements of residential building and the number of fuel cell stacks to meet them have been estimated. The method involved exergy analysis and entropy generation thorough the months of the year. Results show that all the energy needs of the building can be met with 12 fuel cell stacks at a nominal capacity of 8.5 kW. Exergy analysis of the CHP system shows that the increase in the ambient air temperature from 1oC to 40oC, will have an increase of entropy generation by 5.73%.Maximum entropy generates for 15 hour in 15th of June and 15th of July is estimated to amount at 12624 (kW/K). Entropy generation of this system through a year is estimated to amount to 1004.54 GJ/k.year.

Keywords: CHP mode, entropy, exergy, no of fuel cell stacks.

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1760 On using PEMFC for Electrical Power Generation on More Electric Aircraft

Authors: Jenica Ileana Corcau, Liviu Dinca

Abstract:

The electrical power systems of aircrafts have made serious progress in recent years because the aircrafts depend more and more on the electricity. There is a trend in the aircraft industry to replace hydraulic and pneumatic systems with electrical systems, achieving more comfort and monitoring features and enlarging the energetic efficiency. Thus, was born the concept More Electric Aircraft. In this paper is analyzed the integration of a fuel cell into the existing electrical generation and distribution systems of an aircraft. The dynamic characteristics of fuel cell systems necessitate an adaptation of the electrical power system. The architecture studied in this paper consists of a 50kW fuel cell, a dc to dc converter and several loads. The dc to dc converter is used to step down the fuel cell voltage from about 625Vdc to 28Vdc.

Keywords: Electrical power system, More Electric Aircraft, Fuel Cell, dc to dc converter

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1759 Physicochemical Parameters and Economic Evaluation of Bio Ethanol Produced from Waste of Starting Dates in South Algeria

Authors: Insaf Mehani, Bachir Bouchekima

Abstract:

The fight against climate change and the replacement of fossil energies nearing exhaustion gradually emerge as major societal and economic challenges. It is possible to develop common dates of low commercial value, and put on the local and international market a new generation of products with high added values such as bio ethanol. Besides its use in chemical synthesis, bio ethanol can be blended with gasoline to produce a clean fuel while improving the octane.

Keywords: Bio energy, waste dates, bio ethanol.

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1758 Workplace Learners- Perceptions towards a Blended Learning Approach

Authors: Denys Lupshenyuk, Jean Adams

Abstract:

The current paper presents the findings of a research study on learners- barriers and motivators engaged into blended programs in a workplace context. In this study, the participants were randomly assigned to one of four parallel e-learning courses, each of which was delivered using a different learning strategy. Data were collected through web-based and telephone surveys developed by the researchers. The results showed that vague instruction, time management, and insufficient feedback were the top-most barriers to blended learning. The major motivators for blended learning included content relevance, flexibility in time, and the ability to work at own pace.

Keywords: Adult education, barriers, blended learning, motivators, workplace learning.

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1757 Valorization of Waste Dates in South Algeria: Biofuel Production

Authors: Insaf Mehani, Bachir Bouchekima

Abstract:

In Algeria, the conditioning units of dates, generate significant quantities of waste arising from sorting deviations. This biomass, until then considered as a waste with high impact on the environment can be transformed into high value added product. It is possible to develop common dates of low commercial value, and put on the local and international market a new generation of products with high added values such as bio ethanol. Besides its use in chemical synthesis, bio ethanol can be blended with gasoline to produce a clean fuel while improving the octane.

Keywords: Bioenergy, dates, bioethanol, valorisation.

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1756 Self-Adaptive Differential Evolution Based Power Economic Dispatch of Generators with Valve-Point Effects and Multiple Fuel Options

Authors: R.Balamurugan, S.Subramanian

Abstract:

This paper presents the solution of power economic dispatch (PED) problem of generating units with valve point effects and multiple fuel options using Self-Adaptive Differential Evolution (SDE) algorithm. The global optimal solution by mathematical approaches becomes difficult for the realistic PED problem in power systems. The Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm is found to be a powerful evolutionary algorithm for global optimization in many real problems. In this paper the key parameters of control in DE algorithm such as the crossover constant CR and weight applied to random differential F are self-adapted. The PED problem formulation takes into consideration of nonsmooth fuel cost function due to valve point effects and multi fuel options of generator. The proposed approach has been examined and tested with the numerical results of PED problems with thirteen-generation units including valve-point effects, ten-generation units with multiple fuel options neglecting valve-point effects and ten-generation units including valve-point effects and multiple fuel options. The test results are promising and show the effectiveness of proposed approach for solving PED problems.

Keywords: Multiple fuels, power economic dispatch, selfadaptivedifferential evolution and valve-point effects.

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1755 Biodiesel from Coconut Oil: A Renewable Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engine

Authors: Md A. Hossain, Shabab M. Chowdhury, Yamin Rekhu, Khandakar S. Faraz, Monzur Ul Islam

Abstract:

With the growth of modern civilization and industrialization in worldwide, the demand for energy is increasing day by day. Majority of the world-s energy needs are met through fossil fuels and natural gas. As a result the amount of fossil fuels is on diminishing from year to year. Since the fossil fuel is nonrenewable, so fuel price is gouging as a consequence of spiraling demand and diminishing supply. At present the power generation of our country is mainly depends on imported fossil fuels. To reduce the dependency on imported fuel, the use of renewable sources has become more popular. In Bangladesh coconut is widely growing tree. Especially in the southern part of the country a large area will be found where coconut tree is considered as natural asset. So, our endeavor was to use the coconut oil as a renewable and alternative fuel. This article shows the prospect of coconut oil as a renewable and alternative fuel of diesel fuel. Since diesel engine has a versatile uses including small electricity generation, an experimental set up is then made to study the performance of a small diesel engine using different blends of bio diesel converted from coconut oil. It is found that bio diesel has slightly different properties than diesel. With biodiesel the engine is capable of running without difficulty. Different blends of bio diesel (i.e. B80, B60, and B 50 etc.) have been used to avoid complicated modification of the engine or the fuel supply system. Finally, a comparison of engine performance for different blends of biodiesel has been carried out to determine the optimum blend for different operating conditions.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Bio-fuel, Renewable Energy, Transesterification

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1754 Comparative Parametric and Emission Characteristics of Single Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine Using Gasoline, Ethanol, and H₂O as Micro Emulsion Fuels

Authors: Ufaith Qadri, M Marouf Wani

Abstract:

In this paper, the performance and emission characteristics of a Single Cylinder Spark Ignition engine have been investigated. The research is based on micro emulsion application as fuel in a gasoline engine. We have analyzed many micro emulsion compositions in various proportions, for predicting the performance of the Spark Ignition engine. This new technology of fuel modifications is emerging very rapidly as lot of research is going on in the field of micro emulsion fuels in Compression Ignition engines, but the micro emulsion fuel used in a Gasoline engine is very rare. The use of micro emulsion as fuel in a Spark Ignition engine is virtually unexplored. So, our main goal is to see the performance and emission characteristics of micro emulsions as fuel, in Spark Ignition engines, and finding which composition is more efficient. In this research, we have used various micro emulsion fuels whose composition varies for all the three blends, and their performance and emission characteristic were predicted in AVL Boost software. Conventional Gasoline fuel 90%, 80% and 85% were blended with co-surfactant Ethanol in different compositions, and water was used as an additive for making it crystal clear transparent micro emulsion fuel, which is thermodynamically stable. By comparing the performances of engines, the power has shown similarity for micro emulsion fuel and conventional Gasoline fuel. On the other hand, Torque and BMEP shows increase for all the micro emulsion fuels. Micro emulsion fuel shows higher thermal efficiency and lower Specific Fuel Consumption for all the compositions as compared to the Gasoline fuel. Carbon monoxide and Hydro carbon emissions were also measured. The result shows that emissions decrease for all the composition of micro emulsion fuels, and proved to be the most efficient fuel both in terms of performance and emission characteristics.

Keywords: AVL Boost, emissions, micro emulsion, performance, SI engine.

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1753 Blended Learning through Google Classroom

Authors: Lee Bih Ni

Abstract:

This paper discusses that good learning involves all academic groups in the school. Blended learning is learning outside the classroom. Google Classroom is a free service learning app for schools, non-profit organizations and anyone with a personal Google account. Facilities accessed through computers and mobile phones are very useful for school teachers and students. Blended learning classrooms using both traditional and technology-based methods for teaching have become the norm for many educators. Using Google Classroom gives students access to online learning. Even if the teacher is not in the classroom, the teacher can provide learning. This is the supervision of the form of the teacher when the student is outside the school.

Keywords: Blended learning, learning app, Google classroom, schools.

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1752 Impact of Combustion of Water in Fuel on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (Pah-s)Precursors- Formation

Authors: Abdulaziz H. El-Sinawi

Abstract:

Some of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the strongest known carcinogens compounds; the majority of them are mostly produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels; Motor vehicles are a significant source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) where diesel emission is one of the main sources of such compounds available in the ambient air. There is a big concern about the increasing concentration of PAHs in the environment. Researchers are trying to explore optimal methods to reduce those pollutants and improve the quality of air. Water blended fuel is one of the possible approaches to reduce emission of PAHs from the combustion of diesel in urban and domestic vehicles. In this work a modeling study was conducted using CHEMKIN-PRO software to simulate spray combustion at similar diesel engine conditions. Surrogate fuel of (80 % n-heptane and 20 % toluene) was used due to detailed kinetic and thermodynamic data needed for modeling is available for this kind of fuel but not available for diesel. An emulsified fuel with 3, 5, 8, 10 and 20 % water by volume is used as an engine feed for this study. The modeling results show that water has a significant effect on reducing engine soot and PAHs precursors formation up to certain extent.

Keywords: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), DieselEngine, Emission, Surrogate Fuel, Emulsified Fuel, Soot precursors, Combustion

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1751 The Determinants of Senior Students' Behavioral Intention on the Blended E-Learning for the Ceramics Teaching Course at the Active Aging University

Authors: Horng-Jyh Chen, Yi-Fang Chen, Chien-Liang Lin

Abstract:

In this paper, the authors try to investigate the determinants of behavioral intention of the blended E-learning course for senior students at the Active Ageing University in Taiwan. Due to lower proficiency in the use of computers and less experience on learning styles of the blended E-learning course for senior students will be expected quite different from those for most young students. After more than five weeks course for two years the questionnaire survey is executed to collect data for statistical analysis in order to understand the determinants of the behavioral intention for senior students. The object of this study is at one of the Active Ageing University in Taiwan total of 84 senior students in the blended E-learning for the ceramics teaching course. The research results show that only the perceived usefulness of the blended E-learning course has significant positive relationship with the behavioral intention.

Keywords: Active Aging University, blended E-learning, ceramics teaching course, behavioral intention

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1750 Two-Dimensional Modeling of Spent Nuclear Fuel Using FLUENT

Authors: Imane Khalil, Quinn Pratt

Abstract:

In a nuclear reactor, an array of fuel rods containing stacked uranium dioxide pellets clad with zircalloy is the heat source for a thermodynamic cycle of energy conversion from heat to electricity. After fuel is used in a nuclear reactor, the assemblies are stored underwater in a spent nuclear fuel pool at the nuclear power plant while heat generation and radioactive decay rates decrease before it is placed in packages for dry storage or transportation. A computational model of a Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assembly is modeled using FLUENT, the computational fluid dynamics package. Heat transfer simulations were performed on the two-dimensional 9x9 spent fuel assembly to predict the maximum cladding temperature for different input to the FLUENT model. Uncertainty quantification is used to predict the heat transfer and the maximum temperature profile inside the assembly.

Keywords: Spent nuclear fuel, conduction, heat transfer, uncertainty quantification.

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1749 Performance of a Power Generator System Using Crude Plant Oil Blend with Diesel Fuel

Authors: Tsair-Wang Chung, Kuan-Ting Liu, Mai-Tzu Chen

Abstract:

Under the variation of crude oil price and the impact of greenhouse effect, it is urgent to find a potential alternative fuel. Among these alternative fuels, non edible plant oils are the most potential ones, because they don-t have the problem of food and cropland competitions. Among the non-edible plant oils, Jatropha oil is the most potential one. Jatropha oil is non-eatable oil and has good oil quality and low temperature performance. It has potential to become one of the most competitive biomass crude oils. The crude plant oil will be blended with diesel fuel to be tested in a power generator. The international collaboration between Taiwan and Indonesia on the production of Jatropha in Indonesia will also be presented in this study.

Keywords: Jatropha, plant oil, oil blend, diesel, power generator.

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1748 Energy Production from Marine Biomass: Fuel Cell Power Generation Driven by Methane Produced from Seaweed

Authors: Shinya Yokoyama, Katsunari Jonouchi, Kenji Imou

Abstract:

This paper discusses the utilization of marine biomass as an energy resource in Japan. A marine biomass energy system in Japan was proposed consisting of seaweed cultivation (Laminaria japonica) at offshore marine farms, biogas production via methane fermentation of the seaweeds, and fuel cell power generation driven by the generated biogas. We estimated energy output, energy supply potential, and CO2 mitigation in Japan on the basis of the proposed system. As a result, annual energy production was estimated to be 1.02-109 kWh/yr at nine available sites. Total CO2 mitigation was estimated to be 1.04-106 tonnes per annum at the nine sites. However, the CO2 emission for the construction of relevant facilities is not taken into account in this paper. The estimated CO2 mitigation is equivalent to about 0.9% of the required CO2 mitigation for Japan per annum under the Kyoto Protocol framework.

Keywords: CO2 mitigation, Fuel cell power generation, Laminaria japonica, Marine biomass, Seaweed.

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1747 Assessment of Sediment Remediation Potential using Microbial Fuel Cell Technology

Authors: S. W. Hong, Y. S. Choi, T. H. Chung, J. H. Song, H. S. Kim

Abstract:

Bio-electrical responses obtained from freshwater sediments by employing microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology were investigated in this experimental study. During the electricity generation, organic matter in the sediment was microbially oxidized under anaerobic conditions with an electrode serving as a terminal electron acceptor. It was found that the sediment organic matter (SOM) associated with electrochemically-active electrodes became more humified, aromatic, and polydispersed, and had a higher average molecular weight, together with the decrease in the quantity of SOM. The alteration of characteristics of the SOM was analogous to that commonly observed in the early stage of SOM diagenetic process (i.e., humification). These findings including an elevation of the sediment redox potential present a possibility of the MFC technology as a new soil/sediment remediation technique based on its potential benefits: non-destructive electricity generation and bioremediation.

Keywords: Anaerobic oxidation, microbial fuel cell, remediation, sediment.

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1746 WhatsApp as Part of a Blended Learning Model to Help Programming Novices

Authors: Tlou J. Ramabu

Abstract:

Programming is one of the challenging subjects in the field of computing. In the higher education sphere, some programming novices’ performance, retention rate, and success rate are not improving. Most of the time, the problem is caused by the slow pace of learning, difficulty in grasping the syntax of the programming language and poor logical skills. More importantly, programming forms part of major subjects within the field of computing. As a result, specialized pedagogical methods and innovation are highly recommended. Little research has been done on the potential productivity of the WhatsApp platform as part of a blended learning model. In this article, the authors discuss the WhatsApp group as a part of blended learning model incorporated for a group of programming novices. We discuss possible administrative activities for productive utilisation of the WhatsApp group on the blended learning overview. The aim is to take advantage of the popularity of WhatsApp and the time students spend on it for their educational purpose. We believe that blended learning featuring a WhatsApp group may ease novices’ cognitive load and strengthen their foundational programming knowledge and skills. This is a work in progress as the proposed blended learning model with WhatsApp incorporated is yet to be implemented.

Keywords: Blended learning, higher education, WhatsApp, programming, novices, lecturers.

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1745 The Evaluation of Costs and Greenhouse Gas Reduction Using Technologies for Energy from Sewage Sludge

Authors: Futoshi Kakuta, Takashi Ishida

Abstract:

Sewage sludge is a biomass resource that can create a solid fuel and electricity. Utilizing sewage sludge as a renewable energy can contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gases. In Japan, the "National Plan for the Promotion of Biomass Utilization" and the “Priority Plan for Social Infrastructure Development" were approved at cabinet meetings in December 2010 and August 2012, respectively, to promote the energy utilization of sewage sludge. This study investigated costs and greenhouse gas emission in different sewage sludge treatments with technologies for energy from sewage sludge. Expenses were estimated based on capital costs and O&M costs including energy consumption of solid fuel plants and biogas power generation plants for sewage sludge. Results showed that the cost of sludge digestion treatment with solid fuel technologies was 8% lower than landfill disposal. The greenhouse gas emission of sludge digestion treatment with solid fuel technologies was also 6,390t as CO2 smaller than landfill disposal. Biogas power generation reduced the electricity of a wastewater treatment plant by 30% and the cost by 5%.

Keywords: Global warming counter measure, energy technology, solid fuel production, biogas.

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1744 Design of a Hybrid Fuel Cell with Battery Energy Storage for Stand-Alone Distributed Generation Applications

Authors: N. A. Zambri, A. Mohamed, H. Shareef, M. Z. C. Wanik

Abstract:

This paper presents the modeling and simulation of a hybrid proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) with an energy storage system for use in a stand-alone distributed generation (DG) system. The simulation model consists of fuel cell DG, lead-acid battery, maximum power point tracking and power conditioning unit which is modeled in the MATLAB/Simulink platform. Poor loadfollowing characteristics and slow response to rapid load changes are some of the weaknesses of PEMFC because of the gas processing reaction and the fuel cell dynamics. To address the load-tracking issues in PEMFC, a hybrid PEMFC and battery storage system is considered and modelled. The model utilizes PEMFC as the main energy source whereas the battery functions as energy storage to compensate for the limitations of PEMFC.Simulation results are given to show the overall system performance under light and heavyloading conditions.

Keywords: Hybrid, Lead–Acid Battery, Maximum Power Point Tracking, Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell.

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1743 The Model of Blended Learning and Its Use at Foreign Language Teaching

Authors: A. A. Kudysheva, A. N. Kudyshev

Abstract:

In present article the model of Blended Learning, its advantage at foreign language teaching, and also some problems that can arise during its use are considered. The Blended Learning is a special organization of learning, which allows to combine classroom work and modern technologies in electronic distance teaching environment. Nowadays a lot of European educational institutions and companies use such technology. Through this method: student gets the opportunity to learn in a group (classroom) with a teacher and additionally at home at a convenient time; student himself sets the optimal speed and intensity of the learning process; this method helps student to discipline himself and learn to work independently.

Keywords: Foreign language, information and communication technology (ICT), model of Blended Learning, virtual cool room, technophobia

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1742 Interactive Effects in Blended Learning Mode: Exploring Hybrid Data Sources and Iterative Linkages

Authors: Hock Chuan, Lim

Abstract:

This paper presents an approach for identifying interactive effects using Network Science (NS) supported by Social Network Analysis (SNA) techniques. Based on general observations that learning processes and behaviors are shaped by the social relationships and influenced by learning environment, the central idea was to understand both the human and non-human interactive effects for a blended learning mode of delivery of computer science modules. Important findings include (a) the importance of non-human nodes to influence the centrality and transfer; (b) the degree of non-human and human connectivity impacts learning. This project reveals that the NS pattern and connectivity as measured by node relationships offer alternative approach for hypothesis generation and design of qualitative data collection. An iterative process further reinforces the analysis, whereas the experimental simulation option itself is an interesting alternative option, a hybrid combination of both experimental simulation and qualitative data collection presents itself as a promising and viable means to study complex scenario such as blended learning delivery mode. The primary value of this paper lies in the design of the approach for studying interactive effects of human (social nodes) and non-human (learning/study environment, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) infrastructures nodes) components. In conclusion, this project adds to the understanding and the use of SNA to model and study interactive effects in blended social learning.

Keywords: Blended learning, network science, social learning, social network analysis, study environment.

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1741 The Use of Nuclear Generation to Provide Power System Stability

Authors: Heather Wyman-Pain, Yuankai Bian, Furong Li

Abstract:

The decreasing use of fossil fuel power stations has a negative effect on the stability of the electricity systems in many countries. Nuclear power stations have traditionally provided minimal ancillary services to support the system but this must change in the future as they replace fossil fuel generators. This paper explains the development of the four most popular reactor types still in regular operation across the world which have formed the basis for most reactor development since their commercialisation in the 1950s. The use of nuclear power in four countries with varying levels of capacity provided by nuclear generators is investigated, using the primary frequency response provided by generators as a measure for the electricity networks stability, to assess the need for nuclear generators to provide additional support as their share of the generation capacity increases.

Keywords: Frequency control, nuclear power generation, power system stability, system inertia.

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1740 Effects of Temperature and Enzyme Concentration on Quality of Pineapple and Pawpaw Blended Juice

Authors: Ndidi F. Amulu, Calistus N. Ude, Patrick E. Amulu, Nneka N. Uchegbu

Abstract:

The effects of temperature and enzyme concentration on the quality of mixed pineapple and pawpaw blended fruits juice were studied. Extracts of the two fruit juices were separately treated at 70  for 15 min each so as to inactivate micro-organisms. They were analyzed and blended in different proportions of 70% pawpaw and 30% pineapple, 60% pawpaw and 40% pineapple, 50% pineapple and 50% pawpaw, 40% pawpaw and 60% pineapple. The characterization of the fresh pawpaw and pineapple juice before blending showed that the juices have good quality. The high water content of the product may have affected the viscosity, vitamin C content and total soluble solid of the blended juice to be low. The effects of the process parameters on the quality showed that better quality of the blended juice can be obtained within the optimum temperature range of (50-70 °C) and enzyme concentration range (0.12-0.18 w/v). The ratio of mix 60% pineapple juice: 40% pawpaw juice has better quality. This showed that pawpaw and pineapple juices can blend effectively to produce a quality juice.

Keywords: Clarification, pawpaw, pineapple, viscosity, vitamin C.

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1739 Optimal Generation Expansion Planning Strategy with Carbon Trading

Authors: Tung-Sheng Zhan, Chih-Cheng Kao, Chin-Der Yang, Jong-Ian Tsai

Abstract:

Fossil fuel-firing power plants dominate electric power generation in Taiwan, which are also the major contributor to Green House gases (GHG). CO2 is the most important greenhouse gas that cause global warming. This paper penetrates the relationship between carbon trading for GHG reduction and power generation expansion planning (GEP) problem for the electrical utility. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) Algorithm is presented to deal with the generation expansion planning strategy of the utility with independent power providers (IPPs). The utility has to take both the IPPs- participation and environment impact into account when a new generation unit is considering expanded from view of supply side.

Keywords: Carbon Trading, CO2 Emission, GenerationExpansion Planning (GEP), Green House gases (GHG), ParticleSwarm Optimization (PSO).

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